MEASURING LEADERSHIP
COURSE PLANNING INFORMATION 

This "webpage" is my gift to you! -Joan Aitken, Course Developer

 

Online students have this information in eCollege, but this page provides easy access to all information in one place so you can search the page if needed.  You can use the table of contents.  To search, use "Ctrl F" or your computer's search function.

  Table of Contents

Tentative Schedule by Week 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 ____ 7 ____ 8 ____

Reading Summary by Week: 1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 ____ 7 ____ 8 ____

Learning Activities by Week:  1 ____ 2 ____ 3 ____ 4 ____ 5 ____ 6 ____ 7 ____

Assignments & Grading ___ Overview ___ Schedule ___Textbooks ___ Online Discussion Board___ Online Questions & Answers ___

Course Folders:  Lectures/ - Measures/ - Private/

 

Major Assignments: Core Assessment Project ____

Participation Assignments:

USE YOUR PARK EMAIL ADDRESS

I frequently email you through your Park email in this course, so check it regularly.

 

WELCOME TO MEASURING LEADERSHIP!

Dr. Joan E. Aitken 916-584-6785 (work) 816-569-3566 (home) Office hours in 229 Copley before and after class and by appointment.

Leadership Art Print http://www.allposters.com/

Scroll down for assignments by the week.  Each week's lecture and activities can be access via the links on the left.  The gradebook link is above.  I prefer hardcopies in class, but you can upload assignments in the dropbox if you will be absent from class.

Course Folders:  Lectures/ - Measures/ - Private/

EXTERNAL LINKS (Dr. Aitken's Links):

APA Writing Style Tutorial: http://JoanAitken.org/APA.html

Course Developer:  Dr. Joan E. Aitken,

eCollege: http://parkonline.org/ 

Expectations & Guidelines for Students (General Examples): http://JoanAitken.org/Guidelines.html

Grading

Grades in eCollege gradbook: http://parkonline.org/  Grading scale http://JoanAitken.org/Guidelines.html#GRADING_&_ASSIGNMENTS0

Institutional Research Board (IRB) Tutorial: http://JoanAitken.org/IRB/

Library Tutorial http://JoanAitken.org/LibraryTutorial/

Measures from LPI and Hackman & Johnson:  http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/Measures

Peer-reviewed Research Articles: http://www.park.edu/library/

PowerPoint Lectures: http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/Lectures (The units may be ahead by one week)

Program Goals http://www.park.edu/grad/masters-cl-goals.aspx

Research Database Tutorial: http://JoanAitken.org/LibraryTutorial/

Survey Tutorial:  http://JoanAitken.org/PS/Survey/

Tentative Syllabus located here:  http://www.park.edu/syllabus/List.aspx  Fall, 2008 https://www.park.edu/syllabus/syllabus.aspx?ID=203686

Unless otherwise indicated, visuals are from Microsoft or AllPosters.com

http://vortis.com/blog/archives/2005/may/Prepare.jpg

Photo credit

 

IN ADVANCE OF CLASS: 

  1. Please read the textbook content first. 

  2. Prepare your major weekly assignment related to your core assessment project (Submit in dropbox or in-person).  Notice the "Assignments" link on the left in eCollege and the Quick Overview below.

  3. AND participate in the discussion--learning activities--based on your readings.

 

Example Tentative Schedule
 

Quick Overview

Read / Review this week's course materials before going to the discussion board. 

Online students Because links constantly move, I recommend using a video search engine to find the video or a comparable one you can discuss.

Preparation

IN ADVANCE

 

Come to discussion prepared!

Weekly Participation Assignments

 

LPI Reports Due (Core Assessment)

Onground Students:  Hardcopy due at beginning of class.

Online Students:  See  "Assignments," link lower left of eCollege screen. 

Week 1

Measurement

Week 1 Readings:

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ If you have your books, read APA and skim the Kouzes and Posner materials. 

 

READ and KNOW American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Requirements for this program:

Expectations of ethical behaviors pp. 11-20.
Compliance checklist p. 20.
Complying With Ethical, Legal, and Policy Requirements, p. 231-236.
Crediting Sources pp. 169-174.
Self-plagiarism, pp. 16, 29, 170.
 

 

Smartest Guys in the Room.    This research based film about Enron will help clarify the complicated years of the company’s destruction and bring to life the key people involved.  You can rent it from your local library for free or your local video store. You may be able to find it on YouTube Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room

 

Take notes and you’ll have enough information to talk about Enron all term.

You may be able to find this film online, click here

 

 

 

__ Obtain and begin to complete leadership measure for your core assessment (Self).

 

__ Distribute and collect 20 Observer Inventories about you from other people. 

 

__ Begin this assignment immediately! Make an appointment with someone who is an exemplary leader.  Interview the person (use a structured interview).  If possible, observe the person in an active leadership role. 

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion board for online students.

 

Week 2

 

5 Principles

 

Week 2 Readings:

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ Read Kouzes & Posner, Leadership Challenge, Part 1 and work in appropriate Planner and Workbook sections.

 

Andy Grove (Intel) is known for his leadership through adaptation and change.  Find, watch, and discuss a video with him on the Internet.  You may be able to access this one on iinnovate, click here.

__ Conduct leadership interview and observation this week, which you will submit and present week 3.

__ ASAP enter the information into the LPI software, look at your printout, and begin your plan for change.

__ Discussion board for online students.

Discuss / Post for first two weeks must be completed by Sunday of week 2.  Access will close at midnight.

If you have not obtained all the course materials, including the LPI Software, Planner, and Workbook by this date, you need to make arrangements with the course professor on how to proceed.

Week 3

 

Model the Way

Week 3 Readings:

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ Read Kouzes & Posner, Leadership Challenge, Part 2 and work in appropriate Planner and Workbook sections.

 

View and discuss Enron, Skilling, or Martha Stewart. Charlie Rose, click here.

__ Work on LPI analysis, workbook, planning.

__ Complete communication and leadership measure(s) in Hackman and Johnson.


 

 

__ Submit executive summary of Exemplary Leader Interview, Observation Due Week 3

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion

 

Week 4

 

Inspire a Vision

Week 4 Readings:

 

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ Read Kouzes & Posner, Leadership Challenge, Part 3 and work in appropriate Planner and Workbook sections.

lE-Dreams:  Kozmo.com

 

 

__ Work on leadership behavior changes based on LPI.

__ Complete communication and leadership measure(s) in Hackman and Johnson.

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion

IMPORTANT

Make sure you have 10-20 people complete the LPI.  LeadershipMeasureOther.pdf Enter the data, run it, and submit LPI Software Printout or summary. 

 

This assignments is required before proceeding in this course.

Week 5

 

Challenge the Process

Week 5 Readings:

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ Read Kouzes & Posner, Leadership Challenge, Part 4 and work in appropriate Planner and Workbook sections.

View and discuss Secretary McNamara's leadership of Fog of War

Making mistakes.

Charlie Rose Interview.

__ Work on leadership behavior changes based on LPI.

__ Complete communication and leadership measure(s) in Hackman and Johnson.

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion

__ Submit LPI Plan.

Week 6

 

Enable Others to Act

Week 6 Readings:

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ Read Kouzes & Posner, Leadership Challenge, Part 5 and work in appropriate Planner and Workbook sections.

View a video and discuss Trump's leadership in real estate and entertainment. How does he enable others to act?

Donald Trump

 

Apprentice



 

__ Work on leadership behavior changes based on LPI.

__ Review final exam study guide.

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion

Electronic Version Due

__ LPI Core Project

1. Narrative overview.
2. LPI Printout in Electronic Form.
3. Plan and implementation.
4. Synthesis of Hackman and Johnson measures
5. Completed Planner.
6. Completed Workbook.
7. References

Week 7

 

Encourage the Heart

Week 7 Readings:

 

Week's Lecture.

 

__ Read Kouzes & Posner, Leadership Challenge, Part 6 and 7 work in appropriate Planner and Workbook sections.
 

Discuss the leadership of Gate or Buffet or the two working together.  View  Bill Gates and Warren Buffet Go to School or

Bill Gates and Warren Buffet

 

Revise your core assessment if needed.

 

__ Prepare reflection presentation:  Review course learning outcomes and practice an oral explanation of how you demonstrated that you met each outcome. 

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion

Hardcopy version of LPI Core Assessment Due by Tuesday, 3 PM in CO 229.

Department of Arts & Communication, 229 Copley, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Park University, Parkville, MO 64152

Week 8

 

Everyone as Leader

Week 8 Readings:

__ Course closure.

N/A

 

__ Self-Check Quiz

__ Discussion

__ Reflection.  Present course and LPI reflection on how you measure up to the Kouzes and Posner leadership model. Use all 8 weeks to work, so do not submit early!

 

MEASURING LEADERSHIP CA 670 

 

 

In this course, we seek to study EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP as defined by Kouzes and Posner:  (a) Modeling the way, (b) inspiring a shared vision, (c) challenging the process, (d) enabling others to act, and (e) encouraging the heart.  Being a supervisor, administrator, or manager does not mean the person is a leader the way we use the term.  In fact, few people are exemplary leaders.  Yet each person can be an exemplary leader because the role has nothing to do with position, and everything to do with behavior. 

 

The goal of the course is for you to measure yourself against truly exemplary leaders and research-based information.  Then create a plan and implement the plan to make yourself an exemplary leader in the five areas so you model, inspire, challenge, enable, and encourage.
 

Contact information:  Dr. Joan E. Aitken, Professor, Communication Arts, Park University, 229 Copley, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Parkville, MO 64152; 816-584-6785 (office).

COURSE MATERIALS

WELCOME TO MEASURING LEADERSHIP! 


 

I hope you enjoy this course as much as I do.  Don't hesitate to contact me.  If you don't hear from me promptly, I may have missed your message.  I receive so much nasty junk mail, be sure to put the course number CA670 in your subject line, so I will notice your email. 

 

With warm regards,

Joan Aitken, Professor, Park University < 816-584-6785 (w) and 816-569-3566 (h)>

 

COURSE ACCESS Through eCollege
 

http://parkonline.org/

 

COURSE SYLLABUS

http://www.park.edu/syllabus/List.aspx  

 

COURSE PLANNING WEBPAGE

Sometimes students have difficulty finding information in all the different eCollege categories.  Thus, I provide all the course planning information located in eCollege is on one page for easy searching:  http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/ To search, use “Control F” and enter the keyword.  If you want to work ahead, you will be able to find course content here.

 

 

TEXTBOOKS

Please obtain your required textbooks, skim the book, and read chapters one and two to begin.  Used copies and student sharing should work fine.  If you are having difficulty finding course materials, you can see what is needed at the Online Academics Bookstore, select "Measuring Leadership" located on the left of the page at http://JoanAitken.org/Store/

 

Required Textbook for Dr. Aitken's Course

by James M. Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner

September 2007, Hardcover

ISBN: 978-0-470-25943-6

 

----------------------------------------------------------------

Recommended:

  Hackman, M. Z., & Johnson, C. E. (2004). Leadership: A Communication Perspective (4th or latest ed.).  Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.  I have provided notes from the book on the course webpage.  You probably used this textbook in another course.  We will use this book as background and concentrate on the measures you can complete for this course. 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------

Recommended for Dr. Aitken's Course:

 

3.  ENRON ETHICS CASE STUDY.  Please view a documentary or read about Enron.  Suggested sources are as follows:

 

ENRON:  Smartest Guys in the Room Video or DVD.

 

OR

 

Bryce, R.  (2004).  Pipe dreams:  Greed, ego, and the death of Enron.  New York:  PublicAffairs. 
 

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

 

PREPARATION ASSIGNMENT

 

Begin the core assessment project week one by printing off and distributing the inventories to people you know (e.g., friends, coworkers, supervisors). Follow the LPI instructions, obtain 20 measures from co-workers and managers, and use the LPI software to generate results.  Include the software report in your project.  You may want to provide the entire project in a txt or rft document instead of a Word document (doc.). 

 

The main thing is to not make people feel coerced into completing the inventories. "I'm doing this for a leadership class, and I need honest feedback so I can improve my communication skills. Please don't put your name on the form, and you can simply put it in this envelope with others. . . " Something along that line.

 

The measures are in the Facilitator's Package as leaflets (8 x 10).  You can download the measure from here: Other Measure  for the one you pass out and Self Measure for the one you complete on yourself. These materials are in the LPI facilitators package you purchased for the course. The scale is 1 (never) to 10 (always). Blanks and N/A should be recorded as a 1. The instructions are in your LPI package. 

 

FURTHER INVESTIGATION

 

 

You may want to read online information about statistics, tests, and measurement.  A useful source is Heffner, (2003).  Research methods.  All Psych Online.  Contents - http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/researchcontents.html

 

RESEARCH FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION

Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Research
You will want to conduct your own research to find scholarly journal articles to supplement your readings in this course.  You may use this research in your weekly discussion and for your course project.  Please use peer-reviewed journals in the field of communication studies. 

 

Conduct your research in EBSCO's Communication and Mass Media Complete http://www.park.edu/library/  Your professor may suggest readings you also can access through EBSCO. You need to have the PDF reader software on your computer, so install Adobe PDF reader.   http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html  This is a free and safe download. 

 

Dr. Aitken's Library Database Tutorial, click here.

 

Example Peer Reviewed Research Articles, which may be of interest for your LPI reports (Core Assessment). 

Aldoory, L., & Toth, E. (2004). Leadership and gender in public relations: Perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles. Journal of Public Relations Research, 16(2), 157-183.

Becker, J., Halbesleben, J., & O'Hair, H. (2005). Defensive communication and burnout in the workplace: The mediating role of leader–member exchange. Communication Research Reports, 22(2), 143-150.

Boies, K., & Howell, J. (2006). Leader–member exchange in teams: An examination of the interaction between relationship differentiation and mean LMX in explaining team-level outcomes. Leadership Quarterly, 17(3), 246-257.

Campbell, C., & Swift, C. (2006). Attributional comparisons across biases and leader-member exchange status. Journal of Managerial Issues, 18(3), 393-408.

Campbell, K., White, C., & Johnson, D. (2003). Leader-member relations as a function of rapport management. Journal of Business Communication, 40(3), 170-194.

Douglas, C. (2006). Communication in the transition to self-directed work teams. Journal of Business Communication, 43(4), 295-321.

Fix, B., & Sias, P. (2006). Person-centered communication, leader-member exchange, and employee job satisfaction. Communication Research Reports, 23(1), 35-44.

Greguras, G., & Ford, J. (2006). An examination of the multidimensionality of supervisor and subordinate perceptions of leader-member exchange. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 79(3), 433-465.

Kinnick, K., & Parton, S. (2005). Workplace communication. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(4), 429-456.

Lapierre, L., Hackett, R., & Taggar, S. (2006). A test of the links between family interference with work, job enrichment and leader–member exchange. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(4), 489-511.

Lewis, L. (2006). Employee perspectives on implementation communication as predictors of perceptions of success and resistance. Western Journal of Communication, 70(1), 23-46.

Limon, M., & France, B. (2005). Communication traits and leadership emergence: Examining the impact of argumentativeness, communication apprehension, and verbal aggressiveness in work groups. Southern Communication Journal, 70(2), 123-133.

McCroskey, J. (1992). Reliability and validity of the Willingness to Communicate Scale. Communication Quarterly, 40(1), 16-25.

Sharbrough, W. (2006). Motivating language in industry. Journal of Business Communication, 43(4), 322-343.

Teven, J., McCroskey, J., & Richmond, V. (2006). Communication correlates of perceived Machiavellianism of supervisors: Communication orientations and outcomes. Communication Quarterly, 54(2), 127-142.

Wolvin, A. (2005). Listening leadership: Hillary Clinton's Listening tour. International Journal of Listening, 19, 29-38.

 

WEBLINKS FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATION

Information on the latest scholarly developments in the field of leadership studies can be found in The Leadership Quarterly. This international journal publishes research and theoretical articles from many different disciplines, including anthropology, management, sociology, and political science. You can view a sample issue online at http://www.elsevier.com  or request a subscription from The Leadership Quarterly, c/o Elsevier Science, Inc., 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010-5107.

 

To get in touch with other leadership educators, contact the International Leadership Association (ILA). An affiliate of the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership at the University of Maryland, the ILA sponsors an annual conference, ongoing interest groups, leadership list serves, and a variety of leadership publications. A complete description of the association’s activities can be found here.

 

The Association of Leadership Educators (ALE) is another excellent resource. This group also hosts an annual convention and publishes The Journal of Leadership Education. For more information visit the ALE’s Web site here.

 

 

 

LECTURES BY WEEK OR UNIT

 

Week 1

MEASUREMENT

 

 

Week's Learning Outcomes: 

a.  Define exemplary leadership and culture.  Identify basic communication and leadership research principles through the Hackman and Johnson textbook and other relevant materials (e.g., books, journal articles).

 

b.  Define basic concepts of statistical analysis and measurement.

 

c.  Measure and analyze your communication and leadership behaviors by completing measures found in the Hackman and Johnson textbook and the LPI.

  • Begin measuring your personal leadership.

  • Complete self-assessment measures.

  • Identify your leadership style.

  • Identify a successful leader you can interview and observe in action for the assignment due week 3.

d.  Implement more effective exemplary leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner Five Principles and other course materials.

  • Identify what exemplary leaders do and what constituents expect.

Leadership Matters

 

Leadership is not a fad. It's a fact. It's not here today, gone tomorrow. It's here today, and here forever.

Leadership makes a difference. Try naming one significant movement that wandered leaderless into the history books. And leadership matters most in times of uncertainty. The study of leadership is the study of how men and women guide us through adversity, uncertainty, hardship, disruption, transformation, transition, recovery, and new beginnings. Challenge is the opportunity for greatness. Given the daunting challenges we face today, the potential for greatness is phenomenal.

 

People matter. Even in today's wired world, it's not the web of technology but the web of people that matters most. Leaders can't do it alone. Success in any project, organization, enterprise and in life has been, is now, and will continue to be a function of how well people work and engage with each other. Success in leadership depends on your capacity to build and sustain collaborative human relationships.

 

You matter. People who become leaders don't always seek the challenges they face. Challenges also seek leaders. It's not so important whether you find the challenges or they find you. What is important are the choices you make when stuff happens. The next time you say to yourself, "Why don't they do something about this?" look in the mirror. Ask the person you see, "Why don't I do something about this?" The legacy that you leave will be the life that you lead.

 

Descriptive Statistics

Directly quoted or adapted from Overton, T.  (2006).  Assessing learners with special needs:  An applied approach.  5th ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson.  Chapter 3.  (For more information, click here.)

 

Why is measurement important?
    In educational contexts, the educational future of so many individuals is at risk.  In business, decisions need to be based on the best possible information.  Of concern are studies indicating typical types of mistakes made by professionals in the field regarding their misinterpretation of tests and data.  Data may play little if any part in decision making.  Professionals continue to support poor quality tests, when better tests are available.  Common errors include:
1.  Using instruments in the a assessment process solely because those instruments are stipulated by the organization or management.
2.  Regularly using instruments for purposes other than those for which test have been validated.
3.  Taking the recommended use at face value.
4.  Using the quickest instruments available even though those instruments may not assess the areas of concern.
5.  Using currently popular instruments for assessment.
6.  Failing to establish effective rapport with the examinee.
7.  Failing to document behaviors of the examinee during assessment.
8.  Failing to adhere to standardized administration rules.
9.  Making various scoring errors, such as
a.  Making simple counting errors.
b.  Making simple subtraction errors.
c.  Entering data incorrectly, such as on the wrong line.
 

What are numerical scales?
Nominal scale consists of numbers used only for identification purposes (numbers that cannot be used in mathematical operations).

An example of a nominal scale is to name or classify "male" or "female."
Ordinal scale uses rank ( does not have the quality of equidistant units).
Interval scale are equidistant units (numbers that cannot be used in mathematical operations).
Ratio scale does have an absolute zero and can be used in mathematical operations.


What are descriptive statistics?
Descriptive statistics are used to organize and describe data.  Derived scores are scores obtained by using a raw score and expectancy tables.  Below is an expectancy table (source).

The image “http://www.internetraining.com/Statkit/SK30.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Standard scores are derived scores that represent equal units; also known as linear scores.  Here's a great page with a calculator that will convert information to standard scores, click here.

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Measures of central tendency are statistical methods for observing how data cluster around the mean.  The mean is the average, which can be affected by an extreme score, especially if the group is composed of only a few people. 

 

Protect yourself in communication research by understanding basics of statistics and measurement.

 

Normal distribution or the bell curve (below) is a symmetrical distribution with a single numerical representation for the mean, median, and mode.

 

Frequency distribution is a method of determining how many times each score occurs in a set of data.
Mode is the most frequently occurring score in a set of scores. 

 

Just as measure of central tendency are used to see how sets of data cluster together around an average score, measures of dispersion are used to calculate how scores are spread from the mean.  The way that scores in a set of data are spread apart is known as the variability of the scores, or how much the scores vary from each other.  Variance describes the total amount that a group of scores varies in a set of data:  The degree or amount of variability or dispersion in a set of scores.

 

Across our population, for example, we expect Intelligence Quotient (IQ) to have a normal distribution like this picture.  On tests measuring intelligence, the mean IQ is 100. One hundred is also the middlemost score (median) and the most frequently occurring score (mode).  In fact, more than 68% of all of the IQ scores will cluster within 1 standard deviation, or one determined typical unit, above and below the score of 100.

Notice the total percentages in each category (68% in the two middle categories and 96% in the four middle categories).

 

No need to feel humiliated if you don't already know this stuff. You'll get the hang of it

 

We also indicate the same information by standard deviations, as indicated below.  The standard deviation helps the teacher determine how much distance from the mean is typical and how much is considered significant.  The standard deviation of a set of data is the square root of the variance.  More than 68% of the scores fall within 1 standard deviation above or below the mean.  A normal distribution is symmetrical and has the same number representing the mean, median, and mode.  Notice that approximately 95% of the scores are found within 2 standard deviations above and below the mean.  A student within the 70-75 IQ range may be found eligible for services under the category of mental retardation if there are additional supporting data.  I person with an IQ around 130 may be called "gifted."

When selecting norm-referenced tests, read the test manual and determine the size of the sample used in the norming process.  Tests developed using larger samples are thought to result in scores that are more representative of the majority population.

 

Percentile ranks and z scores provide additional ways of looking at data.  Using percentile ranks is a method of ranking each score on the continuum of the normal distribution.  Percentile ranks are scores that express the percentage of people who scored as well as or lower than a given person's score.  Percentiles range from the 99.9th percentile to less than the 1st percentile. 

 

Some tests us T scores to interpret test performance.  T score have an average or mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10.

No, a T score has nothing to do with being a tough-guy.

 

A z score indicates where a score is located in terms of standard deviation units.  The mean is expressed as 0, 1 standard deviation above the mean is expressed as +1, 2 standard deviations above as +2, and so on.  z scores are derived scores that are expressed in standard deviation units.

 

There is nothing wrong with getting prayer help for understanding z scores.

 

Stanines divide the scores into 9 groups of scores and are reported as 1 through 9 with a mean of 5.  The standard deviation unit of stanines is 2.  Deciles are scores that are reported in 10 groups ranging from a score of 10 for the lowest grouping to 100 for the highest group of scores.  Each grouping represents 10% of the obtained scores.

You will see the same basic information also described through percentages, percentiles, Z scores, T scores, and Standard Nine (Stanines), as represented below. 

 

Some sets of data have to modes or two most frequently occurring scores, which is known as a bimodal distribution.  A distribution with three or more modes s called a multimodal distribution.  A frequency polygon is a graphic representation of how often each score occurs in a set of data. 

 

http://education.yahoo.com/homework_help/math_help/solutionimages/mini6and7gt/9/1/1/mini6and7gt_9_1_1_15_80/f-426-11-ex-4.gif

 Frequency Polygon (Source)

Clearly, this guy thinks he's a polygon.

 

 

When small samples of populations are tested or when a fairly restricted population is tested, the results may not be distributed in a normal curve.  Distributions can be skewed in a positive or negative direction.  When many of the scores are below the mean, the distribution is said to be positively skewed.

Reliability and Validity

Directly quoted or adapted from Overton, T.  (2006).  Assessing learners with special needs:  An applied approach.  5th ed.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson.  Chapter 4.  (For more information on the topic, click here.)

 

Reliability in assessment refers to the confidence that can be placed in an instrument to yield the same score for the same  person if the test were administered more than once and to the degree with which a skill or trait is measured consistently across items of a test.  

Example of low reliability regarding watch dog protection.

 

Correlation is a statistical method of observing or calculating the degree of relationship between two sets of data on two variables.   There are three types of correlations between variables:  positive, negative, and no relationship.  The degree of relationship between two variables is expressed by a correlation coefficient (r).  The correlation coefficient will be a number between +1.00 and -1.00.  r values of -.78 and +.78 are of equal strength.

There is usually a positive correlation for being a ferocious dog and eating baby bunnies.

There is usually an inverse or negative correlation between being a ferocious dog and being a baby bunny.

 

A scattergram is a graphic representation of a correlation.  The closer the dots approximate a straight line the nearer to perfect the correlation.

 

What are methods of measuring reliability?
We must be able to have confidence that test instruments used will yield similar results when administered at different times.  One correlational method used is the Pearson's Product Moment correlation, known as Pearson's r.  Pearson's r is a commonly used formula for data on an interval or a ratio scale.  Internal consistency is the consistency of the items on an instrument to measure a skill, trait, or domain.

 

Internal consistency is the consistency of the items on an instrument to measure a skill, trait, or domain.

When a respondent says he is a hot dog on one question and a giraffe on another question, the test has low internal consistency.

 

Test-retest reliability is a study that employs the administration of a single instrument to check for consistency across time.

 

When retaking a test, and individual may remember certain items.  This practice effect most likely would cause the scores to be higher on the second administration.

If the dog says she is a blonde the first time she takes the test and a red-head the second time she takes the test, we suspect poor test-retest reliability.

 

Equivalent forms reliability AKA alternate forms reliability is consistency of a test to measure some domain, traits, or skill using like forms of the same instrument.   The items are matched for difficulty on each test.  During the reliability study, each person is administered both forms, and the scores obtained on one form of the test are then paired with the scores obtained on the equivalent form.

 

Split-half reliability is a method of checking the consistency across items by halving a test and administering two half-forms of the same test.  Because most tests have the items arranged sequentially, from the easiest items at the beginning of the test to the most difficult items at the end, the tests are typically split by pulling every other item, which then allows for a single administration of the instrument.

These are not an example of split half reliability because these are actually two different dogs.

 

Kuder-Richardson (K-R) 20 is a formula used to check consistency across items of an instrument with right/wrong responses.  An advantage is a single test administration.

When the subject's self concept suggests a princess fantasy, we can say the test has external validity in this case.  The test reported what it purports to measure, and thus has external validity.

 

Coefficient alpha is a formula used to check consistency across terms of an instrument with responses with varying credit.

Coefficient alpha is not to be confused with alpha dog.  Or maybe it is.

 

Interrater reliability is the consistency of a test to measure a skill, trait, or domain across examiners.  This can be accomplished by administering the test and then having an objective scorer also score the test results.  This information is especially important when tests with a great deal of subjectivity are used in making educational decisions.

 

An adequate reliability coefficient would be .60 or greater, and a high degree of reliability would be above .80.  For example, if the examiner is interested in measuring a trait over time, the examiner should select an instrument in which the reliability or consistency over time had been studied.

The calculation of the reliability coefficient is a group statistic and can be influenced by the makeup of the group.

 

These two dogs have high inter-rater reliability because they both came up with the same answer.

 

What is standard error of measurement?
Standard error of measurement is the amount of error determined to exist using a specific instrument, calculated using the instrument's standard deviation and reliability.  In all psychoeducational assessment, there is a basic underlying assumption:  Error exists!  Errors in testing may result from situational factors such as a poor testing environment or the health or emotions of the person being tested, or errors may occur due to inaccuracies within the test instrument.  Error should be considered when tests are administered, scored, and interpreted.  A single test score may not accurately reflect the student's true score.  True score is the person's actual score.  Obtained score is the observed score of a person on a particular test on a given day.

Obtained score = True score + Error

Obtained score - True score = Error

 

To estimate the amount of error present in an individual obtained score, the standard error of measurement must be obtained and applied to each score.  The standard deviation and the reliability coefficient of the instrument are used to calculate the standard error of measurement.

 

Oh yes, Error exists! 

 

Confidence interval is the range of scores for an obtained score determined by adding and subtracting standard error of measurement unit.  Using the standard error of measurement to judge the test's quality is more important than reliability.  Some testing practitioners fail to consider possible test error when interpreting test results of a person being evaluated. 

 

Estimated true score is a method of calculating the amount of error correlated with the distance of the score from the mean of the group.  The father from a test mean a particular person's score is, the greater the change for error within the obtained score.  The estimated true score can be used to establish a range of scores by using the standard error of measurement for the estimate true score.  All test scores contain error.

 

Definitely, there is test error in this case.

 

What is test validity?
Validity is the quality of a test; the degree to which an instrument measures what it was designed to measure.  Validity is concerned with good results for the purpose of the test.

 

Criterion-related validity is the statistical method of comparing an instrument's ability to measure a skill, trait, or domain with an existing instrument or other criterion.  This method compares its scores with other criteria known to be indicators of the same trait or skill that the test developer wishes to measure.

 

Concurrent validity is a comparison of one instrument with another within a short period of time, typically the same day.

 

Predictive validity is a measure of how well an instrument can predict performance at a later date on some other variable.

 

Content validity occurs when the items contained within the test are representative of the content purposed to be measured.  For a test to have good content validity, it must contain the content in a representative fashion.  Presentation format is the method by which items of an instrument are presented to an individual.  Response mode is the method required for the examinee to answer items of an instrument.

 

Construct validity is the ability o an instrument to measure psychological constructs.  Construct, in psycho-educational assessment, is a term used to describe a psychological trait, personality trait, psychological concept, attribute, or theoretical characteristic.  Constructs are usually abstract concepts, such as intelligence and creativity, which can be observed and measured by some type of instrument.  The validity study may involve another measure that has been research previously and been shown to be a good indicator of the construct or of some degree or component of the construct. 

 

A hypothesis might be that dogs who dress up as colorful porcupines are more creative than dogs who dress up with grey or brown quills.  The construct is the definition of creativity, which is an abstract concept.

 

Validity of test use is the appropriate use of a specific instrument.  Tests may be used inappropriately even when they are valid instruments.  The results obtained in testing may also be used in an invalid way.

Item bias is a term used when an item is answered incorrectly a disproportionate number of times by one group compared to another group. An examiner who continues to use an instrument found to contain bias may be practicing discriminatory assessment.

For example, if a large portion of respondents said "rabbit" instead of "dog," we might think this question contained item bias.

 

Whew, we made it.  If you want to explore more about the concepts of quantitative analysis or measurement, there are many wonderful sites available on the Internet.  Here are just a few.  If links don't work, you can do your own Internet search using terms such as "measurement" and "statistics" and "social science" and "quantitative" and "analysis" and "data."

 

Introduction to Data Collection and Analysis [SC101: Deakin University]

 

Research Methods Knowledge Base by William M. Trochim [excellent source]

Simple Data Measurement: A Workbook, by Alison Galloway

 

The Little Handbook of Statistical Practice, by Gerard E. Dallal

 

No credits on the pet dress-up photos.  Students know I enjoy them, and they forward them from sources unknown.  If anyone has taken one of these photos and wants it removed, please contact me, click here.

 

Leadership and Followership

Directly quoted or adapted from Hackman and Johnson, Chapter 1 Leadership and Communication Chapter 2 Leadership and Followership Communication Styles

INTRODUCTION
Leadership is an integral part of the human experience.  There are leaders in every type of human society.  Leadership is best understood as a form of human, symbolic, communication.  Human communication is a process, circular in nature, complex, irreversible, and the characteristic that defines the total personality. 

Leaders use symbols to modify the attitudes and behavior of others in order to reach group goals.  In contrast to managers who value efficiency and focus on maintaining the status quo, leaders value effectiveness and focus on the future of the group or organization.  Managers plan and budget, organize and staff, and control and problem solves while leaders establish direction, align people, and motivate and inspire.  Both management and leadership are important in the overall success of a group or organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leaders and followers are relational partners who play complementary roles.  Leaders exert a greater degree of influence and have more responsibility for the overall direction of the group.  Followers are more involved in implementing plans and carrying out the work.  Most people act as leader-followers, routinely shifting between leaders and follower functions.  Following is excellent preparation for leadership, and leading can prepare you for the follower role.

 

http://www.abeautifulrevolution.com/photos/uncategorized/2007/04/16/follow.gif

Photo Credit

 

Leadership effectiveness depends on our willingness to communicate as well as on developing effective communication skills.  Developing skills builds confidence, which encourages us to interact with others.  Effective communication facilitates influence.

 

There are two sets of communication skills--functional and emotional--that are essential to leaders. 

 

Functional communication skills include

  • Linking skills involve monitoring the environment, creating a trusting climate, team building, and collaborating with outside groups.

  • Thinking and reasoning skills incorporate problem-solving abilities and creating agendas or visions. 

  • Regulating involves influencing others through the wise use of power, compliance gaining, argument, negotiation, and other means. 

Emotional communication competencies include: 

  • perception, appraisal, and expression of emotion

  • attending to the emotions of others

  • emotional facilitation of thinking

  • understanding and analyzing emotional information and employing emotional knowledge, and

  • regulation of emotion.

 

Successful leaders match their communication behaviors to their goals through a process called impression management.  They are

  • liked by others,

  • link their attitudes and behaviors to the prototypes of leaders held by group members,

  • strive to expand their ability to influence events, and are

  • associated with high performance. 

 

Ethical leaders use impression management to read group objectives rather than to satisfy selfish, personal goals.

 

Dealing with groups of followers from a variety of cultural backgrounds is a fact of life for modern leaders. 

 

Leadership effectiveness increasingly depends upon intercultural emotional competency--the ability to accurately send and receive emotional messages across cultural boundaries.  Transferring emotional intelligence to other cultures is difficult because the rules governing the understanding and expression of emotion vary from society to society.  Consider these examples:

  • The Chinese believe that too much expression of emotion produces sickness.

  • European-Americans value emotional self-restraint; African Americans value emotional expressiveness.

  • Many people find US friendliness to be shallow and insulting.

Effective leaders and followers set aside their preconceived notions about how to send and interpret emotional messages and seek instead of learn as much as they can about the feelings rules of other cultures.

 

Apparently not a leader or a follower.

LEADERSHIP STYLE

Typical communicative behaviors of leaders include authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire, task, and interpersonal styles of leader communication. 

 

Authoritarian leaders maintain strict control over followers by directly regulating policy, procedures, and behavior. 

 

Democratic leaders engage in supportive communication that facilitates interaction between leaders and followers. 

 

Laissez-faire leaders may engage in either abdication or guided freedom.  Leaders exhibiting abdication generally withdraw from followers and offer little guidance or support.  Productivity, cohesiveness, and satisfaction often suffer.  By contrast, a more positive form of the laissez-faire leadership communication style affords followers a high degree of autonomy and self-rule while, at the same time, offering guidance and support when requested.  The laissez-faire leader providing this guided freedom approach does not directly participate in decision making unless she or he is requested to do so by followers.

 

The research focusing on leadership communication style suggests the leader adopting authoritarian communication can expect high productivity (particularly when he or she directly supervises followers); increased hostility, aggression and discontent; and decreased commitment, independence, and creativity among followers.  Democratic leadership communication contributes to relatively high productivity (whether or not the leader directly supervises followers) and increased satisfaction, commitment, and cohesiveness.  Followers under laissez-faire leadership are generally less productive and less satisfied.  The only situation in which laissez-faire leadership may be effective is with groups containing highly motivated and knowledgeable experts.

 

The leader employing the task style in primarily concerned with the successful completion of job assignments.  The task-oriented leader demonstrates a much greater concern for completing work than for people doing the work.  The interpersonal leader is concerned with relationships.  This style emphasizes teamwork, cooperation, and supportive communication.

 

Task- and interpersonal-oriented styles have been observed by

  • the Michigan leadership studies believed that the production-oriented and employee-oriented styles were opposing sets of communicative behaviors.

  • the Ohio State leadership studies Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) indicated two primary dimensions of leadership:  consideration and initiating structure (task).  Consideration consisted of interpersonal-oriented communication designed to express affection and liking for followers; the consideration of followers' feelings, opinions, and ideas; and the maintenance of an amiable working environment.  Inconsiderate leader criticized followers in front of others, made threats, and refused to accept followers' suggestions or explanations.

  • McGregor's Theory X (people dislike work) and Theory Y (integrate organizational and individual goals, work is natural and a source of satisfaction).

  • Blake and McCanse Managerial Grid about concern for production (task orientation) and concern for people (interpersonal orientation).

 

Blake and McCanse's Leadership Grid

  • 1,1 Impoverished Management has low concern for task and relationships.

  • 9,1 Authority-Compliance has high concern for task, low for relationships.

  • 5,5 Middle of the Road Management concerned with production and people.

  • 1,9 Country Club Management is more concerned with interpersonal relationships than tasks.
    9,9 Team Management has high concern for production and people and is ideal.

http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/file.php/2338/T205_2_010i.jpg

Photo Credit

 

Generally, the use of both task and interpersonal oriented communication styles is associated with effective leadership.

Two components make up follower communication styles

1.  independent/ critical thinking

2.  active engagement.

 

Followers fall into one of five categories based on these characteristics.

1.  Alienated followers are highly independent thinkers who rank low on commitment to the organization.

2.  Conformists are committed to organizational goals but express few thoughts of their own.

3.  Pragmatists are moderately independent and engaged.

4.  Passive followers demonstrate little original thought or commitment.

 

Exemplary followers rate highly as both critical and active participants, contributing creative ideas and going beyond what is expected.  Exemplary followers add value to the organization by helping it reach its objectives and by building a network of relationships.  These outstanding followers cultivate a courageous conscience that allows them to make and implement ethical choices. 

 

Ultimately, the follower styles exhibited within a group, team, or organization are a reflection of the behaviors that are expected, demanded, promoted, or discouraged by formal leaders.  Although some followers may thrive when working with almost any leader or in almost any context or situation, most followers are powerfully affected, for better or worse, by the leaders with whom they work.
 

Global Leadership Perspective

The Cranfield studies labeled the styles used within Europe as

consensus

  • towards a common goal

  • managing from a distance

  • leading from the front is concerned primarily on an individual's performance.  These leaders are reluctant to create rules or procedures that might hinder individual performance.

 

The image “http://www.realchange.com/en-CA/img/PoigneeMain.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo Credit
 

WEEK 1 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 

 

 

“Leadership is everyone’s business” (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 383).

 

ONLINE

PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP (Due Sunday)

Emphasize the reading for this week.

VIDEO (Due Sunday)

QUANTITATIVE REASONING (Due Sunday)

 

Try to complete the postings by the days indicated.  Post in at least five categories.  Always post about the K & P reading in the Measuring Leadership (5 principles) category.  Online posts are typically brief (less than 100 words).  You will want to check back and respond to other students during the week.  Expect access to disappear on Monday following the week the postings are due. 

 

Note the drop-down menu will give you access each topic for the week.

 

 

 


 

Posters available for purchase.  See http://www.p-rposters.com/

 

Week 1:  PRE-READING (Online Due Wednesday)

Agree or Disagree with this statement:  “What gets measured, gets done.”

Communication and leadership scholars, Kouzes and Posner.

 

Week 1 ENRON (Online Due Friday)

Rent or find this video on the Internet The Smartest Guys in the Room.  View and discuss here.

 

Under our definition for this class, Enron executives were NOT leaders. 

 

Do a little reading, viewing, and thinking about the case.  You can find an array of sources on the Internet.

 

Time Magazine:  http://www.time.com/time/2002/enron/

CNN'S Enron on Trial:  http://money.cnn.com/news/specials/enron/

Enron Corporation was an energy company based in Houston, Texas. Prior to its bankruptcy in late 2001, Enron employed around 21,000 people and was one of the world's leading electricity, natural gas, and communications companies, with claimed revenues of $101 billion in 2000. Fortune magazine named Enron "America's Most Innovative Company" for six consecutive years. It became most famous at the end of 2001 when it was revealed that it was sustained mostly by institutionalized, systematic, and well-planned accounting fraud http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enron

April 27, 2005 · The Supreme Court hears arguments in an Enron-related case. Enron Corporation's accounting firm Arthur Andersen was convicted in a lower court of witness tampering for instructing its employees about shredding documents. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4621119

 

Enron Photo Credit www.getreligion.org/

 

 

 Week 1.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

Answer one--the assigned--question below. 

1. Explain the relationship between leadership and communication.

2. Explain three of the five principles that communication scholar Dean Barnlund defines as the basic components of human communication.

3. Describe the transactional model of communication.

4. Explain the leader/follower relationship.

5. Explain the term “envisioning” as it applies to leadership.

6. Why is the study of leadership important?

7. Discuss the moral dimension of leadership.

8. Why should leaders be familiar with the three traditional models of communication?

9. Are good leaders good followers? Discuss.

10. Discuss the differences between managers and leaders.

11. Select and defend your selection of the best term for those who respond and carry out a leader’s direction: “follower,” “constituent,” “stakeholder,” or “collaborator.”

12. Compare and contrast theory X and theory Y communication styles by leaders.

13. Briefly describe the findings of the Michigan leadership studies.

14. What do Blake and McCanse mean by country club management?

15. Discuss the relationship between initiating structure and consideration within the Ohio State leadership studies.

16. What is the difference between the Michigan and Ohio State approaches?

17. Is there one best style of leadership?

18. What leadership communication style exhibited by the professor is most effective in the communication leadership course?

19. What leadership communication style is most effective in a combat situation?

20. Why is there no absolute, single best leadership communication style?

21. Discuss why researchers believe “that the democratic style of leadership communication is often the most effective.”

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General George Patton

 

Week 1 QUANTITATIVE REASONING Leadership Behaviors Ranking 

 

If a person's LPI results ranged from 40 to 60 percentile, what would that mean?

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Source

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

Complete the measures, analyze the results, and discuss the implications for your leadership plan in the discussion board.  If you completed the measures in the textbook in another course, find new measures that will help in your self analysis, such as the ones located here:  http://www.rollins.edu/communication/wschmidt/assessments.htm

Willingness to Communicate Scale (WTC)
Leadership Communication Style Preferences Inventory
Followership Questionnaire
 

Futher Investigation

Here are some interesting measures about career selection:

Based on the "Birkman Method," a twenty-four question, color-coded test at the following website can help you zero in on your ideal career.

The Princeton Review Career Quiz
Skills Assessment click here.

At the following site, take a humorous quiz to reveal what medieval occupation suits you best.

The Kingdomality Personal Preference Profile here.

At the following website, enter skills you have or hope to acquire, and see what occupations best match your skill set.

Skills Search here.

Enter a college major and see what career choices match at the following website.

Major to Career Converter

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

The Institute for Leadership Dynamics here. 

Look here for ideas on organizational design, corporate culture, teams and teamwork, and the changing workplace.

Emergingleader.com here. 
The purpose of the site is 'to promote effective, productive and dynamic leadership practices and to provide a place to develop skills and learn from others.' Includes discussion forums and articles.

 

 

Week 2 Reading Summary

FIVE PRINCIPLES OF EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP

 

Please come to
class discussion
prepared!

http://vortis.com/blog/archives/2005/may/Prepare.jpg

Photo credit

Please read lecture and textbook material IN ADVANCE of class.

 

Learning Outcomes:

  • Find ways to model the exemplary leadership way.

  • Measure current communication and leadership attitudes, knowledge, skills, and values.

  • Define leadership and culture.

  • Distinguish and analyze the concepts of leadership and management in the global environment.

  • Evaluate major approaches to charismatic leadership.

Directly quoted or closely adapted from Kouzes & Posner. Unit 1 

PREFACE AND PART ONE:  WHAT LEADERS DO AND WHAT CONSTITUENTS EXPECT

In this course, we seek to study EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP as defined by Kouzes and Posner. You will need to take the time to examine effective leaders who (a) model the way, (b) inspire a shared vision, (c) challenge the process, (d) enable others to act, and (e) encourage the heart. 

One of my students devised this method for remembering the five principles of exemplary leadership.

Photo Credit

The Five Exemplary Leadership Principles

M   Model the Way

 I     Inspire a Share Vision

C   Challenge the Process

E    Enable Others

E    Encourage the Heart

MICEE

Being a supervisor, administrator, or manager does not mean the person is a leader.  In fact, few people are exemplary leaders. Yet any person can be an exemplary leader.

Leadership has nothing to do with position and everything to do with behavior.

Leadership is a relationship between those who aspire to lead and those who choose to follow.   James Kouzes and Barry Posner found that a majority of people admire, and willingly follow, people who are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent. 

In this course, you are to study those kinds of exemplary leaders and become one yourself.

 

We will look at the Enron case to see examples of what exemplary leaders are NOT.  Those people may have been CEOs, officers, and executives, but they fail to qualify as leaders as defined by communication and leadership research.  In addition, the Enron case should give you insights into the effect of organizational culture.

 

PREFACE

Synopsis and Ideas from Kouzes and Posner (quoted directly or closely adapted)

 

Today there are new factors influencing leadership:

  • Heightened uncertainty.

  • People first (families first)

  • We’re even more connected (Internet).

  • Social capital:  The collective value of people who know each other and what they’ll do for each other—human networks make things happen.

  • Global economy:  From an economic perspective the world is boundaryless.  There are more countries in the world today than a decade ago. 

  • Speed.  We’ve been cranking up the pace for centuries now, and we expect instant response.

  • A changing workforce:  Young people in powerful positions, less stability, organizations no longer loyal to employees (distrust).

  • Even more intense search for meaning:  Openness about spirituality.

Ordinary people can guide others to places they have never been before. 

Leadership is learned!

 

Leadership is important in every sector, in every community, and in every country. 

Leadership development is ultimately self-development.

Meeting the leadership challenge is a personal--and a daily--challenge for all of us.

This course studies and implements exemplary student leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner model. Here's a quick summary quoted directly about the Kouzes and Posner principles.

James Kouzes and Barry Posner developed a survey (The Leadership Practices Inventory) that asked people which, of a list of common characteristics of leaders, were, in their experiences of being led by others, the seven top things they look for, admire and would willingly follow.

The results of the study showed that people preferred the following characteristics, in order:

  1. Honest

  2. Forward-looking

  3. Competent

  4. Inspiring

  5. Intelligent

  6. Fair-minded

  7. Broad-minded

  8. Supportive

  9. Straightforward

  10. Dependable

  11. Cooperative

  12. Determined

  13. Imaginative

  14. Ambitious

  15. Courageous

  16. Caring

  17. Mature

  18. Loyal

  19. Self-controlled

  20. Independent

The main part of the book discusses the five actions that Kouzes and Posner identify as being key for successful leadership.  (Visuals from http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/WileyCDA/ )

Model the WayModel the way


Modeling means going first, living the behaviors you want others to adopt. This is leading from the front. People will believe not what they hear leaders say but what they see leader consistently do.

Inspire a Shared VisionInspire a shared vision

People are motivated most not by fear or reward, but by ideas that capture their imagination.
Note that this is not so much about having a vision, but communicating it so effectively that others take it as their own.

Challenge the ProcessChallenge the process


Leaders thrive on and learn from adversity and difficult situations. They are early adopters of innovation.

Enable Others to ActEnable others to act 


Encouragement and exhortation is not enough. People must feel able to act and then must have the ability to put their ideas into action.

Encourage the HeartEncourage the heart


People act best of all when they are passionate about what they are doing. Leaders unleash the enthusiasm of their followers this with stories and passions of their own.

Overall, it is difficult to ignore the combined views of 75,000 people. The placing of honesty first is notable and highlights the importance of telling the truth to those they would lead. The overall process identified is clearly transformational in style, which again has a strong focus on followers.

http://eteamz.active.com/torontosupra/images/teamwork.gif

Photo credit

 

Global Leadership Perspective

 

Hofsted offers the following examples of US leadership theories that are culturally bound.

1. Expectancy theories of motivation are based on the premise that individuals operate according to their self-interest. In more collectivist or group-oriented cultures, the relationship between workers and organizations is moral in nature.

2. Only US participants seem to follow Maslow's hierarchy.

3. Both Theory X and Theory Y are based on the assumption that work is good and desirable and should serve the goals of the organization. Southeast Asian societies view work as a necessity and are more concerned with traditions and their place in society.

4. US researchers and writers focus on the deeds of the individual leader who makes important decisions. The Dutch expect to be involved in consensus decision making.

5. The Leadership Grid and related theories promote participative management but assume that the leader will take the initiative to solicit employee input. In Sweden, Norway, Germany, and Israel, subordinates take the initiative, expecting to participate in the decision process. In societies that accept large differences in power and status, such as Greece, workers don't expect leaders to ask them for feedback; they expect leaders to tell them what to do.

Bass argues that the concept of transformational leadership may be truly universal--transcending organizational and national boundaries. Leadership in general and transformational leadership in particular are found in one form or another at all levels in all cultures. These corollaries have been supported across a variety of cultures.

1. Transformational leaders are more effective than leaders adopting a more transactional approach.

2. Transformational leadership adds value to transactional leadership, but the inverse is not true.

3. Whatever the country, when people think of leadership, their prototypes and ideals are transformational.

WEEK 2 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 

Week 2.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

1. Explain the traits approach to leadership.

2. Explain the situational approach to leadership.

3. Explain the path-goal theory of leadership.

4. Explain the functional approach to leadership.

5. Explain why the traits approach to leadership has diminished in credibility.

6. Why are there multiple theories of leadership?

7. Select one of the theories discussed and critique it.

8. Discuss why the traits approach to leadership cannot be dismissed entirely.

9. Why are effective leaders “never satisfied with current levels of performance?”

10. Which of the leadership theories discussed would be most effective in a totalitarian state?

11. Explain and give an example of the five hierarchically arranged human needs as defined by Maslow.

12. Compare and contrast transactional and transformational leadership.

13. Describe the five primary characteristics of transformational leadership.

14. Describe and give an example of transformational leadership.

15. What are Max Weber’s five key components of charismatic leadership?

16. Compare and contrast the ethical charismatic leader with the unethical charismatic leader.

17. Agree or disagree with Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs.

18. Discuss the negative attributes of transformational leadership factors.

19. Which type of leadership discussed in this chapter would be most likely to produce successful political leadership in the United States?

21. Of the six approaches to analyzing charismatic leadership, select and defend the one you think most germane.

 

Successful leaders stay in love:  With leading, with the people who do the work, with what their organizations produce, and with those who honor the organization  by using its work.  Leadership is NOT an affair of the head.  Leadership is an affair of the heart (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 399). 

 

ONLINE

PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP (Due Sunday)

Emphasize the reading for this week.

VIDEO (Due Sunday)

QUANTITATIVE REASONING (Due Sunday)

 

Try to complete the postings by the days indicated.  Post in at least five categories.  Always post about the K & P reading in the Measuring Leadership (5 principles) category.  Online posts are typically brief (less than 100 words).  You will want to check back and respond to other students during the week.  Expect access to disappear on Monday following the week the postings are due. 

 

Note the drop-down menu will give you access each topic for the week.

 

Photo credit:  http://www.p-rposters.com/

Week 2  PRE-READING

  • Write a tribute to yourself.

  • Record the lessons from the leaders you admire.

  • Write your credo. p. 68.

When you clarify the principles that will govern your life and the ends that you will seek, you give purpose to your daily decision.  What is your personal creed?

 

In writing your personal creed, you may want to consider this list of values.  Can you identify fewer than 10 values, which mean the most to you?  Use your selections to write a Personal Credo and Personal Vision.  There are no right or wrong answers on this assignment.  Here is a personal Credo and Vision Statement I’ve been working on for myself.

 

VALUES

Respect, Joy, Collaboration, Persistence, Dependability, and Enthusiasm.

 

CREDO

I devoted my first thirty years to myself and the next thirty years to facilitating the knowledge, skills, and values of the field of communication studies. 

 

I will devote the next thirty years to helping the people around me to become their best.  I have already succeeded in doing so!

 

VISION

  •  I will help students learn to become more effective communicators. 

  •  I will collaborate with others to discover solutions to problems through research and persistence.

  •  I will improve life on the planet by joyfully, enthusiastically, and respectfully encouraging the exemplary leader in each person.

  • I will become so successful that I will astound everyone.

http://www.fopaws.com/TeamworkBig.jpg

Photo credit

 

VALUES TO CONSIDER

  1. Abundance

  2. Acceptance

  3. Accessibility

  4. Accomplishment

  5. Accuracy

  6. Achievement

  7. Acknowledgement

  8. Activeness

  9. Adaptability

  10. Adoration

  11. Adroitness

  12. Adventure

  13. Affection

  14. Affluence

  15. Aggressiveness

  16. Agility

  17. Alertness

  18. Altruism

  19. Ambition

  20. Amusement

  21. Anticipation

  22. Appreciation

  23. Approachability

  24. Articulacy

  25. Assertiveness

  26. Assurance

  27. Attentiveness

  28. Attractiveness

  29. Audacity

  30. Availability

  31. Awareness

  32. Awe

  33. Balance

  34. Beauty

  35. Being the best

  36. Belonging

  37. Benevolence

  38. Bliss

  39. Boldness

  40. Bravery

  41. Brilliance

  42. Buoyancy

  43. Calmness

  44. Camaraderie

  45. Candor

  46. Capability

  47. Care

  48. Carefulness

  49. Celebrity

  50. Certainty

  51. Challenge

  52. Charity

  53. Charm

  54. Chastity

  55. Cheerfulness

  56. Clarity

  57. Cleanliness

  58. Clear-mindedness

  59. Cleverness

  60. Closeness

  61. Collaboration

  62. Comfort

  63. Commitment

  64. Compassion

  65. Completion

  66. Composure

  67. Concentration

  68. Confidence

  69. Conformity

  70. Congruency

  71. Connection

  72. Consciousness

  73. Consistency

  74. Contentment

  75. Continuity

  76. Contribution

  77. Control

  78. Conviction

  79. Conviviality

  80. Coolness

  81. Cooperation

  82. Cordiality

  83. Correctness

  84. Courage

  85. Courtesy

  86. Craftiness

  87. Creativity

  88. Credibility

  89. Cunning

  90. Curiosity

  91. Daring

  92. Decisiveness

  93. Decorum

  94. Deference

  95. Delight

  96. Dependability

  97. Depth

  98. Desire

  99. Determination

  100. Devotion

  101. Devoutness

  102. Dexterity

  103. Dignity

  104. Diligence

  105. Direction

  106. Directness

  107. Discipline

  108. Discovery

  109. Discretion

  110. Diversity

  111. Dominance

  112. Dreaming

  113. Drive

  114. Duty

  115. Dynamism

  116. Eagerness

  117. Economy

  118. Ecstasy

  119. Education

  120. Effectiveness

  121. Efficiency

  122. Elation

  123. Elegance

  124. Empathy

  125. Encouragement

  126. Endurance

  127. Energy

  128. Enjoyment

  129. Entertainment

  130. Enthusiasm

  131. Excellence

  132. Excitement

  133. Exhilaration

  134. Expectancy

  135. Expediency

  136. Experience

  137. Expertise

  138. Exploration

  139. Expressiveness

  140. Extravagance

  141. Extroversion

  142. Exuberance

  143. Fairness

  144. Faith

  145. Fame

  146. Family

  147. Fascination

  148. Fashion

  149. Fearlessness

  150. Ferocity

  151. Fidelity

  152. Fierceness

  153. Financial independence

  154. Firmness

  155. Fitness

  156. Flexibility

  157. Flow

  158. Fluency

  159. Focus

  160. Fortitude

  161. Frankness

  162. Freedom

  163. Friendliness

  164. Frugality

  165. Fun

  166. Gallantry

  167. Generosity

  168. Gentility

  169. Giving

  170. Grace

  171. Gratitude

  172. Gregariousness

  173. Growth

  174. Guidance

  175. Happiness

  176. Harmony

  177. Health

  178. Heart

  179. Helpfulness

  180. Heroism

  181. Holiness

  182. Honesty

  183. Honor

  184. Hopefulness

  185. Hospitality

  186. Humility

  187. Humor

  188. Hygiene

  189. Imagination

  190. Impact

  191. Impartiality

  192. Independence

  193. Industry

  194. Ingenuity

  195. Inquisitiveness

  196. Insightfulness

  197. Inspiration

  198. Integrity

  199. Intelligence

  200. Intensity

  201. Intimacy

  202. Intrepidness

  203. Introversion

  204. Intuition

  205. Intuitiveness

  206. Inventiveness

  207. Investigation

  208. Investing

  209. Joy

  210. Judiciousness

  211. Justice

  212. Keenness

  213. Kindness

  214. Knowledge

  215. Leadership

  216. Learning

  217. Liberation

  218. Liberty

  219. Liveliness

  220. Logic

  221. Longevity

  222. Love

  223. Loyalty

  224. Majesty

  225. Making a difference

  226. Mastery

  227. Maturity

  228. Meekness

  229. Mellowness

  230. Meticulousness

  231. Mindfulness

  232. Modesty

  233. Motivation

  234. Mysteriousness

  235. Neatness

  236. Nerve

  237. Obedience

  238. Open-mindedness

  239. Openness

  240. Optimism

  241. Order

  242. Organization

  243. Originality

  244. Outlandishness

  245. Outrageousness

  246. Passion

  247. Peace

  248. Perceptiveness

  249. Perfection

  250. Perkiness

  251. Perseverance

  252. Persistence

  253. Persuasiveness

  254. Philanthropy

  255. Piety

  256. Playfulness

  257. Pleasantness

  258. Pleasure

  259. Poise

  260. Polish

  261. Popularity

  262. Potency

  263. Power

  264. Practicality

  265. Pragmatism

  266. Precision

  267. Preparedness

  268. Presence

  269. Privacy

  270. Proactivity

  271. Professionalism

  272. Prosperity

  273. Prudence

  274. Punctuality

  275. Purity

  276. Realism

  277. Reason

  278. Reasonableness

  279. Recognition

  280. Recreation

  281. Refinement

  282. Reflection

  283. Relaxation

  284. Reliability

  285. Religiousness

  286. Resilience

  287. Resolution

  288. Resolve

  289. Resourcefulness

  290. Respect

  291. Rest

  292. Restraint

  293. Reverence

  294. Richness

  295. Rigor

  296. Sacredness

  297. Sacrifice

  298. Sagacity

  299. Saintliness

  300. Sanguinity

  301. Satisfaction

  302. Security

  303. Self-control

  304. Selflessness

  305. Self-reliance

  306. Sensitivity

  307. Sensuality

  308. Serenity

  309. Service

  310. Sexuality

  311. Sharing

  312. Shrewdness

  313. Significance

  314. Silence

  315. Silliness

  316. Simplicity

  317. Sincerity

  318. Skillfulness

  319. Solidarity

  320. Solitude

  321. Soundness

  322. Speed

  323. Spirit

  324. Spirituality

  325. Spontaneity

  326. Spunk

  327. Stability

  328. Stealth

  329. Stillness

  330. Strength

  331. Structure

  332. Success

  333. Support

  334. Supremacy

  335. Surprise

  336. Sympathy

  337. Synergy

  338. Teamwork

  339. Temperance

  340. Thankfulness

  341. Thoroughness

  342. Thoughtfulness

  343. Thrift

  344. Tidiness

  345. Timeliness

  346. Traditionalism

  347. Tranquility

  348. Transcendence

  349. Trust

  350. Trustworthiness

  351. Truth

  352. Understanding

  353. Unflappability

  354. Uniqueness

  355. Unity

  356. Usefulness

  357. Utility

  358. Valor

  359. Variety

  360. Victory

  361. Vigor

  362. Virtue

  363. Vision

  364. Vitality

  365. Vivacity

  366. Warmth

  367. Watchfulness

  368. Wealth

  369. Willfulness

  370. Willingness

  371. Winning

  372. Wisdom

  373. Wittiness

  374. Wonder

  375. Youthfulness

  376. Zeal

 

 

Week 2 ENRON

 

Read and discuss Bryce chapters 1-10.

 

What is organizational culture?  Why does Bryce blame the whole Enron mess on organizational culture?

Enron Photo Credit here.

 

2 QUANTITATIVE LOGIC

 

In communication and leadership, you will need to use logic and inference to solve problems.  Quantitative interpretation is an essential skill in measuring leadership because you need to read tables and analyze results in your own research and when evaluating the research of scholars.  As a fun way to get your logic juices flowing and for practice reading tables in multiple directions, complete the Sudoku below.  Time yourself and let us know how long it took and how experienced you are at doing these logic puzzles.

 

This information quoted directly from Sudoku.com:  Sudoku doesn't require any special math skills or calculations. It is a simple and fun game of logic -- all that's needed is brains and concentration.

There is really only one rule to Sudoku: Fill in the game board so that the numbers 1 through 9 occur exactly once in each row, column, and 3x3 box. The numbers can appear in any order and diagonals are not considered. Your initial game board will consist of several numbers that are already placed. Those numbers cannot be changed. Your goal is to fill in the empty squares following the simple rule above.

Many of the games available on Sudoku.com feature unique twists on Sudoku basics. Experiment with the different Sudoku games and discover these exciting variations!

Sudoku grid

1. Fill the grid so that the numbers 1 through 9 appear in each row.

2. Fill the grid so that the numbers 1 through 9 appear in each column.

3. Fill the grid so that the numbers 1 through 9 appear in each 3x3 box.

4. A complete Sudoku puzzle contains the numbers 1 through 9 in every row, column, and 3x3 box.

 

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

 

Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale
Recommended Measure of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX-7)
Developing a Personal Vision Statement

 

Further Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

Trait Theory

Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership here.

Behavioral Theories

An Integrated Approach to Management Communication at the T.A. Pai Management Institute. By: Gupta, Jaba Mukherjee. Business Communication Quarterly, Jun2005, Vol. 68 Issue 2, p237-246

A Role Play for Revising Style and Applying Management Theories. By: Griggs, Karen. Business Communication Quarterly, Mar2005, Vol. 68 Issue 1, p60-65

Leadership Leadership theories , Trait Theory, Role Theory, Transactional Leadership, Transformational Leadership

Leadership Theories: Fiedler's Contingency Theory

Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership, by Patrich Antoine

The Contingency Approach: Its Foundations and Relevance to Theory Building and Research in Marketing. By: Zeithaml, Valarie A.; Varadarajan, P. Rajan; Zeithaml, Carl P.. European Journal of Marketing, 1988, Vol. 22 Issue 7, p37-64

Do superiors' intranet use predict their transformational leadership? By: Sheer, Vivian C.; Ling Chen. Asian Journal of Communication, Jun2003, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p120-136.

Communicative Rules and Organizational Decision Making. By: Jabs, Lorelle Beth. Journal of Business Communication, Jul2005, Vol. 42 Issue 3, p265-288

LEADERSHIP STYLES BETWEEN TECHNICAL AND NON-TECHNICAL SUPERIORS: GUESS WHO WILL GIVE SUBORDINATES MORE FREEDOM ON THE JOB? By: James Poon Teng Fatt. Journal of Technical Writing & Communication, 2004, Vol. 34 Issue 1/2, p91-111

How Male, Female, and Mixed-Gender Groups Regard Interaction and Leadership Differences in the Business Communication Course. By: Winter, Janet K.; Neal, Joan C.; Waner, Karen K.. Business Communication Quarterly, Sep2001, Vol. 64 Issue 3, p43-58

Followership: Why followers follow leaders.

 

 

 

Week 3 Reading Summary:  MODEL THE WAY

Please come to
class discussion
prepared!

 

http://www.las.iastate.edu/discover/Photos/prepare.jpg

Photo credit

 

Learning Outcomes: 

a.  Identify exemplary leadership behaviors as defined by Kouzes and Posner by interviewing, observing, and analyzing an exemplary leader.  FINAL DEADLINE:  Submit a one-page executive summary.   Online students need to submit the written assignment in the appropriate discussion link so other students can discuss.  Please do not provide any confidential information.

b.  Measure and analyze your communication and leadership behaviors by completing measures found in the Hackman and Johnson textbook and the LPI.  Use LPI software to analyze the measures completed by coworkers and self as part of your self-analysis to become an exemplary leader.

c.  Identify basic communication and leadership research principles through the Hackman and Johnson textbook and other relevant materials (e.g., books, journal articles).  Analyze the sources of power, and determine your personal power, and a plan for increasing your power and influence.

d.  Implement more effective leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner Five Principles and other course materials.

  • Find ways to create a shared vision.

  • Work through LPI Planner and Workbook.

 

Directly quoted or closely adapted from Kouzes & Posner. Unit 2 MODEL THE WAY

FIND YOUR VOICE

To find your voice, clarify your values and express your self. Speak out on matters of values and conscience. Personal values clarity makes a difference. Make a list of your values and your organizations values. Finding your voice is about engaging with the world.

 

The three stages of self-expression:

1. Looking out (copy others).

2. Looking in.

3. Moving on. You have to be the author of your own story.

  • Look in the mirror.

  • Take time for contemplation.

  • Write a tribute to yourself.

  • Record the lessons from the leaders you admire.

  • Write your credo. p. 68.

  • Engage in a credo dialogue and assessment.

The image “http://www.feyaccompli.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/teamwork.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo credit

 

SET THE EXAMPLE

Constituents are more deeply moved by deeds. Build and affirm shared values. Align actions with values. Shared values do make a significant difference in work attitudes and performance:

  • They foster strong feelings of personal effectiveness.

  • They promote high levels of company loyalty.

  • They facilitate consensus about key organizational goals and stakeholders.

  • They encourage ethical behavior.

  • They promote strong norms about working hard and caring.

  • They reduce levels of job stress and tension.

  • They foster pride in the company.

  • They facilitate understanding about job expectations.

  • They foster teamwork and esprit de corps.

High performing organizations, compared to like companies in their industry, had a very strong "core ideology," but didn't share the same core ideology.

 

ALIGN SHARED VALUES THROUGH ACTIONS AS DEMONSTRATED BY

  • Your calendar and how you spend your time.

  • Your language. Chose words and questions deliberately. Questions are powerful in focusing attention.

  • Your response to critical incidents regarding how you link actions to decisions.

  • Your stories, analogies, and metaphors. They use the timeless way to teach virtues because they have a substantial impact on decision making.

Create alignment around key values:

  • High performance standards.

  • A caring attitude toward people.

  • A sense of uniqueness and pride.

Commitment includes:

  • Create alignment around key values.

  • Speak about shared values with enthusiasm and confidence—even drama.

  • Teach and reinforce through symbols and artifacts.

  • Lead by storytelling. Put storytelling on your meeting agendas.

  • Ask questions.

  • Keep score.  Hold yourself accountable.

  • Do a personal audit.

WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO TO MODEL THE WAY?

Example behaviors for plan:

  1. Speak out on matters of values and conscience when they come up at work.

  2. Keep a personal journal for reflection and contemplation for two weeks.  Reflect each day on the question:  What have I done today that demonstrates a value that is crucial to me?

  3. Make a list of my values and my organization's values.

  4. Find something important that I can grab on to and not let go.

  5. Read a story about a leader:  The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream by Barack Obama

  6. Listen to a book--that is a story of a leader--on CD while I drive:   Leadership by Rudolph W. Giuliani.

  7. Write an article or editorial about values for a newsletter or Listserve.

  8. Copy someone else--Dr. Noe--who is a talented leader by analyzing what they do and doing similar behaviors myself.

 

Directly quoted or adapted from Hackman and Johnson, Chapter 3 Traits, Situational, and Functional Leadership and Chapter 4 Transformational and Charismatic Leadership

The traits approach suggests that leaders are born with specific characteristics that predispose them to positions of influence. Traits research, conducted primarily in the early part of the twentieth century, has failed to find a clear connection between personal and physical traits and leadership. Certain traits may enhance the PERCEPTION that someone has the ability to lead others.

In the 1940's Stogdill published reviewed 124 studies to determine traits and personal factors related to leadership.

 

Traits

Skills

 

  • Adaptable to situations

  • Alert to social environment

  • Ambitious and achievement-orientated

  • Assertive

  • Cooperative

  • Decisive

  • Dependable

  • Dominant (desire to influence others)

  • Energetic (high activity level)

  • Persistent

  • Self-confident

  • Tolerant of stress

  • Willing to assume responsibility

  • Clever (intelligent)

  • Conceptually skilled

  • Creative

  • Diplomatic and tactful

  • Fluent in speaking

  • Knowledgeable about group task

  • Organized (administrative ability)

  • Persuasive

  • Socially skilled

Stogdill, R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of the literature, New York: Free Press

 

The situational approach claims that situational conditions influence leadership effectiveness. Four of the most commonly cited situational approaches include the following:


1. Fiedler's contingency model of leadership: Our ratings of others with whom we do not like to work provide us with valuable information about our leadership behavior. Three primary situational factors that control the amount of influence a leader has over followers. These are (a) the leader's position power, (b) task structure, and (c) the interpersonal relationship between leader and members.

 

2. Path-goal theory is based on expectancy theory, which claims that followers are more motivated to be productive when they believe that successful task completion will provide a path to a valuable goals. It is a leader's responsibility to communicate clearly what is expected of followers and what rewards can be anticipated when tasks are successfully completed.

 

3. Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. The maturity level of followers plays an important role in selecting appropriate leadership behavior.


Leader directed:

  • R1 unable and unwilling or insecure (tell)

  • R2 unable but willing or confident (sell)

Follower directed:

  • R3 Able but unwilling or insecure (participative)

  • R4 Able and willing or confident (delegate)

4. Leader-member exchange theory: Leaders develop two different types of relational role exchanges with followers:

a. in-group (high levels of trust, mutual influence, and support characterize in-group exchanges)
b. out-group (low levels of trust and support characterize out-group exchanges).

 

Functional approach suggests that it is the ability to communicate like a leader that determines leadership. Benne and Sheats were pioneers in the classification of functional roles in groups:
a. task-related roles
b. group building and maintenance roles
c. individual roles

 

Traditional leadership is called transactional.

 

Transformational Leadership

 

The transformational approach to leadership focuses on the actions of inspiring leaders as they attempt to meet the higher level needs of followers.

 

Maslow's hierarchy of needs suggests that basic needs must be satisfied first.

High

  • Self-actualization needs

  • Self-esteem needs

  • Belonging and love needs

  • Safety needs

  • Physiological needs.

Transformational leaders are often creative, interactive, visionary, empowering, and passionate. Transformational leaders recognize that creativity is an integral part of leadership. Wallas suggests that the creative process occurs in four steps:

1. preparation (defining the problem and gathering background data)
2. incubation (putting the problem on the "back burner" for a period of time)
3. illumination (realization of the solution to the problem)
4. verification (testing the validity and usefulness of the solution)

 

Overcoming creative roadblocks can help leaders to be more creative. Adams identified four types of creative blocks:

  • perceptual blocks (obstacles that prevent a problem-solver from seeing what they need to se to solve a problem)

  • emotional blocks (emotions that inhibit creativity)

  • cultural and environmental blocks (blocks imposed by culture or society)

  • intellectual and expressive blocks (blocks based on inadequate knowledge or the inability to articulate solutions).

Strategies for becoming a creative leader include developing a problem-finding orientation and tolerating failure.

Transformational leaders are masterful communicators able to articulate ideas and concepts to others; they interact with followers on a regular basis. Communicating a vision and direction to followers may well be the most important act of a transformational leader. Transformational leaders encourage participation and involvement. These leaders know how to give power away and make others feel powerful. Transformational leaders are also passionately committed to their work. They encourage others because they, first and foremost, encourage themselves.

 

Charisma

We ended the chapter with a discussion of charisma--the quality possessed by leaders who exert extraordinary influence over followers. Scholars in many disciplines have been interested in charismatic leadership. Major perspectives on charisma include:
1. sociological

2. psychoanalytical

3. political

5. behavioral

6. attributional

7. communication-based.

 

While the first five perspectives make communication a prominent part of charismatic leadership, only the communication-based approach sees charisma as the product of symbolic activity. Charismatic leaders excel in every function of human communication. They form strong emotional bonds with followers, emphasize transcendent visions, generate perceptions of confidence, communicate high expectations, and inspire others. However, charisma also has a dark side, often reflects in failure of vision, misarticulation of goals, and poor management practices.

 

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Photo Credit

Directly quoted or adapted from Hackman and Johnson Chapter 5 Leadership and Power and Chapter 6 Leadership and Influence

 

Power, the ability to influence others, is the "currency of leadership."  Leadership is not possible without power, although not everyone who exercises power is a leader.  There are five sources or types of power:

1.  coercive

2.  reward

3.  legitimate

4.  expert

5.  reference

 

Personal forms of power (expert and referent) are less costly to use and generate higher satisfaction and job performance.  Because expert and referent power are more tied to personal characteristics than to position, developing our communication skills and abilities can increase these power bases and improve our leadership potential.  Adopting powerful speech is one way to build expert and referent power. 

 

The image “http://www.swaitworld.org/images/Follow.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo Credit

 

Avoid the use of such powerless speech features as

  • hesitations,

  • hedges,

  • tag questions,

  • disclaimers,

  • accounts, and

  • side particles.

Powerful speakers are seen as authoritative, persuasive, and informative.

 

Leaders frequently want to distribute rather than to maintain power.  Five reasons for empowering others are:

1.  to increase follower task satisfaction and performance

2.  to foster greater cooperation in the group

3.  to ensure the survival of the group or organization

4.  to encourage the personal growth and learning of group members

5.  to prevent power abuses.

 

Components of the empowerment process include modifying the work environment, supplying resources,  and  building a sense of personal power (self-efficacy).  Leaders eliminate situational factors that create feelings of powerlessness, shift decision-making authority to those doing the work, and supply information and other resources.  They help followers believe in their own abilities by providing positive emotional support, expressing confidence, and modeling successful performance, and structuring tasks so that followers experience initial success.

 

Leading the Journal and Superleadership/ Self-Leadership are two systematic approaches to empowering followers.  In the Leading the Journey model, leaders set the overall direction in consultation with end users, remove obstacles that lower performance, help constituents develop ownership, and stimulate self-directed actions.  Proponents of Superleadership argue that the leader's ultimate goal is to help followers learn to lead themselves.  Empowering followers to become self-leaders (those who take charge of their own thoughts and behaviors) involves modeling the desired behaviors, providing guidance, and creating a climate that promotes independent through and action.  Followers can become self-leaders without the help of their superiors if they engage in such self-behavior modification strategies as goal setting, rewarding themselves, creating positive physical cues, and rehearsal.  Aspiring self-leaders should also find enjoyment or pleasure in the task itself and replace destructive self-talk with opportunity thinking.

 

Credibility is built on perceptions of competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.  These perceptions, in turn, can be modified by adopting credibility-building behaviors:  discovering yourself, appreciating constituents, affirming shared values, developing capacity, serving a purpose, and sustaining hope.

 

There are many verbal compliance-gaining strategies used to make requests in face-to-face encounters.  In the interpersonal context, prosocial strategies that put the compliance seeker and target in a positive frame of mind are most popular.  In the organizational setting, successful leaders take a rational yet flexible approach to influencing superiors and subordinates.  They generally offer reasons for compliance first but switch tactics when appropriate.  Hard tactics, like applying pressure, forming coalitions or appealing to authority, gain compliance at the expense of long-term commitment.  Soft tactics, such as consulting with others, putting the other person in a good mood, and arousing enthusiasm, work better when combined than when used alone.  Mixing incompatible strategies greatly decreases the likelihood of compliance.

 

Argumentation and negotiation skills are essential to managing conflict.  When two or more people take different sides on controversial issues, they often try to establish the superiority of their positions through argument.  Argumentative competence consists of stating the controversy in propositional form, inventing arguments, presenting and defending your position, attacking other positions, and managing interpersonal relations.

 

The goal of negotiation is to reach a conclusion that is satisfying to both parties.  Successful negotiators build a cooperative atmosphere, take the perspective of the other person, and work together to reach a join solution.  Joint problem-solving negotiation involves separating the people from the problem, identifying the interests of each party, brainstorming options for mutual gain, and basing the settlement on objective criteria.

 

Leaders must resist influence as well as exert it.  Manipulative influence tactics appeal to the principle of reciprocation (give and take), the desire for consistency, social proof (Looking to others), likening, authority, and the principle of scarcity.  Being aware of the dangers of these unethical strategies reduces their power over our decisions.

 

http://jasonclark.ws/wp-content/uploads/2007/02/follow-lead.jpg

Photo Credit

 

Global Leadership Perspective

Inhabitants of different countries have sometimes radically dissimilar viewpoints on power.  In some countries such as Israel, Denmark, and New Zealand, workers often expect that power will be shared.  In countries like Malaysia, Indian, and the Philippines, followers are generally much more willing to be directed.

 

The Swazi are a hospitable people, but approach every negotiation with a skeptical attitude because they have been victimized in the past by colonial powers and neighboring South Africa (all of whom stole their land and natural resources).  Foreigners are considered guilty of deception until they prove themselves innocent through their conduct.  A humble intermediary is needed to build relationships.

WEEK 3 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

ONLINE

PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP (Due Sunday)

Emphasize the reading for this week.

VIDEO (Due Sunday)

QUANTITATIVE REASONING (Due Sunday)

 

Focus on modeling the way.

 

Note the drop-down menu will give you access each topic for the week.

Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Photo credit:  http://www.p-rposters.com/

Week 3 PRE-READING

To be credible (believable), you need trustworthiness, expertise, and dynamism (Kouzes & Posner). 

  • Discuss your credibility as a leader. 

  • Or, describe your vision as a leader.

 

Week 3 ENRON (Due Online Friday)

 

Read and discuss Bryce chapters 11-20.

 

Explain how the Enron executives failed to be leaders because they failed to model the way.

 

Enron Photo Credit  

 

 

Week 3.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

1. Discuss why power and leadership are interdependent but not interchangeable.

2. Discuss two reasons why rewards fail as motivational strategies.

3. Discuss the concept of cost/benefit ratios when evaluating types of power to use.

4. Discuss the concept of powerful and powerless talk.

5. What is meant by and give examples of “tag questions” in terms of powerless talk?

6. Consider the applicability of the following quotation by William Shakespeare to our discussion of leadership: “Oh, it is excellent to have a giant’s strength, but it is tyrannous to use it like a giant.”

7. Can one “lead” without authority?

8. Where do political leaders in the United States get their authority to lead?

9. Where do political leaders in totalitarian states get their authority to lead?

10. Would you rather have a benign dictator leading your social unit or have no leader at all?

11. Defend “competence” as one dimension of credibility.

12. Discuss the six practices that build perceptions of credibility over time.

13. Discuss strategies for interpersonal compliance gaining.

14. Discuss the Principled Negotiation approach.

15. Identify some of the common errors in reasoning exhibited when communicators attack evidence.

16. Why is exercising influence the essence of leadership?

17. Why is credibility so important to leaders?

18. Discuss the difference between interpersonal compliance gaining and compliance gaining within an organization.

19. Define argumentative competence.

20. Define and discuss positive “compliance-gaining strategies.”

 

 

K & P Model the Way (Sunday)

 

Discuss modeling the way.  You may want to try the following, then tell us about it.

  1. Write a vision statement or revise the one you wrote previously.

  2. Make a list of assumptions underlying your vision.

  3. Flesh out each assumption by asking whether they are true or untrue of your organization, technology, politics, the world around you.

  4. Ask a few close advisors to react to your assumptions, whether they agree or disagree and why or why not.

  5. Ask people you think might have different assumptions to respond to yours. 

  6. Test your assumptions with an experiment.  If you're inspired to do something, go try it.

Career Vision Framed Poster

Photo Credit

 

3 QUANTITATIVE LOGIC

http://www.inertiasoftware.com/images/sample/sudoku.gif

Source

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

Personal Power Inventory
Argumentativeness Scale
Evaluate your Credibility
 

Futher Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

Leadership Journal here. 

 

Week 4 Reading Summary:  INSPIRE A VISION

 

 

Week's Learning Outcomes: 

a.  Identify basic communication and leadership research principles through the Hackman and Johnson textbook and other relevant materials (e.g., books, journal articles).

  • Identify or explain key elements in the development of corporate culture.

b.  Measure and analyze your communication and leadership behaviors by completing measures found in the Hackman and Johnson textbook and the LPI.

c.  Implement more effective leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner Five Principles and other course materials.

  • Create strategies for challenging the process.

  • Work through LPI Planner and Workbook.

 

Directly quoted or adapted from Kouzes & Posner. Unit 3  INSPIRE A SHARED VISION

Leaders have visions and dreams of what could be.  Imagine the attractive opportunities.  Know the constituents and speak their language.  To enlist support, leaders must have intimate knowledge of people's dreams, hopes, aspirations, visions, and values.  Be enthusiastic.

Commitment:  Envision the future by imaging exciting and ennobling possibilities.  Enlist others in a common vision by appealing to shared aspirations.

ENVISION THE FUTURE

To be credible, you need trustworthiness, expertise, and dynamism.

Having a vision is important.

Credibility is the foundation of leadership.

 

Qualities of a credibility person

For:

You can say:

Honest

Trustworthiness

Competent

Expertise

Inspiring

Dynamism

Also key for admired leaders:

 

Forward-looking

Visionary

 

Motivation

  • Extrinsic:  More likely to produce compliance or defiance.  People who are externally controlled are likely to stop trying once the rewards or punishments are removed.

  • Intrinsic:  More likely to produce far superior results.  People who are self-motivated will keep working toward a result even if there's no reward.

One of the most important practices of leadership is giving life and work a sense of meaning and purpose by offering an exciting vision.

 

People of great vision see patterns when others see chaos, says Venture capitalist Geoff Yang

You have to maintain vision among distractions.

 

Discover the theme

  • Express your passion through self-exploration and self-creation.  If you aren't passionate, how do you expect others to be passionate?

  • Explore the past.  When we gaze into our past, we elongate our future.

  • Pay attention to your experiences. Visions come from paying attention to what is right in front of us.  To be able to have a vision of the future you have to know the big story, see trends, patterns, and occurrences.

  • Immerse yourself.  The longer our participation and the more varied our experiences, the broader and deeper our understanding is likely to be.  By immersing ourselves, we get inspired to do more.

  • Focus on a meaningful theme.  Vision begins with passion, feeling, concern, or an inspiration that something is worth doing.  Your vision of the future may  be fuzzy, but at least you're focused on a meaningful theme.

Imagine the Possibilities

  • Leaders are possibility thinkers, not probability thinkers.

  • Find meaning in the ideal.  Visions are about hopes, dreams, and aspirations.  Ideals reveal our higher-order value preferences.

  • Make images of the future.  In your mind, you can be a beacon of light cutting through the fog.  You must be able to create images. 

  • Look to the future.  Most organizations don't spend enough time working on this collectively.  Instead of using a tactical approach, use a strategic approach.  You can think about your past, determine the "something" you want to do, write an article about how you've made a difference, write your vision statement, become a futurist, test your assumptions.  Rehearse with visualization and affirmations.

  • Take pride in being unique.  Uniqueness enables smaller units within large organizations to have their own vision while being a part of a collective vision.

Eve L. I - Laugh at Me Poster Card

Photo Credit

 

Enlist Others

When leaders clearly articulate their vision for the organization, constituents report significantly higher levels of a variety of positive reactions such as these:

  • Job satisfaction

  • Motivation

  • Commitment

  • Loyalty

  • Esprit de corps

  • Clarity about the organization's values

  • Pride in the organization

  • Organizational productivity

Expressiveness comes naturally when talking about deep desires for the future.

  • People lean forward in their chairs.

  • Move their arms about.

  • Their eyes light up.

  • Their voices sing with enthusiasm.

  • They smile.

  • They are animated.

  • Their enthusiasm lifts the spirits of others.

Give life to a vision.

  • Listen deeply to others.

  • Find common values.

  • Use powerful language.

  • Practice positive communication.

  • Tap into nonverbal expressiveness.

  • Appeal to shared aspirations.

Directly quoted or adapted from Hackman and Johnson, Chapter 7 Leadership in Groups and Teams and Chapter 8 Leadership in Organizations

Communication scholars are more interested in the interaction between group members than in the characteristics that members bring with them to the group.  From a communication viewpoint, a small group has five essential elements:
1.  a common purpose or goal

2.  interdependence

3.  mutual influence

4.  face-to-face communication

5. a size of three to twenty members.

 

Groups evolve over time.  Both group decisions and group leaders emerge as the group changes and matures.  Emergent group leaders (leaders who aren't' appointed by someone outside the group) emerge by a process of elimination--the method of residues.  Leader contenders are eliminated until only one remains.  To emerge as a leader, avoid actions that lower your status.  Instead, participate frequently in the group discussion, make constructive contributions, demonstrate your competence, and help build a cohesive unit.  Another way to think of establishing leadership credentials is through idiosyncratic credits.  Potential leaders build their credits in the eyes of other group members by demonstrating that they can help the group complete its task.  They also conform to group norms.  Followers expect more from emergent than from appointed leaders.  On the other hand, they are willing to give emergent leaders more freedom to act on behalf of the group.

 

Leading meetings is an important task for both emergent and appointed leaders.  To provide effective leadership in meetings

1.  determine if a meeting is necessary before calling people together

2.  have a clear agenda

3.  maintain focus on the agenda throughout the meeting

4.  listen to others

5.  involve all participants

6.  keep a record.

 

Groups charged with making decisions are more likely to succeed when they use communication to fulfill key problem-solving functions--analysis of the problem, goal setting, identification of alternatives, and evaluation of solutions--through the use of such formats as the Standard Agenda and Single Question model.  They also avoid logical pitfalls through counteractive influence--highlighting problems in reasoning and getting the group back on track.  Leaders of these groups help members combat groupthink--the tendency to put cohesion above performance.  Better decisions emerge when leader solicit input rather than push for their own choices and when they take steps to encourage diverse opinions and constructive group thought patterns. 

 

The image “http://www.innerworks.ca/im/cartoon1.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo credit

 

There are significant differences between working groups and teams.  A working group shares the overall mission of the organization and measures its effectiveness by how well the organization as a whole performs.  Group members meet to share information and ideas, but they are judged on their individual efforts.  In contrast, a team has a unique purpose and clearly defined performance standards.  Members work together to produce a joint product, and the team is accountable for achieving its objectives.  Teams are often more productive than working groups and encourage personal growth and organizational change.  When they determine that a team approach is best, successful leaders use team-building skills to help working groups move up the performance curve. 

 

Eight characteristics essential to effective team performance include

  • clear and inspiring team goals,

  • result-oriented team structure (clear roles and responsibilities, an effective communication network, frequent feedback, objective criteria)

  • competent team members

  • unified commitment

  • a collaborative climate

  • standards of excellence

  • external support and recognition

  • and principled (transformational) leadership.

The image “http://www.adventures-in-creativity.com/teamwork.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo credit

 

Self-directed work teams (SDWATs) operate like small businesses within a larger organization. 

Leaders can help managers who must switch from a supervisory to a facilitator role by helping them deal with

  • perceived loss of power and status,

  • feelings of ambiguity

  • job security concerns

  • and outdated appraisal standards by screening out unsuitable candidates

  • by providing training

  • by ensuring job protection, and

  • by developing team-oriented evaluation guidelines.

 

The Self-directed work team (SDWT) is an intact, interdependent group of approximately six to ten highly-trained employees who are responsible for managing themselves and their work.  SDWTs are generally responsible for a complete product or process.  Unlike traditional group or team structures, where an organizational segment may be divided by functional specialties (for example, accounting or marketing), SDWTs are usually responsible for the delivery of an entire service or product.  In this way, SDWTs operate like a small business within a larger organization.

 

Several characteristics typically distinguish SDWTs from other types of teams.

1.  SDWTs consist of multi-skilled, cross-trained employees who are responsible for an entire job.

2.  Quality an process control are an ongoing, key SDWT responsibility.

3.  SDWTs are empowered to share a wide variety of management and leadership functions, including scheduling, budgeting, purchasing, inventory control, and in many cases, hiring and firing.

4.  Leadership is shared by the SDWT, rather than assigned to a supervisor.  If there is a designed team leader he or she plays the role of facilitator, supporting the group as a coach, rather than acting as a boss.

5.  SDWTs meet regularly to diagnose and to solve their own problems.

6.  Customer satisfaction and overall business needs are the primary focus of SDWTs.  Information generally reserved for management is passed on to the team, so members can make informed decision.

7.  SDWTs engage in ongoing training as a means for enhancing team skills.

In practice, SDWTs can be classified by their degree of empowerment.  The first level on the continuum describes the responsibilities generally assigned to a newly formed team.  These team duties include such tasks as running meetings ("housekeeping"), cross-training, and scheduling. 

 

As the team matures and the level of empowerment increases,

  1. members may take responsibility for continuous improvement of their processes,

  2. monitoring external customer relationship

  3. recruiting and selecting new members, and

  4. making decisions about capital expenditures and budgeting.

Finally, at level four, the mature self-directed team assumes the responsibilities related to performance appraisal, discipline, and even compensation.  At this level the team controls about 80 percent of their total work responsibilities.  The remaining responsibilities, mostly administrative and strategic in nature (e.g., establishing administrative policies, long-range planning), are generally performed by leaders outside the team.

http://www.b2binternational.com/b2b-blog/images/leadership.jpg

Photo Credit

 

Although eh SDWT approach has only recently begun to receive widespread attention, SDWTs have been successfully used in organizations for many years.  In 1951, management professor Eric Trist and his student Kenneth Bamforth trained British coal miners to work in SDWTs.  The miners were taught to assist one another with key tasks and to trade jobs when workloads became unbalanced or tedious.  Further, each work team was permitted to set its own rate of production and was responsible for handling its own conflicts.  The output of these self-directed teams was compared with that of groups in the same organization using traditional hierarchical management.  Trist and Bamforeth discovered clear indications of higher productivity and job satisfaction among those workers in the self-directed teams.  The miners in SDWTs outperformed their hierarchically managed counterparts by approximately 34 percent, or 1.8 tons of coal per shift.

 

Application of self-direction didn't begin in the US until the early 1960s.  The earliest SDWT experiment was undertaken by Procter and Gamble.  The results of this experiment with self-direction were so successful that the company declared them trade secret, with all the restrictions and security precautions associated with product development.  In 1990, 26 percent of all organizations in the US had employees working in SDWTs.  By 1992, the percentage of organizations using SDWTs had climbed to 35 percent.  Over the past decade a wide variety of large (Boeing, Bristol-Myers, Squibb, Corning, General Electric, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, and Xerox) and small (Ampex, Johnsonvilled Foods, Lake Superior Paper, and Sterling Winthrop Limited) companies have had success with SDWTs.  These numbers will likely continue to increase as more organizations become aware of the dramatic results of self-directed work teams.

 

Making the transition from a traditional organizational structure to a SDWT environment can be difficult.  The transition is, perhaps, most difficult for managers who much make the switch from playing the role of supervisor to playing the role of facilitator.  The differences between the traditional manager and SDWT facilitator are that the facilitator will:

  1. Empower
     

  2. Develop
     

  3. Focus on people
     

  4. Assist with decision making
     

  5. Remove barriers for team
     

  6. Listen to team members
     

  7. Trust people
     

  8. Be visible and available
     

  9. Reward risk taking
     

  10. Embrace change
     

  11. Focus on the customer and the employee
     

  12. Believe there are no limits.

http://www1.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/2404744/2/istockphoto_2404744_team_leader.jpg

Photo Credit

An organization is the product of communication.  As organizational members communicate, they develop shared meanings that form the organization's unique way of seeing the world--an organization's culture.  Cultures are made up of underlying assumptions, values, and symbols called artifacts.  Because the organization is the product of symbol using, organizational leaders are really symbolic leaders who use symbols to interpret events and to help determine the direction of the group.  They play an important role in the formation of organizational meaning or culture.

You can embed and transmit culture by primary and secondary mechanisms.  Primary mechanisms are the most important elements for shaping organizational culture

  • what you pay attention to

  • how you react to critical incidents

  • the way you spend budgeted monies

  • how you role model

  • the criteria you select for allocation of rewards

  • and the criteria you use for selection.

 

Secondary mechanisms reinforce primary messages:

  • how you mold the organizational structure

  • how you utilize organizational systems and procedures

  • your use of rites and rituals

  • how you design physical space to reinforce key values

  • the stories you tell about important events and people

  • the way you communication organizational philosophy.

Preparation is the key to leading in a crisis.  The typical crisis passes through phrases

  • warning

  • acute crisis

  • chronic crisis

  • crisis resolution

 

Effective leaders help their organizations develop emergency tool kits to deal with crises before they happen.  Crisis management tools include

  • a vigilant problem solving style,

  • action plans,

  • crisis management teams,

  • designated spokespersons,

  • cooperative media strategies,

  • honesty and compassion and

  • image insurance.

Expectations shape motivation and performance.  The Pygmalion Effect refers to our tendency to live up to the expectations of others.  Generally, the higher the expectancy, the higher the performance.  Leaders communicate expectations through

  • climate (social and emotional atmosphere)

  • input (the number and type of assignments they give to employees)

  • output (the number of opportunities that followers have to voice opinions) and

  • feedback (the frequency of praise or criticism).

To create a high expectations/ high performance cycle, effective leaders

  • build a warm climate,

  • delegate important responsibilities

  • solicit ideas

  • provide frequent positive feedback.

Self-expectations (called the Galatea effect) also influence performance.  Followers who set high standards for themselves are more productive.

 

Global Leadership Perspective

Distributed work groups--teams that work on joint projects in a variety of locations from the headquarters to the most distant branches--use audio and video conferencing, email, simultaneous computer chats.

The potential benefits of distributed work teams are that communicating electronically greatly reduces the cost and time of travel.  Team members can draw upon the expertise of colleagues from around the world who have a better sense of how local markets will respond to new products and services.  The disadvantage is that electronic communication is not as rich as face to face interaction.  Physical separation is a barrier, encouraging the growth of organizational subcultures.

McDonald's financial future will depend on its continuing ability to connect with global customers.  The company serves 46 million people every day in 30,000 restaurants in 121 countries (1500 restaurants in other countries). 

WEEK 4 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 


 

Focus on Inspiring a Vision

Photo credit:  here.

Week 4

PRE-READING

Example Month’s Leadership Plan  

You have measured your strengths and needs, so now figure out a plan to improve your leadership skills.  A key to an effective plan is to write out specific behaviors you can try.  Then you can experiment, see what works, see what needs to be deleted or added, and keep adapting as you work to implement your new leadership behaviors. Post a list of tips, which may help you identify specific actions you can take to become a more effective leaders.  Feel free to copy and paste into your Core Assessment any tips that may be effective.  One strategy is to create a calendar.  Sorry about the formatting--scroll down.

Sun

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

Today, I will figure out new ways to celebrate and make others at work feel supported.

I will make a difference to someone else at work because I will care. 

Today I will get noticed.

 

Today I will be a friend to a coworker.

Today I will use my face and voice to act more enthusiastic.

 

Today I will show someone a genuine act of caring.

 

Today I will do something nice for a coworker.

 

Today I will try to make my positive emotions contagious.

 

Today I will have the courage to ask someone how they think I’m doing.

 

Today I will complete all my work in a competent way.

 

Today I will say something nice to a coworker.

 

Today I will passionately tell someone at work what we all stand for.

Today I will make sure my calendar reflects my priorities.

Today I will conduct a personal audit:

Daily routines.

Daily calendar.

Agendas for meetings.

Your questions.

How you deal with critical incidents.

Internal memos, emails, messages.

Your inbasket.

Rewards and recognitions.

 

Today I will find ways to say “yes.”

 

Today I will translate my usual “to do” list to measurable goals I will get done.

Today I will figure out how to eliminate a distraction at work.

Today I will tell a coworker “what we do is important.” 

Today I will use my face and voice to express animated, enthusiastic behavior.

 

Today I will listen deeply to others.

 

Today I will walk with a bounce in their step and demonstrate a positive attitude. 

Today I will write down three values of my organization to which I feel committed.

 

Today I will model one specific, inspiring behavior for others.

Today I will make sure a coworker and I find fun in some aspect of our work.

Today I will tell a coworker “we are all in this together.”

Today I will tell a personal story at work.

Today I will make sure I have a poster, picture on wall, object on my desk, buttons or something that can serve as a visible reminder of some key organizational value. 

Today I will find ways to be present wherever I am by paying attention and listening. 

Before you read this week's assignments, how will you plan to change your leadership behaviors?

 

 

Week 4 ENRON

Read and discuss Bryce chapters 21-30.  Explain how the Enron executives failed to inspire a vision.  Give an example from this section of how the Enron executives failed to be leaders.

Enron Photo Credit

here.  

 

K & P Inspire a Vision (By Sunday)

 

Read and discuss inspiring a vision. 

This area seems to be the one many students need to improve the most.  You might plan some specific behaviors you will try this week, such as the following ideas suggested by other students.  If you try strategies, tell us what happens.

  • I will get to know my constituents and their view of the future.

  • I will have a meeting to find lessons after we make a mistake.

  • I will work with the team to draft a collective vision statement.

  • I will expand my communication skills so that I can articulate what I hear from others.

  • I will put up inspirational posters in my office.

  • I will add a different inspirational quote at the bottom of my email each week.

  • I will hang out with coworkers for breakfast once every two weeks and talk about the future.

 

Week 4.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

1. Discuss the characteristics of an effective SDWT leader.

2. Discuss LaFasto and Larson’s five dynamics that are fundamental to effective team performance.

3. Discuss strategies for not emerging as a leader.

4. Discuss four strategies for emerging as a leader.

5. Discuss the benefits of the appointed leader as opposed to an emergent leader.

6. Would you personally rather work in a group with an emergent leader or an appointed leader? Why?

7. When is a group a team?

8. Critique the classroom methodology of “group projects.”

9. Discuss three qualities that seem most important to effective team leadership.

10. Discuss the benefits of the SDWT.

11. Explain the “container approach” to organizational life.

12. Why are workers at Disneyland called “cast members?”

13. Explain “rites of passage” in terms of organizational culture.

14. Explain the Pygmalion effect.

15. Explain the Galatea effect.

16. Defend the statement: “Communication is the organization.”

17. Relate stories as an element of organizational culture to the idea of “fantasy building.”

18. Agree or disagree with the statement: “In fact, one can argue that the only thing of real importance that leaders do is to create and manage culture and that the unique talent of leaders is their ability to understand and work with culture.”

19. How does a leader prepare for crisis in an organization?

20. You are the CEO of a major organization that has just been caught by the media in a significant untruth related to an organizational crisis. What is your next step?

 

VIDEO (By Sunday)

 

E-Dreams is a documentary about a bankrupt company Kozmos.com. Discuss Kozmos.com, which was a delivery system. They delivered products for free, which means they had to have backers to support them, such as Amazon and Starbucks.  It strikes me that the whole things operate on air. To read about the company and its collapse, see or enter key words into an Internet search. Rent the video or view a segment from E-Dreams:  Kozmo.com, click here.

 

Week 4 QUANTITATIVE REASONING Leadership Behaviors Ranking 

Rationale:  Generally, mathematics in college math classes focuses on calculation.  Mathematics in the social sciences, however, focuses on interpretation.  In communication studies, you need to know how to use software that will calculate and show you results.  Then you need to take the next inferential reasoning step to interpret the results. 

Learning Outcome:  Interpret LPI results.

Assignment:  Consider this table of a subject's results in the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI).  Write an interpretation of one of the five principles and suggest a strategy of communication behavioral change to the subject.

This table shows the ranking, from most frequent ("high") to least frequent ("low") of all 30 leadership behaviors based on the average Observers' score. A horizontal line separates the 10 least frequent behaviors from the others. An asterisk (*) next to the Observer score indicates that the Observer score and the Self score differ by more than plus or minus 1.5.

 

High                                        Practice                               Self  Observer

14.Treats others with dignity and respect     Enable                 9     9.8

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

24.Gives people choice about how to do their  Enable              9     9.3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

9. Actively listens to diverse points of view Enable                  10     9.3

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

30.Gives team members appreciation and        Encourage        7     9.2 *

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. Praises people for a job well done         Encourage              5     9.2 *

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

19.Supports decisions other people make       Enable              7     9.0 *

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

1. Sets a personal example of what is         Model                 10     8.9

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

11.Follows through on promises and            Model                10     8.9

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

29.Ensures that people grow in their jobs     Enable               10     8.9

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

27.Speaks with conviction about meaning of    Inspire              9     8.9

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8. Challenges people to try new approaches    Challenge        10     8.5

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

23.Makes certain that goals, plans, and       Challenge             8     8.5

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

16.Asks for feedback on how his/her actions   Model               5     8.4 *

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. Makes certain that people adhere to        Model                   5     8.4 *

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

10.Expresses confidence in people's abilities Encourage          8     8.3

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4. Develops cooperative relationships         Enable                   5     8.2 *

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22.Paints "big picture" of group aspirations  Inspire                  6     8.2 *

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26.Is clear about his/her philosophy of       Model                     5     8.1 *

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15.Creatively rewards people for their        Encourage               9     7.8

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2. Talks about future trends influencing our  Inspire                   5     7.8 *

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25.Finds ways to celebrate accomplishments    Encourage       8     7.7

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Seeks challenging opportunities to test    Challenge            10     7.6 *

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20.Recognizes people for commitment to shared Encourage     5     7.5 *

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18.Asks "What can we learn?"                  Challenge               7     7.2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

13.Searches outside organization for          Challenge              7     7.0

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28.Experiments and takes risks                Challenge             10     6.8 *

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12.Appeals to others to share dream of the    Inspire                7     6.8

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17.Shows others how their interests can be    Inspire               5     6.6 *

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. Describes a compelling image of the future Inspire               5     6.4

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

21.Builds consensus around organization's     Model                5     6.2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Low   * Difference between Observers' and Self rating was greater than 1.5 © Copyright 2003 James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner.  Published by Pfeiffer. All rights reserved.

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

The Single Question Format
Evaluating Your Team's Talk
Organizational Identification Questionnaire

 

Futher Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

SDWT's: A Team Effort:  The promise of teams isn't achieved
without attention to skills and training, by Rudy M. Yandrick  here.

Reinventing Corporate Culture:
The Key to Driving Successful Transformation Initiatives here.

Recasting Groupthink as a Consequence of Ineffective Leadership: Is Cohesion the Problem or the Solution?  Cartwright Stephens here.


 

Week 5 Reading Summary:  CHALLENGE THE PROCESS Please come to
class discussion
prepared!

Week Learning Outcomes: 

a.  Identify basic communication and leadership research principles through the Hackman and Johnson textbook and other relevant materials (e.g., books, journal articles).

  • Predict global leadership challenges for the future.

  • Describe the relationship between leadership and culture.

  • Compare and contrast leadership style models across cultures.

  • Identify or define the impact of transformational leadership in varying cultural contexts.

  • Explain how national and regional cultural differences may affect leadership.

  • Anticipate ethical issues of leadership and followership across cultures.

b.  Measure and analyze your communication and leadership behaviors by completing measures found in the Hackman and Johnson textbook and the LPI.

c.  Implement more effective leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner Five Principles and other course materials.

  • Work through LPI Planner and Workbook

  • Find ways to enable others.

The image “http://www.scoreitsoccer.com/img/Teamwork.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo credit

 

 

Kouzes & Posner Unit 4  Challenge the Process.

Directly quoted or closely adapted.  Provided only for use by enrolled students who purchased the course materials.

Leaders are pioneers--people who are willing to step out into the unknown.  The leader's primary contribution is in the recognition of good ideas, the support of those ideas, and the willingness to challenge the system to get new products, processes, services , and systems adopted.  Leaders know well that innovation and change all involve experimentation, risk, and failure.

Commitment:  Search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change, grow, and improve.  Experiment and take risks by constantly generating small wins and learning from mistakes.

 

Search for Opportunities

Seize the Initiative

 

5 minute write:  Write about a specific example of your personal best leadership experience

-----

The most frequently used words:  challenging, rewarding, and exciting

  • Words signifying conviction:  dedication, intensity, commitment, determination, persistence

  • Words signifying passion:  inspiring, uplifting, motivating, energizing

  • Also used:  unique, important, proud, and empowering.

-----

Proactive people tend to work harder at what they do.  They persist in achieving their goals.

 

Leaders must be agents of change.

 

Leadership and challenge are inextricably linked.  The leaders people admire are ones who have the courage of their convictions.

 

Leaders must be innovator to navigate their organizations into and through the New Economy.

 

The opportunity to change the business-as-usual environment is fertile soil for leadership.

 

External and internal communication are key.  Let ideas flow in from the outside.

 

Photo credit

 

Search for opportunities by seeking innovative ways to change, grow, and improve

  1. Treat every job as an adventure.

  2. Seek meaningful challenges for yourself.

  3. Find and create meaningful challenges for others.

  4. Add fun to everyone's work.

  5. Question the status quo.

  6. Renew your teams.

  7. Create an open-source approach to searching for opportunities.

  8. Send everyone shopping for ideas.  Make idea gathering part of your daily, weekly, and monthly schedule.  Make sure you devote at least 25% of every weekly staff meeting listening to outside ideas for improving processes and technologies and developing new products and services.

Experiment and Take Risks

 

Whenever leaders experiment with innovative ways of doing things, they put themselves and others at risk.  We must do the things we think we cannot.

 

Exemplary leaders need to:

  • Initiate incremental steps and small wins.  Getting ourselves and others to change old mindsets and habits and substitute new ones--and commit to them, long term--is daunting.  Small wins build commitment to a course of action.  Small wins deter opposition because it's hard to argue against success.  Massive overhauls and gigantic projects often to fail.

  • Learn from mistakes  

  • Promote psychological hardiness.  Approach stress positively, with psychological hardiness.  These people have a strong sense of control, strong commitment, feel strong in challenge.

Experiment and take risks by constantly generating small wins and learning from mistakes.

  • Set up little experiments and develop models.

  • Make it safe for others to experiment.

  • Break mindsets (question routines, challenge assumptions, appreciate diversity, look at changing perspectives).

  • Break it up and break it down. Move forward incrementally.

  • Give people choices and they'll be more committed.  People need to feel ownership in order to exercise responsibility.

  • Accumulate yeses.  Yes is a magical word and a powerful tool for brining people closer.  Be on the lookout for opportunities to say yes.

  • Admit your mistakes.

  • Conduct a pre- and post-mortem on every project.  What did we well or poorly?  What did we learn?  How can we do better?

The image “http://organicleadership.files.wordpress.com/2007/03/bald-eagle-flight1.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo Credit

 

 

Directly quoted or adapted from Hackman and Johnson, Chapter 9 Public Leadership and Chapter 10 Leadership and Diversity

 

Public leaders influence the attitudes and behaviors of large audiences at all levels of society.  These leaders use public relations activities, public address, and persuasive campaigns to shape public opinion.  Outstanding public relations programs share a number of elements.  They recognize the necessity of effective performance before any publicity campaign.  They also serve the interest of the public, involve two-way communication, shape policy, and take a proactive stance. 

 

Effective public speeches are based on

  • careful pre-speech planning (deciding on a mode of delivery, audience analysis)

  • clear organization (developing a thesis statement, arranging and linking ideas)
    clear, vivid, and appropriate language

  • extensive rehearsal

  • delivery that appears natural and creates a sense of immediacy

  • skillful anticipation and response to questions after the presentation is over.

 

A persuasive campaign consists of a series of messages aimed at changing the beliefs and behaviors of others.  To have a significant impact, campaigns must pretest their messages and identify market segments

  • expose a large portion of the audience to campaign messages

  • use the media most accessible to target groups

  • rely on the media to raise awareness

  • utilize interpersonal communication to bring about behavior change

  • employ high credibility sources

  • direct messages at individual needs

  • emphasize positive rewards rather than prevention.

 

There are six steps or stages to any type of persuasive campaign:

  • situation analysis

  • objectives

  • strategies

  • budget

  • implementation

  • evaluation

 

Collaborative leaders focus on the decision-making process instead of promoting a particular solution.  They have little formal power but get discussions started, help the group reach agreement, and work with other participants to implement the solution.  Successful collaboration:

  • Good timing and a clear need.

  • Strong stakeholder groups.

  • Broad-based involvement
    Credible and open process.

  • Participation of high level, visible community leaders.

  • Formal support.

  • Ability to overcome mistrust and skepticism.

  • Strong leadership of the process.

  • Celebration of ongoing achievement.

  • Shift to broader concerns.

 

The image “http://www.100plusposters.com/images/LeadershipEagle.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo Credit

 

In high-context cultures, members prefer indirect or covert messages and determine meaning based largely on the context or setting.  In low-context cultures, members communicate through overt messages and embed much more information in the language used to construct the message.  Five values dimensions have been used to analyze cultures:

  • power distance (how societies deal with inequities)
     

  • individualism-collectivism (the relative emphasis on the individual or the group)
     

  • masculinity-femininity (the definition and differentiation of sex roles)
     

  • uncertainty avoidance (the extent to which people feel uncomfortable in unstructured situations)
     

  • long-term-short-term orientation (the extent to which societies sacrifice immediate gratification).

The image “http://www.translationsandmore.com/assets/welcome_mat.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo credit

Successful leaders recognize and respond in cultural differences, striving for cultural synergy.  In cultural synergy, decision-makers draw upon the diversity of the group and cultural awareness to produce and implement a better than expected solution.

 

The benefits of fostering diversity include cost savings, improved resource acquisition and utilization, greater market share, better decision making, and higher creativity.  Obstacles to diversity operate at the personal, group, and institutional levels.  Individuals engage in prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping.  Group members often suffer from ethnocentrism and experience conflicts based on cultural differences.  Institutions sponsor practices that limit the progress of minorities.  Organizations that have been the most successful at promoting diversity rely on a variety of strategies aimed at making existing leaders accountable for diversity progress, helping nontraditional employees develop leadership skills, and recruiting more diverse members.  Aspiring minority executives need to choose recruiting more diverse members.  Aspiring minority executives need to choose high quality experiences over fast advancement in organizations that match their goals and have good diversity track records.

 

The percentage of women in leadership positions shrinks with every step up the organizational and societal ladder, creating a gender leadership gap.  This gap is not the result of differences in male and female leadership behavior; it is generated largely by gender role stereotypes.  Gender typing keeps some women from seeking leadership positions, lowers the self-confidence of others, limits females to service roles, encourages tokenism, and limits the range of acceptable behavior for females.  To narrow the gender leadership gap, women may need to confront differences in male and female communication styles that keep them from getting the credit they deserve.  However, it is important to remember that outstanding leaders of both sexes display both masculine and feminine characteristics.

Global Leadership Perspective

Linear organizational structure are best suited for Euro-American speakers and audiences who reason in a systematic, step-by-step fashion.  Configural patterns may work better in Native American, Latino, and Eastern cultures.  Configural patterns include:

  • narrative

  • web (idea emanate from core or central point)

  • problem-no solution

  • multiple perspective

  • wave (lead up to crests and a series of waves)

  • spiral (series of examples or narratives, each more dramatic)

  • star (choice points of emphasis according to the audience)

 

Friedman says there are three ways to reconcile globalization with respect for the needs of local peoples:

1.  Encourage nations to provide more access to capital that will allow the poor to get into business for themselves.

2.  Provide retraining for new jobs to help those hurt by rapid change to recover.

3.  Provide assistance when needed (welfare, food aid, subsidized housing).

These economic tactics must be accompanied by political changes if they are to make a difference.  It is hard to participate in the global economy without reliable systems.

Week 5 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 

Week 5.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

1. Define the six primary elements of effective public speaking.

2. Discuss the five types of persuasive campaigns.

3. Describe three characteristics of a successful persuasive campaign.

4. What is collaborative leadership?

5. List the ten factors Chrislip and Larson identified necessary for successful collaboration.

6. Why is eye contact between public speaker and audience members so important in Western culture?

7. Agree or disagree with Thomas Carlyle’s suggestion that history is essentially the story of “heroic leaders.”

8. Discuss the attributes of a successful public relations program.

9. Which type of leadership discussed in this chapter would more likely lead to substantive change in gun ownership laws in the United States?

10. What are the negatives associated with the collaborative style of leadership?

11. Describe psychologist James Rest’s definition of “moral sensitivity.”

12. What is the challenge of deceit and how is deceit misused by leaders?

13. How does sociologist Amitai Etzioni define the collective responsibilities of a community?

14. Discuss criticisms of the communitarian movement.

15. What is servant leadership?

 

16. Correlate Kant’s categorical imperative with the words of George Orwell, “Most people wish to be good, but not all the time.”

17. When is it proper to disobey the laws of one’s society?

18. What do you see as the trend of ethics in American society?

19. Is truth in the philosophical sense absolute or relative? Defend your answer.

20. Who has the greatest obligation: leader or follower?

 

ONLINE

PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP (Due Sunday)

Emphasize the reading for this week.

VIDEO (Due Sunday)

QUANTITATIVE REASONING (Due Sunday)

 

Try to complete the postings by the days indicated.  Online posts are typically brief (less than 100 words).  You will want to check back and respond to other students during the week.  Expect access to disappear on Monday following the week the postings are due. 

Photo credit:  http://www.p-rposters.com/

Week 5 PRE-READING

CELEBRATIONS AND ENCOURAGEMENT

Here is an area some students said is problematic. Let’s brainstorm to generate some ideas about how we can reward the successes of our coworkers.  Here are a few thoughts to help us get started.

Frame someone’s work and hang in my office. Go out to eat with a coworker. Travel together with a coworker. Cover for a coworker while he or she takes time off. Give a coworker a small, no-cost or inexpensive gift. Write a note of thanks. Look a colleague in eye and give a compliment. Relay a compliment about a coworker to the supervisor. Relay a compliment you overheard about your coworker to that coworker. Ask for help because you want to learn.

Week 5 ENRON (Due Friday)

Defend this statement:  "Enron's executives were NOT leaders as we define the word in US organizational culture."

 

Enron Photo Credit here.  

Week 5 QUANTITATIVE REASONING

Rationale:  "Research suggests that students in social sciences like communication studies "need practice expressing verbally the quantitative meanings of both problems and solutions.  They need to be able to write fluently in complete sentences and coherent paragraphs; to explain the meaning of data, tables, graphs, and formulas; and to express the relations among these different representations" (Sheen, 2007, p. 12).   Steen, L. A.  (2007, November).  How mathematics counts.  Educational Leadership, 9-14.

Learning Outcome:  To interpret LPI data to provide a basis for suggesting changes in communication behavior.

Assignment: Write an explanation of what the data on this table mean.

This table compares a subject’s Self scores and those of their Observers to the scores of several thousand people who have taken this version of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The horizontal lines at the 30th and 70th percentiles divide the graph into three segments, roughly approximating a normal distribution of scores.  Using percentile ranks is a method of ranking each score on the continuum of the normal distribution.  Percentile ranks are scores that express the percentage of people who scored as well as or lower than a given person's score.  Percentiles range from the 99.9th percentile to less than the 1st percentile. A percentile of 50 is average.  If you have questions about what “percentile” means, go back to week/unit 1 lecture.  S=Self and O=Other  Scroll down to see table.

 

 

 

Model

Inspire Vision

Challenge Process

Enable Act

Encourage Heart

99

 

 

 

 

 

90

 

 

 

 

 

80

 

 

S

O

 

70

 

 

 

 

 

60

O

 

 

 

O

50

 

O

O

S

 

40

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

S

 

 

S

20

S

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

     

        © Copyright 2003 James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner.  Published by Pfeiffer.  All rights reserved.

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

Nonverbal Immediacy Scale
Diversity Profile

 

Futher Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

Five guiding principles of culture management: A synthesis of best practice. By: McAleese, Donna; Hargie, Owen. Journal of Communication Management, Nov2004, Vol. 9 Issue 2, p155-170

The Myth of Servant-Leadership: A Feminist Perspective. By: Eicher-Catt, Deborah. Women & Language, Spring2005, Vol. 28 Issue 1, p17-25

Rhetoric, Patriarchy & War: Explaining the Dangers of "Leadership" in Mass Culture. By: Clark, Mary E. Women & Language, Fall2004, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p21-28

2003 KEYNOTE ADDRESS: COMMUNICATION, WOMEN, AND LEADERSHIP. By: Pearson, Judy C.; Trent, Judith S.. Communication Studies, Summer2004, Vol. 55 Issue 2, p400-406

Leadership and Gender in Public Relations: Perceived Effectiveness of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles. By: Aldoory, Linda; Toth, Elizabeth. Journal of Public Relations Research, Apr2004, Vol. 16 Issue 2, p157-183


 

 

Week 6 Reading Summary

ENABLE OTHERS TO ACT

Please come to
class discussion
prepared!

Week's Learning Outcomes: 

a.  Identify basic communication and leadership research principles through the Kouzes and Posner materials and other relevant materials (e.g., books, journal articles).

  • Reconstruct personal attitudes, knowledge, skills, and values through interactive dialog with peers (or professor) about research-based principles. 

  • Demonstrate active learning as a change agent by construction a plan and implementing appropriate behavioral change (synthesis).

  • Evaluate principles of ethical leadership used in the course project (core assessment assignment). 

  • Analyze the results of communication and leadership measures.

b.  How do you measure up?  Measure and analyze your communication and leadership behaviors by completing measures found in the Hackman and Johnson textbook and the LPI.

c.  Implement more effective leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner Five Principles, particularly in encouraging the heart.

  • Work through LPI Planner and Workbook

  • Find ways to encourage the heart.

  • FINAL DEADLINE:  Finalize your LPI work, 10 measures from Hackman and Johnson, and plan for more effective personal leadership.

 

Kouzes & Posner Enable Others to Act.

 

Directly quoted or closely adapted from Kouzes & Posner.  For use only by enrolled students who have purchased the book.

Exemplary leaders enable others to act.  They foster collaboration and build trust.  Leaders make it possible for others to do good work.

 

Commitment:  Foster collaboration by promoting cooperative goals and building trust.  Strengthen others by sharing power and discretion.

 

Collaboration improves performance.

 

Create a climate of trust:

  • Trusting others pays off.

  • Be open to influence.

  • Make yourself vulnerable.

  • Listen, listen, listen.

Facilitate positive interdependence

  • Develop cooperative goals and roles.

  • Support norms of reciprocity.

  • Reward joint effort.

 

Support face-to-face interactions

Sustain ongoing interaction

Link to the human network.  Socially and professionally, we need other people.

Connect others to sources of power

Share information and resources.

Develop social awareness and social skills.  Emotional intelligence is no passing fad.

Collaboration

  • Conduct a collaboration audit.

  • Be the first to trust.  Disclose information.  Admit mistakes.  Acknowledge the need for personal improvement.   Ask for positive and negative feedback.  Listen attentively to others.  Invite all interested parties to important meetings.  Share useful information.  Acknowledge the contribution of others.  Avoid talking negatively about others.  Say "We can trust them," and mean it!

  • Ask questions, listen, and take advice.

  • Create jigsaw groups.  Organize in a way that gives each person a piece of the puzzle.  Every person is essential to the accomplishment of the final result.  We think lower performers will do better.

  • Focus on gains, not losses.

  • Make a list of alternative currencies.

  • Take a lot of human moments.  The most genuine way to demonstrate that you care is to spend time with them.

  • Create places and opportunities for information interactions.

 

Your Plan

 

Plan:

Put a couple of chairs outside my cubicle to encourage conversation.

Be sure the coffee and shared resources are in a central place.

Hold ten-minute stand up meetings.

Hold regular group meetings at established times.

Start formal meetings with 5 or 10 minutes of community building.

Make sure there's food in the middle of the table during meetings.

Hold small celebrations in very public places.

Move your office to the furthest spot from the restroom so you have to walk by everyone.

Rotate team leadership so everyone gets a turn.

 

Strengthen Others

 

Generate power all around.

I made the decision on my own.

Asked to take on a project for which I didn't have the experience.

Supported my idea without question.

Told to go ahead.

Planted the seed.

Data were shared with me.

 

Feeling powerful means feeling able, and comes from a deep sense of being in control of life.

 

Powerfully engaged people:

  • I know what is expected.

  • Do what I do best every day.

  • Supervisor seems to care about me as a person.

  • My opinions seem to count.

  • Someone has talked to me about my progress in the last six months.

  • In the last year I've had opportunities to work, learn, and grow.

Nearly 19% of all US workers feel powerless and are actively disengaged from their workplaces.  They miss more than 3 times as many days of work as their more engaged peers.

 

Ensure self-leadership.

  • Leaders accept and act on the paradox of power:  We become most powerful when we give our own power away.

  • Power is NOT a fixed sum.

  • Give power to get power.

  • Provide choice.

  • Design in alternatives.  Only adaptive individuals and organizations will thrive.  To create increasingly adaptive systems, leaders must support more and more discretion to meet the changing demands of customers, clients, suppliers, and other stakeholders.

  • Develop competence and confidence.  Strengthening others requires up-front investments in initiatives that develop people's competencies and foster their confidence.

  • Share the data.

  • Practice problem solving.

  • Confidence provides a way.  Confidence is critical in the process of strengthening others.  just because individuals know how to do something, that doesn't necessarily mean that they will do it.  Self-confidence can affect people's performance. Having confidence and believing in your ability to handle the job, no matter how difficult, is essential in promoting and sustaining consistent efforts.  By communicating to constituents that we believe that we and they can be successful, leaders help people to extend themselves and to persevere.

  • Foster accountability.  Unless people take personal responsibility and unless they are held accountable for their own actions, we're not very inclined to want to work with them nor much inclined to cooperate in general.

Share power and discretion.

 

Exemplary leaders use their power in service of others because they know that capable and confident people perform better.

 

Offer visible support.  Becoming powerful requires getting notices.

 

Assign critical tasks.  What's critical to an organization--and what the owners should know--is dynamic and ever-changing.  What's central this year may be peripheral the next.  To stay ahead of the curve, ask yourself:

  • How can I give people more control over the resources they need to do their work?

  • How can I make sure people are connected to the information they need?

  • How can I make sure that I personally offer or acquire the support that people need to do the very best that they can?

Enrich people's jobs.

 

Use modeling to develop competencies.

 

Enlarge people's sphere of influence.  If you really want people to feel more powerful:

  • Substantially increase signature authority at all levels.

  • Remove or reduce unnecessary approval steps.

  • Eliminate as many rules as possible.

  • Decrease the amount of routine work.

  • Assign non-routine jobs.

  • Support the exercise of independent judgment.

  • Encourage creative solutions to problems.

  • Define jobs more broadly--as projects, not tasks.

  • Provide more freedom of access, vertically and horizontally, inside and outside.

Educate, educate, educate.  Create a learning climate.

 

The people who make a difference in our lives are the ones who care.

Directly quoted or closely adapted from Hackman and Johnson, Chapter 11 Ethical Leadership and Followership

Leaders face a set of six unique ethical challenges:

1.  issues related to truthfulness and the release and collection of information.

2.  the extent of their responsibility for the actions of followers

3.  use of power

4.  accumulation of social and material rewards

5.  conflicting and broken loyalties

6.  inconsistent treatment of subordinates and outsiders.

How they respond to these challenges will determine if they cast light or shadow over the lives of followers.

Four communication processes lead to ethical behavior:

  1. moral sensitivity

  2. moral reasoning

  3. moral motivation

  4. moral action

Ethical leaders are sensitive to the presence of ethical issues, make principled choices, place a high value on ethical behavior, and implement the decision no matter what the cost.

 

There are five perspectives or approaches that are particularly relevant to ethical leadership.  Kant's categorical imperative argues that decision makers ought to do what is morally right no matter what the consequences.  Certain behavior like exaggeration, lying, stealing are always wrong because we wouldn't want others to engage in them.  The premise of utilitarianism is that ethical choices should be based on their consequences.  The best decisions are those that generate the most advantages as compared to disadvantages and that benefit the greatest number of people.  Virtue ethics highlight the role of the person making ethical choices.  Leaders with high moral character (who display virtues such as courage, integrity, justice, wisdom, and generosity) are more likely to behave in an ethical manner.  Communitariaism strives to build strong, more ("civic") communities that foster character development.  Civic leaders place the common good above narrow interests.  Servant leadership suggest that viewing leadership as an opportunity to serve others encourages ethical behavior. 

 

Servant-leaders put the needs of followers before their own needs.

  • Courage (accepting a higher level of risk) is critical for those in the follower position.  Followers must
    take responsibility for themselves and the organization

  • Serve their leaders through hard work

  • Challenge leaders when they engage in destructive behaviors

  • Help leaders overcome destructive patterns and habits,

  • Leave when a leader's behaviors clash with important values or when the leader endangers others.

The image “http://www.giogroupinc.com/images/img-strategic-leadership.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Photo Credit

 

Courageous followers support their leaders through hard, often unglamorous, work.  This labor takes a variety of forms, including:

  • Helping leaders conserve their energies for their most significant tasks.

  • Organizing the flow of information from and to the leader.

  • Controlling access to the leader.

  • Defending the leader from unjust criticism.

  • Relaying a leader's messages in an accurate, effective manner.

  • Acting in the leader's name when appropriate.

  • Shaping a leader's public image.

  • Helping the creative leader focus on the most useful ideas generated.

  • Presenting options during decision making.

  • Encouraging the leader to develop a variety of relationships.

  • Preparing for crises.

  • Helping the leader and the group cope with the leader's illness.

  • Mediating conflicts between leaders.

  • Promoting performance reviews for leaders.

 

Global Leadership Perspective

Kidder suggested the following universal values of "ethical thought leaders" from around the world:

  1. love (compassion that transcends cultural and political differences)

  2. truthfulness (honesty, keeping promises, not keeping secrets)

  3. fairness (even-handedness, fair play, a concern for justice and equality)

  4. freedom (right to express ideas and act on individual conscience)

  5. unity (putting emphasis on community, solidarity, cooperation)

  6. tolerance (respect for the dignity, rights, and ideas of others)

  7. responsibility (for oneself, others, future generations)

  8. respect for life (not killing)

WEEK 6 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 

 

Week 6.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

1. How does the contemporary socialization of boys and girls affect potential gender leadership styles?

2. What is meant by the statement, “Outstanding leaders of both sexes display both masculine and feminine characteristics”?

3. Discuss the communication differences between males and females suggested by Tannen.

4. What are the basic differences between high- and low-context cultures?

5. What are the basic differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures?

6. Relate the following quotation to the study of leadership: “There are truths on this side of the Pyrenees which are falsehoods on the other.”

7. Which of the two characteristics are more important in an effective leader: masculine or feminine?

8. Agree or disagree and defend your answer in response to the statement that “[It is] absolutely necessary for a woman to have a mentor to reach the highest levels of organizational leadership.”

9. Agree or disagree and defend your answer in response to Taylor Cox’s assertion that “managing diversity is the ‘core’ of modern organizational leadership.”

10. What is the importance of understanding cultural differences as a means to develop leadership effectiveness?

 

 

ONLINE STUDENTS

PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP (Due Sunday)

VIDEO (Due Sunday)

QUANTITATIVE LOGIC (Due Sunday)

 

If I asked you what grade you deserve in this course, would you respond? 

"An A."

If not, why not!?!  Have you given less than or best?  Or do you think of yourself as less than the best?

Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

 


Photo credit:  http://www.p-rposters.com/

 

Week 6 PRE-READING

DISCUSS OR ANSWER ONE OF THE FOLLOWING

1.  Give an example of how you might enlist others, by giving an example of each of these strategies:

a.  Listen deeply to others.

b.  Discover and appeal to a common purpose.

c.  Give life to a vision by communicating expressively, so that people can see themselves in it.

2.  We want leaders with enthusiasm, with a bounce in their step, with a positive attitude.  We want to believe that we’ll be part of an invigorating journey.  We follow people with a can-do attitude, not those who give sixty-seven reasons why something can’t be done or who don’t make us feel good about ourselves or what we’re doing.  Name one thing you can be enthusiastic about right now.

3.  Whether it’s joining the lunch club or walking the plant floor, being present, paying attention, and listening to the concerns and accomplishments of others allows leaders to gather critical information about what people care about and how well they understand what’s going on in the organization.  In other words, hang out.  Name one way you can be present at work tomorrow.

 

Week 6 ENRON

 

Read and discuss Bryce chapters 41-52.  Explain how the Enron executives failed to be leaders because they failed to enable others to act.

 

Has your definition of organizational culture changed since the beginning of this course?

 

Enron Photo Credit here.

 

 

Week 6 QUANTITATIVE REASONING  Inferential Problem Solving (Dr. Aitken)

Rationale:  Measurement and calculation are part of all vocational subjects, including communication and leadership.  Tables, data, and graphs are common in research in our field.  Students in communication need to be able to make logical inferences, which is crucial to critical thinking and problem solving.  Steen, L. A.  (2007, November).  How mathematics counts.  Educational Leadership, 9-14.

Learning Outcome:  Use analysis and inference in problem solving.

Assignment:  Solve the problem using the written information to fill in table elements.  Then use inferential reasoning to complete other parts of the table.

 

The communication team at Park University is a diverse group of talented people.  As team leader, you need to figure out if new assignments and skills match well.  Figure out who is doing what and if you should re-assign tasks.

Eduardo, Betty, Bart, Shaniqua, and Rong have new work assignments (in no particular order) of Blog-moderator, F2F-sales, Report-writer, Supervisor-advertising, and Speech-writer.  These five new assignments should be coordinated with certain skills (again, in no particular order), which are Presenter, Persuader, Writer, Researcher, and Networker.  From the clues given, try to determine what are the skills and the new assignments for each person and decide if reassignments s.

 

1,  No new assignment begins with the same letter as that of the person’s name who has that assignment.

2.  The Report-writer is not Bart's new assignment or Shaniqua's new assignment.

3.  The Speech-writer and the person who has the Researcher skill both have names beginning with the same letter.

4.  Neither Eduardo's new assignment nor Betty's new assignment is also the Persuader, nor is the Supervisor-advertising also the Persuader.

5.  Bart's new assignment and the Networker are not assigned to be Supervisor-advertising or Speech-writer.

6.  Rong's skill is not a Writer.

 

Skill

Presenter

Persuader

Writer

Researcher

Networker

New Assignment

Blog-moderator

F2F-sales

Report-writer

Supervisor-advertising

Speech-writer

Eduardo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shaniqua

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Assignment

Blog-moderator

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F2F-sales

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Report-writer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supervisor-advertising

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Speech-writer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

Perceived Leadership Integrity Scale

 

Futher Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

 Leadership Values:  Leader Values and discuss ideas of value you discover:  here.

Teaching ethical leadership in an unethical time.  here. 

Reinforcing Ethical Decision Making Through Corporate Culture
AYS Chen, RB Sawyers, PF Williams - Journal of Business Ethics, 1997 - Springer

A conceptual model of corporate moral development
RE Reidenbach, DP Robin - Journal of Business Ethics, 1991 - Springer

 

Week 7 Reading Summary:  ENCOURAGE THE HEART

 

 

Week 7 Reading Summary on the Future


 

 

Learning Outcome:

  • Implement your plan for leadership improvement.

  • Synthesize Kouzes and Posner information.

  • Identify and predict global leadership challenges for the future.

  • Finalize your definition of leadership and culture.

 

Directly quoted or closely adapted from Kouzes & Posner. Encourage the Heart.

 

Genuine acts of caring uplift the spirits and draw people forward.  Encouragement is curiously serious business.

Commitment:  Recognize contributions by showing appreciation for individual excellence.  Celebrate the values and victories by creating a spirit of community.

 

Recognize contributions

 

Focus on clear standards.  Goals keep our eye on the prize.  People feel best about themselves and what they do when they voluntarily do something.  People feel worst when what they do is motivated by not having anything else to do.

  • Standards concentrate us.

  • Feedback keeps us engaged.

  • Encouragement is feedback.

 

Expect the best.

Successful leaders have high expectations, both of themselves and of their constituents.

Bosses are often complicit in an employee's lack of success because they set up underachievers to fail.

The leader's expectations have their strongest and most powerful influence in times of uncertainty and turbulence.

 

High expectations lead to high performance.

 

Visualize positive images.

 

Before we can lead, we have to believe in others, and we have to believe in ourselves.

Pay attention.  One way of showing you care is to pay attention to people, to what they are doing, and to how they are feeling.

 

When managers are constantly looking for problems they get a distorted view of reality, production declines, and their credibility hits bottom.

 

Controlling managers have low credibility.  Highly controlling behaviors--inspecting, correcting, checking up--signal lack of trust.  How do you respond to people who don't trust you"  You don't trust them.

 

When you see yourself as a caring leader, you act differently than you do when you see yourself as a controller.

Learning to understand and see things from another's perspective to walk in their shoes--is absolutely crucial to building trusting relations and to career success.

 

Proximity is the single best predictor of whether two people will talk to one anothr.  You have to get close to people if you're going to communicate.

 

Be a friend.  In terms of decision-making assignments, groups of friends were over 20 percent more effective than groups of acquaintances were.

 

Disclosing information about ourselves can be risky.

 

Personalize recognition:

  • Recognition is too often highly predictable, routine, and impersonal.  A one size fits all approach to recognition feels disingenuous, forced, and thoughtless.

  • Use a variety of rewards.

  • Leaders are constantly on the lookout for ways to spread the psychological benefits of making people feel like winners, because winners contribute in important ways to the success of their projects.

  • The extent to which recognition and rewards are applied to each individual in a personal (rather than an impersonal) manner also explains a lot about how leaders and their organizations get a motivational bang for their buck (or not) from recognizing people's contributions.

 

Show appreciation for individual excellence.

By paying attention, offering encouragement, personalizing appreciation, and maintaining a positive outlook leaders stimulate, rekindle, and focus people's energies and drive.

  • Be creative about rewards.

  • Make recognition public.

  • Provide feedback en route.

  • Be a Pygmalion.  Treating people in a friendly, pleasant, and positive fashion and being attentive to their needs--behavior that reflects your high expectations of them--produces increased performance

 

Positive expectations includes high respect for people of different backgrounds.

  • Make the recognition presentation meaningful.

  • Find people who are doing things right.

  • Don't be stingy about saying thank you.

 

Celebrate the values and victories

  • Create a spirit of community.  Extraordinary performance is the result of many people's efforts.

  • Tell the story.  Stories by their nature are public forms of communication.  We pass along lessons from generation to generation, culture to culture.  Stories aren't meant to be kept private; they're meant to be told.  They're tailor made for celebrations.

  • Set the example

Example behaviors for plan:

 

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Photo credit

  • Schedule celebrations.

  • Install a public bragging board.

  • Create a commemorative award honoring exemplary actions.

  • Demonstrate caring by walking around.

  • Show passion and compassion.

  • Be a cheerleader--your way.

  • Have fun.

  • Plan a celebration right now.

  • Make up some rectangular labels from MyOwnLabels.com, put them on Altoids, and give them out with thank you notes about what I appreciate about each person.

  • Create and publish a zapping complement booklet or mug or something--to make compliments about their major projects public--for each team member using CafePress.com

  • Analyze job descriptions and ask staff the tasks they like to do.  See if trades or modifications can help bring the tasks in line with what each person wants to do.

  • Make sure I give concrete feedback to each person this week so everyone knows how I see their progress toward goals.

  • Find a way to genuinely care and show that I care to each person on the staff, perhaps one person per week.

  • Expect more of myself and others.

  • Show that I have trust and confidence in the job each person is doing.

  • Spend some time visualizing with the team, describing our future, and potential success.

  • Pay attention to what people are doing and how they are feeling.  Jot down notes if I need to in order to remember and follow up with questions another day.

  • Stop looking for trouble and look for the positive.  Build myself and others up.

  • Stop inspecting, correcting, and checking up by showing trust and asking for input.

  • Take time to put myself in another's perspective.  Demonstrate caring by walking around, talking to people, observing, and listening.

  • Be a friend.

  • Come up with unpredictable recognition.  No more one-size fits all, but personalize!

  • When something fantastic happens, I will comment right away.

  • Keep a positive approach toward others and make my recognition public.  Be friendly, pleasant, positive, and attentive to needs.

  • Say thank you more often.  Write two thank you notes every Friday.

  • Tell positive and engaging stories to celebrate the success of others.

  • Create a ritual or celebration I will do once a month.

  • Create a bragging bulletin board.

 

Directly quoted from Hackman and Johnson, Chapter 12

Leadership development is a lifelong process.

Establishing connections with those who can help you achieve your goals will greatly increase your chances of emerging as a leader in an organizational context. The most beneficial relationships are with mentors.

Stephen Covey's Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

Habit 1: Be proactive.

Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind.

Habit 3: Put first things first.

Habit 4: Think win / win

Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood.

Habit 6: Synergize--create a solution that is greater than the sum of its parts. Creative solutions can only come out of trusting relationships where participants value their differences.

Habit 7: Sharpen the saw through continual renewal of the physical, social/emotional, spiritual, and mental dimensions of the self. Healthy leaders take care of themselves.

Kevin Cashman's Leadership from the Inside Out

  • Pathway One: Personal Mastery is the ongoing commitment to exploring who you are.

  • Pathway Two: Purpose Mastery is learning how you make a difference.

  • Pathway three: Change mastery is letting go of old patterns and taking a fresh approach and be creative.

  • Pathway Four: Interpersonal Mastery focuses on interpersonal competencies and building relationships.

  • Pathway Five: Being Mastery involves using periods of peace and silence to understand one's inner most depths of character and being.

  • Pathway Six: Balance Mastery is taking time for self, family, and friends to maintain balance.

 

Buy this poster

John Gabarro uses the term "taking charge" to describe how newly appointed managers become leaders.

40% of newly promoted managers and 60% of senior leaders appointed from outside the organization have to be replaced within 18 months.  Newly appointed managers take charge by developing an understanding of the leadership situation, gaining acceptance as leaders, and having an impact on organizational performance. To achieve these outcomes, they engage in three types of work or processes:

  • cognitive (learning about the organization and its culture, acquiring technical knowledge, diagnosing problems, understanding issues)
     

  • organizational (developing a set of shared expectations with followers, working out conflicts, and building a cohesive management team)
     

  • interpersonal (developing good working relationships with superiors, subordinates, and peers).

Here are the stages of taking charge:

  1. Taking hold is a period of intense activity.

  2. Immersion is immersion in day-to-day operations and deeper organizational understanding. Plan for improving performance

  3. Reshaping: Implement concepts developed.

  4. Consolidation: Follow through on changes.

  5. Refinement: Major changes are in place.

Taking charge is a complex, difficult, and demanding task. Gabarro makes these suggestions to help manage transitions:

  • Recognize that taking charge takes time.

  • Develop effective working relationships immediately.

  • Assess and act on prior experience.

  • Clarify expectations.

Experts report that effective succession-planning programs share the following characteristics:

  • Participation and support of top management. When top leaders are involved, others are more likely to devote time and effort to succession concerns.

  • Include all leadership levels. Succession planning is important for low level management positions as well as for executive ones.

  • Organizational needs assessment. Organizations must decide on the direction in which they're headed before they know what types of skills their future leaders must develop.

  • Focusing on competencies means equipping people to take a variety of positions, not just the next one up the organizational ladder.

  • Accountability comes from appointing one person to oversee the succession program as well as from evaluating current leaders on how well they are preparing potential replacements.

  • Future leaders must be developed. Development tools include job rotation, training programs, and mentoring. Every employee is responsible for acquiring the competencies he or she needs to move into new leadership positions.

Global Leadership Perspective

 

Leadership development draws upon deeply rooted cultural values and is not easily transferable to other cultures.

WEEK 7 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 

Week 7.  Hackman and Johnson Study Guide (Knowledge Questions)

1. Discuss the relationship between communication and leadership. Detail specific strategies you can employ to communicate like a leader.

2. Discuss the authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire leadership communication styles. Identify the style you respond to most favorably. Provide an example of a group or organization in which you have encountered this most favorable style.

3. Identify the specific traits you associate with successful leadership. How do your perceptions influence your behavior as a follower?

4. Analyze the situational approach by identifying strengths and weaknesses in the situational framework. Provide specific examples from your own experience that either lend support for or argue against the validity of a situational approach to leadership.

5. Discuss specific actions you can undertake to develop a transformational approach to leadership. What impact might adopting the transformational approach have on a group or organization you are involved with?

6. Max DePree argues that leaders should act as “servants.” How do you respond to this assertion? How important do you feel empowerment is to successful leadership?

7. Discuss French and Raven’s Bases of Power. Which power base(es) do you use most often? Why? Are you successful at influencing others?

8. Briefly discuss the three components of leadership development.

9. Discuss Stephen Covey’s seven habits of highly effective people.

10. Discuss Kevin Cashman’s seven pathways that allow a person to lead from the inside out.

11. Select and discuss the importance of managing transition factors as identified by Professor Gabarro.

12. Identify the eight roles that mentors may fulfill.

13. What did John F. Kennedy mean by “leadership and learning are indispensable to one another”?

14. How can you detect a leader who has quit learning about leadership?

15. Why are books on leadership apparently so popular at this time in American culture?

16. Are pop culture figures legitimate leaders?

17. How does the current political leadership in America add to youthful cynicism regarding politics?

18.  What is the most important leadership theory presented in this course and why?

19.  What research principle or theory can most profoundly improve a person's leadership?

20.  What is an example of a theoretical research principle you observed in practice--or in need of practice--this week? 

 

ONLINE STUDENTS

No posting required, although participation is welcome! 

 

Remember to focus on your Core Assessment Plan's implementation in this Week's work.  

 

Students who failed to post during an earlier week may provide additional posts here regarding this week's readings.

Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Photo credit

 

Week 7 PRE-READING

Agree or disagree?

 

“The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.”

Colin Powell (1937 - )

Week 7 ENRON

 

Discuss the lack of ethics, and lack of communication and leadership behaviors of one of the key people in the Enron scandal.

Any final conclusions about the lack of leadership the Enron case demonstrates?

Enron Photo Credit here.

 

Measures for Completion and Reflection

 

Protégé Checklist

 

Futher Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.

Zen and the Art of Followership, by Jane Carrigan here.

PRINCIPLE CENTERED LEADERSHIP by Stephen R. Covey

 

Week 8 Reading Summary

EVERYONE AS LEADER

 

 

 

Week's Learning Outcomes: 

a.  Identify basic communication and leadership research principles through the Kouzes& Posner model and other relevant materials (e.g., books, journal articles).

  • Explain how you have changed your behaviors during this course to meet the Kouzes and Posner model.

  • Demonstrate knowledge and respect for leadership and communication theory and research through mastery level achievement of the final exam. 

b.  Reflect on how you implemented more effective leadership behaviors based on the Kouzes and Posner Five Principles and other course materials.

 

 

 

Photo credit

Directly quoted or closely adapted from Kouzes & Posner.  Unit 7 Leadership for Everyone

 

Leadership is everyone's business.  It's a myth that leadership is associated with position.  Ordinary people can become extraordinary leaders. 

 

Leadership is learned.

 

You don't conquer your organization.  You don't conquer leadership.  You conquer your own doubts and fears about leading.

 

People most frequently seen by others as better leaders:

  1. They're more effective in meeting job-related demands.

  2. They're more successful in representing their units to upper management.

  3. They create higher-performing teams.

  4. They foster renewed loyalty and commitment.

  5. They increase motivational levels and the willingness to work hard.

  6. They promote higher levels of involvement in schools.

  7. They enlarge the size of their congregations.

  8. They raise more money and expand gift-giving levels.

  9. They extend the range of their agency's services.

  10. They reduce absenteeism, turnover, and dropout rates.

  11. They possess high degrees of personal credibility.

LEADERSHIP has been shown to account for improved performance as measured by a variety of factors: 

  • net income

  • sales

  • profits

  • net assets

  • employee commitment

  • job satisfaction

  • role clarity

  • employee turnover

  • achievement of company goals

  • teamwork

Learning to lead is about discovering what you care about and value.  About what inspires you.  About what challenges you.  About what gives you power and competence.  About what encourages you.  When you discover these things about yourself, you'll know what it takes to lead those qualities out of others.

Moral goals of leadership

  • Releasing human potential

  • Balancing the needs of the individual and the community

  • Defending the fundamental values of the community

  • Instilling in individuals a sense of initiative and responsibility

Any leadership practice can become destructive.

 

It's easy to be seduced by power and importance.

 

Humility is the only way to resolve the conflicts and contradictions of leadership.

 

Constituents look for leaders who

  • demonstrate an enthusiastic and genuine belief in the capacity of others

  • who strengthen people's will

  • who supply the means to achieve

  • who express optimism for the future

THE SECRET TO SUCCESS IN LIFE

The secret to success is to stay in love.  The best-kept secret of successful leaders is love:  Staying in love with leading, with the people who do the work, with what their organizations produce, and with those who honor the organization by using its work.

Worth repeating?!?!

 

Here are some key points from the last section, which are worth reviewing.

People feel best about themselves and what they do when they voluntarily do something. People feel worst when what they do is motivated by not having anything else to do (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 319).

 

How do you measure up?!?!

 

Giving encouragement is more personal and positive than other forms of feedback, and it’s more likely to accomplish something that other forms cannot: Strengthening trust between leaders and constituents (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 321).

 

http://www.pod.usace.army.mil/images/I-Want-You-Flat.jpg

Photo Credit

 

Bosses typically set up perceived under-performers to fail. When there’s a problem, the manger tends to supervise and control more closely, so the employee thinks there's a lack of trust and confidence on the part of the manager (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 323).

 

The leader’s expectations have their strongest and most powerful influence in times of uncertainty and turbulence (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 323).

Before we can lead, we have to believe in others, and we have to believe in ourselves. High expectations matter (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 326).

 

Effective leaders show they care by paying attention to people, what they are doing, and how they are feeling. When looking for problems, managers get a distorted view of reality; over time, production declines; and the managers’ personal credibility hits bottom. Wandering around with an eye for trouble is likely to get you just that. More trouble (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 327).

 

Change your communication and leadership behaviors!

 

Controlling managers have low credibility. Inspecting, correcting, checking up signal lack of trust. When the manager shows a lack of trust, the employee doesn’t trust the manager (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 328).

You have to get close to people if you’re going to communicate. It means regularly walking the halls and plant floors, meeting often with small groups, and hitting the road for frequent visits with associates, key suppliers, and customers. It may even mean learning another language if a large portion of your workforce or customer base speak it (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 329).

 

http://www.mlgpro.com/images/features/teamwork.jpg

Photo credit

 

In terms of decision-making assignments, groups of friends were over 20 percent more effective than groups of acquaintances were. Friends have to be strongly committed to the group’s goals. If not, then friends may not do better (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 330).

 

Recognition is too often highly predictable, routine, and impersonal. A one-size fits-all approach to recognition feels disingenuous, forced, and thoughtless better (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 331).

 

http://web.stlawu.edu/leadership/images/leadership1.jpg

Photo Credit

 

How do you measure up to the Kouze and Posner model?

 

 

There still persists a myth that leadership is reserved for only a very few of us, when in fact, leadership is NOT associated with position.  Leadership is everyone’s business (Kouzes & Posner, 2003),  How have you changed your behaviors during this course so you measure up to the Kouzes and Posner model?

 

Ordinary people can become extraordinary leaders (Kouzes & Posner, 2003).

Photo Credit 

People who are most successful at bringing out the best in others are those who set achievable “stretch” goals and believe that they have the ability to develop the talents of others (Kouzes & Posner, 2003),

 

To become a leader, you don’t conquer your organization.  You don’t conquer leadership.  You conquer your own doubts and fears about leading (Kouzes & Posner, 2003).

 

Regarding people who work with leaders who demonstrate the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 2003), those employees or coworkers are more satisfied with their leader, feel more committed, excited, energized, influential, and powerful.  What behaviors have you implemented during this course to help your coworkers feel more committed, excited, energized, influential, and powerful?

 

Leadership has been shown to account for improved performance as measured by a variety of factors:  Net income; sales, profits, and net assets; employee commitment, job satisfaction, and role clarity; and employee turnover, achievement of company goals, and teamwork (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 390).

 

Kouzes and Posner (2003) explain that virtues can become vices.  There’s a point at which each of the Five Practices, taken to extremes, can lead you astray (p. 395).

According to U.S. Army Major General John H. Stanford, “Staying in love gives you the fire to ignite other people, to see inside other people, to have a greater desire to get things done than other people.  A person who is not in love doesn’t really feel the kind of excitement that helps them to get ahead and to lead others and to achieve.  I don’t know any other fire, any other thing in life that is more exhilarating and is more positive a feeling than love is” (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 399).  Many leaders use the word “love” freely when talking about their own motivations to lead.  Of all the things that sustain a leader over time, love is the most lasting.  What are you doing to "stay in love" and convey your excitement?

 

Successful leaders stay in love with leading, with the people who do the work, with what their organizations produce, and with those who honor the organization  by using its work.  Leadership is NOT an affair of the head.  Leadership is an affair of the heart (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 399). 

 

 “Leadership is everyone’s business” (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 383). 

 

 “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.”

Peter Drucker (1909 - 2005)

 

“A sense of humor is part of the art of leadership, of getting along with people, of getting things done.”

Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890 - 1969)

 

“Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.”

John F. Kennedy (1917 - 1963), speech prepared for delivery in Dallas the day of his assassination, November 22, 1963

 

 “Leadership is based on inspiration, not domination; on cooperation, not intimidation.”

William Arthur Wood


“The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.”

Colin Powell (1937 - )

“An empowered organization is one in which individuals have the knowledge, skill, desire, and opportunity to personally succeed in a way that leads to collective organizational success.”

Stephen R. Covey, Principle-centered Leadership

 

http://www.walkerhall.co.uk/images/training.jpg

Photo credit

 

“There is no limit to what you can do if you don’t care who gets the credit!”

UCLA Basketball Coach John Wooden

Contributed by Randy Best

  Recap

 

In this course, we sought to analyze and change your leadership potential.  Your reading materials emphasized both theory and practice because they contend that leadership is a symbolic communication process and that leaders are made, not born.  Leadership competence is the product of communication competence. 

  • Leadership is at the core of human experience and a lifelong process.

  • You compared your own behaviors to the exemplary K & P five principles of leadership.

  • We talked about the role of organizational culture in the Enron fiasco.

  • We examined leadership and followership communication styles.

  • We looked at the historical perspectives of the Michigan Leadership Studies, the Ohio State Leadership Studies, McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, and the Blake and McCanse's leadership Grid.

  • You considered an array of leadership measures in the self-analysis process.

  • When examining trait, situational, and functional leadership, we considered four situational approaches:  (a) Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership, path-Goal Theory, Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory, Leader-Member Exchange Theory.

  • Instead of the traditional transactional ional approach, we discussed the value of transformational approach to leadership.:  the creative, interactive, visionary, empowering, and passionate.  We considered perspectives on charisma:  the sociological, psychoanalytic, political, behavioral, attribution, and communication approach.  We also discussed the dark side of charisma.

  • We examined the relationship between leadership and power, a relationship that is interdependent but not interchangeable.  Components of the empowerment process include modifying the environment, supplying resources, building a sense of personal power, providing empowerment models, leading the journal, and superleadership/self/leadership.

  • We discussed the nature of leadership and influence, including building credibility, using compliance-gaining strategies, developing argumentative competence, and becoming an effective negotiators.

  • We looked at leadership in groups and teams, including meetings, group decision making, and self-directed team work.

  • We discussed leadership in a crisis and the power of expectations.

  • When studying public leadership, we considered leading public opinion through public relations, influencing audiences through public speaking, persuasive campaigns, and collaborative leadership.

  • We talked about leadership and diversity and ways to understand cultural differences, ways of fostering diversity, and the gender leadership gap.

  • We considered ethical challenges of leadership, ethical perspectives, and followership.

  • Finally we considered leadership development as a lifelong journey.  We talked about the importance of learning, gaining experience, and developing relationships.  We discussed the work of Stephen Covey and Kevin Cashman and others.

  • Through the many short and one comprehensive leadership measures you were able to analyze your own leadership skills and plan for the future.  We hope this course has given you the knowledge, skill, and values you need to plan for your future as a leader.

Buy inspirational cards, posters, awards.

Week 8 LEARNING ACTIVITIES

 

What is your definition of leadership?

 

Self-check Measure (Quiz)

 

ONLINE STUDENTS

Please post a farewell to the other students in this class.  No additional posting required.  Instead, focus on finalizing your Core Assessment and evaluating your LPI implementation and personal improvement.  Students who failed to post during an earlier week may provide additional posts here about this week's readings. 

Do you agree or disagree with this statement?

 


Photo credit:  http://www.p-rposters.com/

 

Farewell!

 

Thank you for all your effort in this course.  I hope the course was fun, but challenging and transformative so that you leave as a different and exemplary leader. 

 

I wish you much hard work and all YOUR best in the future.

 

K & P Read and discuss part 7, everyone as a leader.

 

Further Investigation

You may want to read a research article or conduct web investigation on a related topic.  

Leader-Member Relations as a Function of Rapport Management. By: Campbell, Kim Sydow; White, Charles D.; Johnson, Diane E.. Journal of Business Communication, Jul2003, Vol. 40 Issue 3, p170-194

LeadershipChallengeOnline

ChangingMinds.Org

Leadership theories: Theories of how leadership works.

Leadership styles: General approaches to leadership.

Leadership articles: Pages that do not fit in above categories.

Change Management

 

 

 

GENERAL INFORMATION FOR TENTATIVE SYLLABUS

VISION STATEMENT

Park University will be a renowned international leader in providing innovative educational opportunities for learners within the global society.

MISSION STATEMENT

The mission of Park University, an entrepreneurial institution of learning, is to provide access to academic excellence which will prepare learners to think critically, communicate effectively and engage in lifelong learning while serving a global community.

Course Description

This course analyzes the methods used by scholars and practitioners to understand leadership. Starting with the landmark leadership studies at Ohio State, numerous attempts have been made to identify the essential elements involved in leading others. This course examines assessments starting with the 1940s and concluding with current methods. An additional fee is charged. (From catalog 2005-2006)

Introduction

This course provides an advanced exploration of contemporary leadership theory and research in a global society.  This graduate course in communication is designed to help employees, managers, and administrators to measure their leadership potential and communication skills that will help them achieve more effective leadership goals.  Although based on a communication research principles, we attract non-communication majors.  Therefore, we seek to provide high quality, research-based information in a way that is welcoming to non-communication majors.

 

Strategic communication and leadership methods will be investigated through case analysis and proactive change.  Topics include the relationship between leadership and culture, leadership style, transformational leadership, charisma, corporate culture, leadership challenges in dealing with diverse populations, ethical leadership and followership, and the global leadership challenges of the future.

The course is offered in face-to-face and Web-based format with course participants working together through face-to-face collaboration or online discussion.  Those of you who have already taken online courses realize that successfully completing a course in this format will require considerable motivation and discipline. To keep up with the accelerated 8-week course content, you will need to log on at least twice a week to make sure that you are keeping pace with course assignments and discussions.  All assignments must be completed by the due date and time announced, according to your professor's expectations.

 

Whether using eCollege or eCompanion, you will want to update your antivirus program frequently—consider this mandatory. To avoid transmission of a virus, your professor may require you to submit by posting inside eCollege or as a PDF file attachment (by saving to PDF from Word).

 

Typically, you can expect an answer within a week on your questions posted in the Class Discussion:  ?? for Prof?? category and grading of assignments within one full week from the due date. If you don't hear back within a couple business days from an email, please send another email.  Although your professor may sometimes respond to questions on Saturday or Sunday, please do not expect online activity from faculty on breaks, weekends, or holidays.

 

 

Teaching Philosophy

This course is about change.  You will become your own change agent.  Although the specific teaching strategies of this course are the decision of your professor, the underlying assumption is that you will thoroughly measure and analyze your current communication and leadership behaviors, create a plan for improvement, and implement the plan. 

1.  Measurement and skill development:  We will promote skill development to encourage course participants to assess their current leadership behaviors and provide them with opportunities to plan and practice new behaviors.

2.  Application in contexts:  In this course we will examine leadership in a variety of contexts instead of limiting ourselves to the organizational setting.  Of major concern is leadership in a global society.

3.  Foundation of theoretical research:  We will seek to highlight the importance of theory and research through extensive citation and research summaries.

4.  Communication perspective:  We believe that leadership should be viewed from a communication vantage point.

 

 

ASSIGNMENT WEIGHT

(See eCollege gradebook for updates)

http://archive.cs.uu.nl/pub/AIRCRAFT-IMAGES/Thunderbirds.jpg

A Thunderbird salute to our men and women in the service. http://archive.cs.uu.nl/pub/AIRCRAFT-IMAGES/Thunderbirds.jpg

 

Assignments and grading are completely the choice of Individual professors.  This course material is designed for use by multiple professors, so you need to make sure you know your particular professor's expectations.  See exact weight in eCollege gradebook or talk to your professor.  Typically, weekly participation and discussion cannot be made-up late. 

 

Example Weight

 

30-60% Individual Leadership Analysis, Plan, and Results (Core Assessment):

Your professor may require you to submit this assignment in parts or as one whole work together. 

 

30-50% Participation and Learning Activities, which may include

  • Exemplary Leader Interview summary and oral presentation

  • Weekly assignments, knowledge question presentation, online discussion, video discussion, and class discussion board interaction.

0-20% Testing, which may include a final exam--No proctor needed for the final exam.

 

Example Scale

90 and above = A

80-89.99 = B

 

Check the sub-links on the left under "Assignments" for information about each assignment.  Click on the arrow to reveal sub-links.  "How to Submit" will explain the needed procedures for submitting your work.

Submitting Participation Assignment

For participation assignments, submit them as the content of a posting in the Discuss/Post section of the week the assignment is due.  Please do not use attachments, which require downloads that can transmit a virus.
 

Acceptable Formats

Acceptable formats include Microsoft Word  (file extension .doc), rich text format (extension .rft), text format (.txt), or PDF (.pdf).  You can probably use Word's print function to create a pdf file, which has the advantage of being unable to transmit a virus.  Please do not submit other formats, including the one requiring the LPI format.  I cannot open other formats inside eCollege.

 

Please Do NOT Email Assignments

If there's a problem, and you send an assignment as an email attachment just to meet the deadline, you will have a couple days to resubmit your assignment in the required format and location in eCollege for a grade on the assignment.  I only open student files in these formats inside eCollege because I have had student-emailed attachments infect my computer.
 

Due Date

Assignments are due online before Sunday at 11:59 PM Parkville time (Central).  Weekly units are available for use only by week in order to encourage students to interact with each other as they work through the material.  For online students, beginning at the end of week two, the week's online discussion board access will be removed (blocked) at the end of each week. 

 

Naming Files

For more information about naming and submitting assignments, see http://JoanAitken.org/Guidelines.html#SUBMITTING_ASSIGNMENTS0

 

Submission of LPI Core Assessment Assignments, including H & J Measures, Planner, and Workbook

There are a lot of individual differences in how each student is doing this assignment, and there can be differences in how students submit this material.  The main concern is it's huge, and you need to submit all elements.

 

For an electronic file for the core assessment LPI assignments, go to the "Dropbox" tab at the top of the page.  Use the pull-down menu to select the correct assignment.  Upload the document. 

 

For the final reflection, post that assignment as an email--no attachments please--in the discussion board so that all students can read.  The drop-box will be available for revisions.

 

Students have options about how to submit the core assessment materials, but you need to include the Planner and Workbook. 

 

Local students generally just delivery the whole package to my office in 229 Copley.  Online, students combine the LPI printout, Hackman and Johnson measures, and full student report into one .txt or .doc file.  If you're not submitting material by email, just upload a note to me in the dropbox explaining that you mailed or dropped of the materials.

 

For the Planner and Workbook:

  • Some students scan every page into a single PDF file.

  • Other students use postal mail to send the planner and workbook to me, and I gladly will mail the material back. 

  • Students local to Parkville usually submit the whole package of materials in a notebook or envelop to my office in 229 Copley or 203 Copley, then come back in a week to pick up the materials. 

  • Other students write all the planner and workbook answers in a Word document file using complete ideas so I know what is being discussed. 

For the Hackman and Johnson measures, I prefer the summary of each measure be integrated in your project narrative, but I also provided a dropbox if you want to submit that separately.  The drop-box will remain open for revisions.

 

I'm flexible about how you submit materials, so long as I receive all the materials and your draft is submitted by the week six deadline.

 

Dr. J. Aitken, Professor, Communication Arts
229 Copley, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Park University, Parkville, MO 64152
816-584-6785 (message/office).

 

 

Master of Arts in Communication and Leadership Program Goals Relevant to CA 670

1.  To develop the ability of students to read and conduct research and apply the principles to their own organizations.
2.  To provide a historical overview of leadership perspectives from the 1940s to the present.
3.  To combine theoretical knowledge and practical skills to resolve organizational issues and improve decision-making.

 

CA 670 Measuring Leadership Learning Outcomes

1.  Apply communication and leadership theory and research principles through leadership stories.
2.  Measure current exemplary leadership attitudes, knowledge, skills, and values through self-analysis and feedback from others.

3.  Create and implement a plan to change leadership behavior by building on strengths and skill building to respond to needs.

4.  Analyze the effectiveness of exemplary leadership practices.

5.  Conduct, read, analyze, evaluate, and apply research-based theories and principles of exemplary leadership, organizational culture, decision-making.

6.  Collaborate with others in the measurement, planning, and analysis of exemplary leadership knowledge, skills, and values.
7.  Anticipate ethical or communication issues of leadership and followership across cultures.

 

 

Leadership Project (Core Assessment) 

 

How do you measure up to the
Kouzes & Posner leadership model?!?!

 

 

This project will evolve during the course.  Measure your exemplary leadership performance, analyze your behaviors, create a plan for improvement, implement the plan, and analyze your success.  The Leadership Practices Inventory or LPI is the required inventory in Dr. Aitken's course.  Note, other professors may use other measures.  Please submit each part on the assigned date with the entire package written week 6 and an oral reflection week 8.

  • LPI printout in electronic form Week 4

  • (cannot be submitted late)

  • LPI plan  Week 5 (cannot be submitted without previously submitting LPI printout.

  • All Materials together with LPI results, analysis, Planner, Workbook, Hackman & Johnson measures:  Week 6

  • Reflection Presentation in the discussion board:  Week 8


PREPARATION

I recommend buying the Facilitator's guide to make sure you have the Software, Planner, and Workbook you need to complete the assignment due week 6.  Plan now regarding how you will do the work so you will be able to submit the following for week 6:  
    *Narrative overview that synthesizes your work to become an exemplary leader according to K & P definitions.  This element should contain all previously submitted work integrated together into a whole.
    *LPI Printout in Electronic Form.
    *Plan and implementation.
    *Synthesis overview of your results and implications from several Hackman and Johnson measures of your choice.
    *Completed Planner.
    *Completed Workbook.
    *References (minimum of K & P and H & J).

 

Begin the core assessment project week one by printing off and distributing the inventories to people you know (e.g., friends, coworkers, supervisors). Follow the LPI instructions, obtain 20 measures from co-workers and managers, and use the LPI software to generate results.  Include the software report in your project.  The only acceptable formats are .txt, .pdf, .rft or a Word document (.doc). 

 

Because this is a large body of material, think about how you will submit the materials in advance.  See "Assignment" link, "How to Submit," so that you will be prepared to submit all material by week 6.

 

The main thing is to not make people feel coerced into completing the inventories. "I'm doing this for a leadership class, and I need honest feedback so I can improve my communication skills. Please don't put your name on the form, and you can simply put it in this envelope with others. . . " Something along that line. You can download the measure from here: Other Measure  for the one you pass out and Self Measure for the one you complete on yourself. These materials are in the LPI package you purchased for the course. The scale is 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Blanks and N/A should be recorded as a 1. The instructions are in your LPI package. 

 

SUBMIT PART A WEEK 4:  LPI printout  in electronic form

Using the CD software to calculate your score is easy, although when you input the data, the 10 converts to a 0, then calculates fine.  You can save the report to a rtf (rich text format) and upload for online students.  I don't need the full report, but make sure you have the rank order of the 5 principles and the rank order of your LPI inventory items.  And write an analysis that evaluates and reflects on those results.

 

 Begin Your Plan As Soon As Possible.  Because the course moves so quickly, the earlier you have an analysis and plan, the sooner you can put the plan into place.  So, begin to create a research-based plan for change.  This substantive and behavior-specific plan will explain how you plan to improve your leadership behaviors based on the professional analysis and your learning through course materials.  Be specific. 

 

You can scan your pages as jpg files, for example, and put them in your report. Online students need to figure out a way to include the same information.

 

Obtain 20 measures.   

Make sure you ask all coworkers, supervisor(s), and reports.  Then you can fill in with people from your religious community who know you, other students in the MA program, and former co-workers, professors you have in the MA program, friends, and family.  The more measures you analyze through the software, the more accurate the picture.  You will want to separate groups in the analysis so you can tell what behaviors you need to improve in different contexts.

 

For week 4, turn in the results from at least 10 people.  You can continue to collect data. The more data you have, the more accurate the results.  Please enter the data as groups (e.g., friends, family, coworkers).  As you collect and enter more results, you can make the new results your printout that you submit with your full project due week 6.

 

Creating the LPI Printout Report

You need the LPI software.  It can be purchased separately.

OR Use the Student LPI software.  You will need to input the data this way:  10 & 9 =5; 8 & 7 = 4; 6 & 5 = 3; 4 & 3 = 2; 2 & 1 = 1.
OR Follow the instructions in the back of your LPI materials to hand score.

OR Send me your data in a word or txt file at least a week in advance of the due date, and I'll input it for you. 

OR Join efforts with another person in the class, have him or her run the data for you.

 

Hackman and Johnson Measures

During the course, you will complete 8-10 measures from the Hackman and Johnson text.  This information will broaden your self analysis.

 

Submitting Assignments

See the "How to Submit" under the "Assignments" link for details. 
 

 

How to Submit Assignments

 

I'm flexible about where you submit so long as I receive all the materials and each assignment draft is submitted by the deadline.  You may have to help me figure out what is where.  (grin)  Please give me a week to grade and return assignments.

 

Submitting Participation Assignment

For participation assignments, submit them as the content of a posting in the Discuss/Post section of the week the assignment is due.  Please do not use attachments, which require downloads that can transmit a virus.  With a few exceptions, I respond privately in the gradebook instead of the discussion board.
 

Acceptable Formats

Acceptable formats include Microsoft Word  (file extension .doc), rich text format (extension .rft), text format (.txt), or PDF (.pdf).  You can probably use Word's print function to create a pdf file, which has the advantage of being unable to transmit a virus.  Please do not submit other formats, including the one requiring the LPI format.  I cannot open other formats inside eCollege.

 

Submit Assignments--except core assessment--in eCollege

Please do NOT email assignments to Dr. Aitken. If there's a problem, and you send an assignment as an email attachment just to meet the deadline, that's fine.  You will have a couple days to resubmit your assignment in the required format and location in eCollege for a grade on the assignment.  I only open student files in these formats inside eCollege because I have had student-emailed attachments destroy my computer.
 

Due Date

Assignments are due online before Sunday at 11:59 PM Parkville time (Central).  Weekly units are available for use only by week in order to encourage students to interact with each other as they work through the material.  For online students, beginning at the end of week two, the week's online discussion board access will be removed (blocked) at the end of each week. 

 

Naming Files

Begin the file name with your last name, then first name, then assignment, then version.  Such as AitkenJoanLPIResultsVersion1.doc
 

 

For more information about naming and submitting assignments, see http://JoanAitken.org/Guidelines.html#SUBMITTING_ASSIGNMENTS0

 

Submission of LPI Core Assessment Assignments, including Planner and Workbook

There are a lot of individual differences in how each student is doing this assignment, and there can be differences in how students submit this material.  The main concern is it's huge, and you need to submit all elements.

 

PREFERENCE

You can use the US postal service mail or drop the whole package together by my office.  I will mail it back to you if you mail it to me.  Postmark by noon Monday after the Sunday deadline.  The huge package is easier to make sense if I can put hardcopies next to each other.  Send to:

Dr. J. Aitken, Professor, Communication Arts
229 Copley, 8700 NW River Park Drive, Park University,

Parkville, MO 64152

OR
Use the "Core Template" and answer questions in that file.

 

For an electronic file for the core assessment LPI assignments, go to the "Dropbox" tab at the top of the page.  Use the pull-down menu to select the correct assignment.  Upload the document. 

 

For the final reflection, post that assignment as an email--no attachments please--in the discussion board so that all students can read.

 

Students have options about how to submit the core assessment materials, but you need to include the Planner and Workbook. 

 

Local students generally just delivery the whole package to my office in 229 Copley.  Online, students combine the LPI printout, Hackman and Johnson measures, and full student report into one .txt or .doc file.  If you're not submitting material by email, just upload a note to me in the dropbox explaining that you mailed or dropped of the materials.

 

For the Planner and Workbook:

  • I prefer you use postal mail to send the planner and workbook to me, and I gladly will mail the material back. 

  • Students local to Parkville usually submit the whole package of materials in a notebook or envelop to my office in 229 Copley or 203 Copley, then come back in a week to pick up the materials.

    Other students write all the planner and workbook answers in a Word document file using complete ideas so I know what is being discussed.

    OR

  • Use the "Core Template" and answer the questions in that file.

  • Some students scan every page into a single PDF file, but that is a less desirable way to do it.

For the Hackman and Johnson measures, I prefer the summary of each measure be integrated in your project narrative, but hardcopy or individual dropbox is fine too.

 

Dropbox

Please submit the LPI Report, the LPI Plan, and the Core Assessment in the dropbox.  The Hackman and Johnson measures results can be integrated in the Core Assessment.  The Reflection can be submitted as the body of a post in week 8.  The dropbox for the Hackman and Johnson measures and the Reflection provide a place to submit revisions.  If your Reflection is too personal or contains private information about your company, put it in the dropbox.

 

PART A LPI Printout in Electronic Form -- Grading Rubric

Meets all criteria with competency  = A.
 

Check if competency met:

1.  Printout completed by original due date. Cannot be submitted late.

 

2.  Ran results for self and 20 others. 

 

3.  Includes high to low ratings on each of the five principles.

 

4.  Includes high to low ratings on each item in the analysis.

 

5.  Contains a one page executive summary analyzing the results.

 

6.  Electronic format is .pdf, .doc, .rtf, or .txt submitted in eCollege dropbox.

 

 

SUBMIT PART B  WEEK 5:  LPI Plan

IMPORTANT:  You cannot submit this assignment or any subsequent assignments unless you previously submitted the LPI printout report. The LPI software printout is the basis for doing the rest of the course's work. 

Based on the LPI printout report, explain exactly what behaviors you have begun to implement during the course based on what you learned from the measures, in order to become an exemplary leader according to the K & P definition.  Be specific.  Use weeks five to seven to implement the plan.

a.  Combine theoretical knowledge and practical skills to plan how you will resolve organizational issues and improve your decision-making.  This section is where you can draw upon your LPI Planner and Workbook.  Document what you have with pages from the Planner and Workbook.
b.  Analyze the sources of power, your personal power, and how to increase your power and influence.  Relate back to the Hackman and Johnson information on power and describe how you will appropriately improve and use your sources of power.
c.  Evaluate principles of ethical leadership.  This may be a useful place to draw from the Enron case and other leadership practices discussed in class.

d.  List the specific behaviors you have changed and will continue to change so that you become an exemplary leader according to the K & P model.  Link the behaviors directly to the five principles.  WHAT WILL YOU DO TO CHANGE YOUR BEHAVIORS!?!?  Instead of making general comments about what you should do, give a specific outline of what you will do.  Make sure you link to each principle you plan to improve, as in the example below.

To increase inspiring a shared vision, I will do the following:

1.  Put inspirational posters up in my office.

2.  Include the company’s vision statement at the top of each meeting agenda.

3.  Have note cards printed up with the department’s annual goal printed on the front and use them for thank you notes.

4.  Put the division’s vision in my email tag.

5.  Spend two minutes in every meeting asking a different person to explain their vision of our vision.

 

Example behaviors:

  • Each Monday, I will find a way to experiment and take risks by generating a small win.

  • At 4 PM on Tuesdays, I will contemplate my mistakes for fifteen minutes.  I will think about a way I can make my place of work safer for others to experiment. 

  • On Wednesdays, I will embrace any criticism by thanking the other person(s) for taking the time to give me their perspectives. 

  • On Thursdays, I will read this statement to myself once an hour:  “I believe that I can influence and exert control in this organization.”

  • On Fridays, I will become more powerful by giving my own power away by encouraging John to . . .

 

Student Examples of Specific Behaviors Are Listed Below

Model the Way (Student examples.)

 

1. I will get out merchandise even when it is not in my area.

2. I will take charge if the leader has not come in yet, get the day going.

3. I will volunteer for small projects even when I am short on people.

4. I will help people with ideas for projects they have in progress.

5. I will come up with new projects to implement.

6. I will buy a drink for someone after completing a project.

7. I will fill out forms for “superstar of the month.”

8. I will not be a jerk (knit pick) about small things.

9. I will not talk down to people in the work place.

10. I will admit to imperfections and own your mistakes.

11. I will read a biography of a leader I admire.

12. I will set a time each week when I reflect on my behavior.

13. I will write a story for the newspaper to be printed at the time of my death, to help me figure out what I want said about what I think is important.

14. I will write a credo of the textbook.

15. I will imagine each person has a sign around him or her, which says “I am important.”

16. I will make “I am important” signs for students to wear in one class session.

17. I will ask more questions instead of spend as much time “telling.”

18. I will keep of a diary of your daily behaviors before bed.

19. I will make a list of the ten best qualities you want to represent and put it on your mirror.  Look at it every morning while getting ready.

20. I will ask “what can I learn?” after completing a project.

21. I will ask “what did I learn?” after failing at something.

Inspire a Shared Vision (Student examples.)

 

1. I will share one personal experience each week.

2. I will design a “vision poster” for the class or group

3. I will ask each person to write their vision on the poster.

4. I will hang the poster in a central location.

5. I will establish an inspirational quote of the week.

6. I will inform others of the tasks you completed during the week.

7. I will hold a meeting every Friday to discuss progress.

8. I will proclaim Monday as Motivational Monday.

9. I will collect stories about leadership and share them with the class.

10. I will show an online video of a motivational speaker on Motivational Monday

11. I will have one on one time to find out co-workers dreams, aspirations, ideas, etc.

12. I will develop a plan once a quarter to help co worker achieve goal.

13. I will encourage co workers to bring in a picture of family and friends.

14. I will have a friends and family night.

15. I will put out a newsletter to let everyone know what is going on in the company.

16. I will encourage involvement in charities and volunteer work.

17. I will offer a matching program for donations.

18. I will make tuition reimbursement available to inspire a persons long time goals for company.

19. I will offer leadership classes and seminars.

20. I will write down team goals.

21. I will survey to see what could be worked on: feedback.

Encourage the Heart (Student examples.)

 

1. I will creatively recognize a peer by creating a picture in an engraved frame for achiever.

2. I will positively comment a peer each day.

3. I will write a thank you note for a peer.

4. I will give a small gift each month to someone else.

5. I will make cookies and leave them for co workers.

6. I will make a dinner to celebrate accomplishments.

7. I will plan a party for the hard work we have accomplished.

8. I will give good advice.

9. I will encourage others by doing a good deed.

10. I will praise somebody by working hard for the manager who we look up to.

11. I will start writing a thank you card to send back that same day.

12. I will listen to people’s values, ideas, and concerns.

13. I will support people’s aspirations in school and life.

14. I will have weekly acknowledgements for people.

15. I will invite someone out to lunch or dinner, or even just a movie.

16. I will bring in rice-krispy treats at the holiday season to give people a small lift/break.

17. I will send a nice e-mail every once and a while.

18. I will drop a facebook comment or myspace comment to people.

19. I will host a small get together at your house.

20. I will get birthday cards for people’s birthday.

21. I will go to Wal-Mart to get inexpensive frames, make certificates of accomplishments and hand them out.

22. I will make a brief speech about three strong characteristics of each person to say when I hand out the certificates.

23. I will send out one thank you note once a week

24. I will zap someone on a daily basis.

25. I will find out all birthdays, write out a card and give it to them.

26. I will put up a motivational poster.

27. I will leave post it notes around the office with encouraging words

28. I will volunteer every three months to an organization.

29. I will really get to know something new about a co-worker once a month.

30. I will smile everyone you see.

31. I will turn the negatives into positives.

32. I will bring in cookies.

 

Challenge the Process (Student examples.)

1. I will meet a new person once a week

2. I will spend time with someone new once a month

3. I will sit and write down a new career goal once a month. 

4. I will have a one on one with supervisor once a month to discuss goals and plans.

5. I will help out in a different department every few months.

6. I will ask for feedback from co-workers on a bi-monthly basis.

7. I will join a new activity/club once a year.

8. I will have a team “outing” every three months.

9. I will develop a new idea for your team once a month.

10. I will have fun team meetings to find out what is going on in all areas, every three weeks.

11. I will trade jobs with a person in a higher position once year.

12. I will trade jobs with someone on in a different department once a month.

13. I will trade jobs with someone lower than you once a year.

14. I will send a suggestion for campus improvement once a semester.

15. I will organize an “encounter group” in which members challenge each other to improve themselves.

16. I will have a meeting each week to talk about each person’s agenda and goals.

17. I will try a new food every month.

18. I will give feedback to others in the encounter group each week.

19. I will learn a new sentence in a foreign language each week.

20. I will evaluate myself once a year using the leadership practices invention.

21. I will go to an event, sit by someone I do not know.  Meet and get to know that individual.

22. I will investigate a “competition” to find out what other people are doing.

23. I will have people submit sales ideas, post them and have people rank them.

24. I will step in and address a problem.

25. I will pick a product to promote and sell.

 

Enable Others to Act (Student examples.)

 

1. I will look on the internet for ideas about trust building activities we can do.

2. I will read the book on collaboration and group work to gain knowledge about the process.

3. I will give more responsibility to others and teach them what they need to know so they can follow through.

4. I will write a list of tasks for ________ with priorities indicated.

5. I will create a chart of what needs to be done this month and make sure each person knows what needs to be done.

6. I will ask ________ about this week’s progress and make suggestions to help _________ get the job done.

7. I will provide a task analysis of the steps involved in each job that needs to be done.  This can be converted to a checklist to help guide _______ so the person can get the job done.

8. I will set realistic deadlines instead of pushing too hard or being open ended.  This will provide a guideline for when the job needs to be completed.

9. I will set up a specific schedule of hours for ________ for each week so the person will know where and when work is done.

10. I will set up a work schedule for each person which then can be seen by others so everyone knows who is working and what is happening.  That way people can count on each other.

11. I will get a computer and screen so that each person has the equipment needed to get the job done.

12. I will actively listen to our peers when we are in conversation and provide necessary feedback.

13. I will work hard on following the rules so others will know that it is important.

14. I will maintain and build relationships by respecting and being there for someone who needs it.

15. I will create a positive atmosphere at work.

16. I will let others around us who hardly ever get to lead, speak up and become a positive leader.

17. I will allow peers to choose to become decisive.

18. I will support decisions others make by standing up for them. 

 

 

PART B Plan Grading Rubric

Meets all criteria with competency = A.  

LPI Printout Report must be submitted prior to this assignment. 

This assignment must be based on your analysis of that report.
 

Check if competency met:

1.  LPI Printout Report was submitted prior to this assignment.

 

2.  Plan is directly related to--and explained through--the LPI Printout Report.

 

3.  Reflection completed by original due date.

 

4.  Plan clearly linked to strengths and weaknesses suggested by LPI inventory.

 

5.  Plan contains at least a dozen specific behaviors to improve aspects of the 5 K & P principles.

 

6.  Submitted in dropbox in electronic format is .pdf, .doc, .rtf, or .txt.

 

 

SUBMIT PART C-- CORE ASSESSMENT LPI Results (Synthesis of work to date) Week 6

See "Assignment" link -- "How to Submit" for instructions.

Put together everything you have so far in one document.  Online students will need to create an electronic file by scanning documents or typing the information beyond of the LPI printout in electronic form.  I prefer .pdf.  Your Microsoft program may allow you to save to .pdf through the print function, for example.  You may use txt, rft, pdf, or doc.  Your core assessment project needs the following:

  • Narrative overview that synthesizes your work to become an exemplary leader according to K & P definitions.  This element should contain all previously submitted work integrated together into a whole.

  • LPI Printout in Electronic Form. (Revised to include at least 20 observers)

  • Plan and implementation.

  • Synthesis overview of your results and implications from several Hackman and Johnson measures of your choice.

  • Completed Planner.

  • Completed Workbook.

  • References.

PART C LPI Results of all work to date.  Grading Rubric

Definition for "Exceeds Expectations"

Definition for "Meets Expectations

"Does Not Meet Expectations" requires revision for mastery.

Criteria

Score

I. Cognitive Skills

 Outcomes 1 & 2

  1. Analyze LPI from 20 others and self

  2. Complete and synthesize 10-12 measures from Hackman and Johnson.

  3. Complete all planner documentation.

  4. Complete all workbook documentation.

 

  1. Measure current exemplary leadership attitudes, knowledge, skills, and values through self-analysis and feedback from others through a self and 20 other measures.

  2. Contains the following items:

  • LPI Printout in Electronic Form. (Revised to include at least 20 observers)

  • Plan and implementation.

  • Synthesis overview of your results and implications from several Hackman and Johnson measures of your choice.

  • Completed Planner.

  • Completed Workbook.

  • References.


 

Fails to master learning outcome(s) at 90% competency level.

or

Late submission.

or

Could have been written without knowledge of course content.

or

Lacks all required elements of the project.

6 Exceeds expectations

5.4 Meets expectations

Below 5.4 Does not meet expectations at a 90% competency level.

 0 Fails to submit in required format by original due date or shows no evidence of  meeting expectations

 

II. Technical or Professional  skills

Outcomes 2-7

  

  1. Apply communication and leadership research to personal and professional life employed over one month.

  1. Write a technically correct report using APA style, which demonstrates mastery of course learning outcomes.

  2. Provide a presentation reflecting on exemplary leadership.

  3. Submit report on time in dropbox in electronic format is .pdf, .doc, .rtf, or .txt.

Fails to master learning outcome(s) at 90% competency level.

or

Late submission.

or

Could have been written without knowledge of course content.

 

6 Exceeds expectations

5.4 Meets expectations

Below 5.4 Does not meet expectations at a 90% competency level.

 0 Fails to submit in required format by original due date or shows no evidence of  meeting expectations

 

 

III.  Professional Disposition

Outcomes 3 & 4

 

 

  1. Gear plan to the results of the measures used.

  2. After analyzing the inventories, create plan to change 30 specific behaviors  leadership and communication skills.

  1. Narrative overview that synthesizes your work to become an exemplary leader according to K & P definitions.

  2. Create and implement a plan to change leadership behavior by building on strengths and skill building to respond to needs.

  3. Analyze the effectiveness of exemplary leadership practices.

 

Fails to master learning outcome(s) at 90% competency level.

or

Late submission.

or

Could have been written without knowledge of course content.

 

6 Exceeds expectations

5.4 Meets expectations

Below 5.4 Does not meet expectations at a 90% competency level.

 0 Fails to submit in required format by original due date or shows no evidence of  meeting expectations

 

 

IV.  Exemplary Leadership Skills of Kouzes and Posner Model

Outcomes 5, 6, 7

 

  1. Demonstrate implementation of change, which improved 12 communication and leadership behaviors.

  1. Conduct, read, analyze, evaluate, and apply research-based theories and principles of exemplary leadership, organizational culture, decision-making.

  2. Collaborate with others in the measurement, planning, and analysis of exemplary leadership knowledge, skills, and values.

  3. Anticipate ethical or communication issues of leadership and followership across cultures.

Fails to master learning outcome(s) at 90% competency level.

or

Late submission.

or

Could have been written without knowledge of course content.

 

6 Exceeds expectations

5.4 Meets expectations

Below 5.4 Does not meet expectations at a 90% competency level.

 0 Fails to submit in required format by original due date or shows no evidence of  meeting expectations

 

Total

 

 

 

 

      /24

 


 

SUBMIT PART D-- Course Reflection Week 8. 

 

Reflect on what you learned in the course and how you changed.  How did you change your behaviors to meet the five elements of the Kouzes and Posner model of exemplary leadership?

 

SUBMIT IN DISCUSSION BOARD under week 8 Discuss/Post.  Do not submit as an attachment.  Do not submit in the dropbox.

Take the entire 8 weeks to implement your change strategies.  DUE FRIDAY!  Please do not submit before week 8!

 

How did your plan work?!?!

Learning Outcomes:

  • Explain what specific behavioral changes did or did not accomplish the five Kouzes and Posner principles of exemplary leadership, which you tried during weeks six and seven.

  • For any course learning objectives not included in your core assessment, document that met those learning objectives.

Take time to think about your personal changes.  Please do NOT submit this assignment early because you have to spend time to see how your plan works during weeks six and seven.  Write a reflection on the assignments and course work you completed throughout the semester.  The reflection can be brief--500 words--although the exact content is your choice.   This assignment allows you to think analytically and figure out how your plan did--or didn't--work.

Specific behavior?!?!

Explain the specific behaviors--linked to the five principles--which worked or failed.  This section needs to be directly linked to what you submitted in your Core Assessment PLAN. 

 

If in your plan you said something like this. . .

 

"To encourage the heart is my main weakness, so I have decided to implement the following behaviors during week six and seven.

  • I will try to frame all criticism in the framework of behavioral expectations instead of criticizing the person or character of the person.

  • I will put the Kouzes and Posner poster up in my office and ask coworkers to hold me to the principles.

  • I will praise my colleagues at least four times before criticizing.

  • I will compliment one person every day.

  • I will relay a positive comment about one person each day to his or her boss.

  • I will take one coworker to lunch this week."

Then your reflection might look something like this. . .  (280 words in this case)

 

"To encourage the heart, I realized that my plan was too ambitious for one or two weeks.  Encouraging the heart is a new work behavior for me.  Frankly, I need to know more about what I do now that prompted the low LPI scores.  I asked two colleagues to collect data whenever they were around me.  I just asked them to make a tally list of every time I said something positive and every time I said something negative and maybe record any negative statement.  What I found is that I only make two positive comments to each negative one.  I'm going to work on that and ask them to check me again in about a month.

 

"I found it hard to try all these behaviors every day, so I decided to focus on one a day.  Monday is my compliment day.  Tuesday is my comment to the boss day. 

 

"When I raised my voice at a coworker, my officemate said, 'That doesn't sound like you're modeling the way.'  Everyone laughed, and I apologized.

 

"I can't afford to take someone to lunch every week, so I'm going to do it once a month.  I'm keeping track in my calendar so I remember everyone.  I am making strides to become a more exemplary leader."

 

"I think my core assessment appropriately documented all the other learning outcomes, except “Predict global leadership challenges for the future.”  My main predictions are that the workplace will feel less secure to employees and everyone needs to learn more about adapting sensitively to diverse people.  As a result, I’ve decided that it’s time I travel internationally and open my mind.  I’m looking into the possibility of going to Brazil for a job-related task this fall."

 

DISCUSSION GROUP POSTING SUGGESTION

 

Inspire us with "RIGOR."
 

RIGOR

R Reflect on K & P 5 principles of exemplary leadership.
I Influence us to believe you are a more exemplary leader.
G Give a quote to guide us.
O Open up with a story to inspire us.
R Reflect on your strategies for change.

 

REFLECTION
Rubric

Meets all criteria with competency = A. 3 competencies

Check if competency met:

1.  Reflection completed by original due date.

 

2.  Reflection shows thorough analysis and evaluation regarding the student's course learning as relevant to course learning outcomes, with emphasis on plan implementation. 

 

3.  Reflection is clear and concise (typically 250 to 500 words).

 

4.  Reflection discussed how new behaviors are being implemented to fit the Kouzes and Posner model of exemplary leadership (e.g., I sent two thank-you notes every Friday, which prompted two positive responses and one offer to help me again).

 

5.  Electronic format is .pdf, .doc, .rtf, or .txt.

 

6.  Post reflection with RIGOR to discussion board.

 

 

LEARNING ACTIVITIES

These are minor assignments, which include the following:

  • Interview summary (Exemplary Leader)

  • Film presentation or video clip about leadership

  • or leadership stories
  • Weekly quiz

  • Class participation (discussion)

  • Discussion of Enron case study

ORAL PRESENTATION and EXECUTIVE SUMMARY of

 

EXEMPLARY LEADER INTERVIEW

 

Leadership Profile Case, Interview, and Observation Hours.

 

Begin this assignment immediately!  Make an appointment with an exemplary leader.  Interview the person (use a structured interview with prepared questions), then observe the person in an active leadership role, if possible.  The exact number of observation hours will depend on what the leader will allow.  Observe the exemplary leader in meetings, if possible.  Analyze the leader and complete at least one leadership measure--such as the LPI "Other" form--on the leader.  Submit a one page executive summary of the interview and your findings--approximately 250 words double spaced, which includes a summary of a LPI measure you complete to help you apply the Kouzes and Posner principles. Due Week 3.

WHO?

Select a leader whom you believe exemplifies outstanding, positive leadership.  Select someone who is an exemplary leader according to a Kouzes and Posner definition, who demonstrates some of the five principles.  Please select a leader who is several levels above you at work or a CEO, if possible.    Remember, a manager may just manage, an administrator may just administer, and a supervisor may just supervise.  Remember, leadership has nothing to do with position and everything to do with behavior. 

 

WHY?

Learn what you need to know about improving your leadership behaviors for the future, particularly in your current or intended employment.  You may want to select a person who is in a leadership position you would like to be in ten to twenty years from now, for example, so you can gain insight into the kind of leader you want to be. 

 

HOW?

Experience shows that people tend to be extremely busy, but if the interview will be less than 15 minutes and you promise to dress formally, stay out of the way, and keep all information you hear to yourself (confidentiality is essential), many executives are willing to provide a student with this opportunity.

Interview.  Often a top executive will set an appointment and a business circumstance necessitates cancellation.  Make sure your plan to conduct the interview/observation early in the course in case you have to reschedule or find a second situation.  Request the opportunity to interview the person and observe him or her in a leadership position (e.g., leading a staff meeting).  You may want to email the questions to the person in advance of the interview. 

Observe or Shadow.  In your interview, seek to learn as much as possible about the person’s leadership style. Although the questions you ask will ultimately be reflective of the leader you are profiling and your interest, the following list of questions may be helpful in planning for your interview.  Ask if you can shadow the person for a morning, afternoon, or entire day.  You will want to spend at least couple hours observing the leader in his or her work setting. 

 

WHAT?

Select the key questions you will ask and prioritize them in case you run out of time.  You may use the LPI "Other" form to come up with a list of questions.  I recommend you fill out an "Other" LPI form on the person, then convert your raw data into analysis to support your observations or add to your insight.  You can put the data in the LPI software and see what comes up as key strengths.  Remember to discuss the five practices of exemplary leadership:  (a) model, (b) inspire, (c) challenge, (d) enable, and (e) encourage practices.  Run the data and include a general comment or two.   Remember, you are looking for ways to change your own behaviors, so think about how you can change your behaviors to become an exemplary leader like the person you observe.

1.  What is your definition of leadership?

2.  In your opinion, what does a leader do that distinguishes him or her from others?

3.  What has been the most valuable preparation for leadership?

4.  Do you believe there is a difference between managing and leading?

5.  What is your personal philosophy of leadership?

6.  What skills have you acquired that have been most helpful to you as a leader?

7.  How would you characterize your style of leadership?

8.  Who do you consider to be great leaders? Why?

9.  Who have been influential women for you in terms of leadership?

10.  How did you learn leadership?

11. What are some of the most important lessons about leadership that you have learned?

12.  What do you think is the most difficult aspect of being a leader?

13.  What are your goals and ambitions?

14.  How have you worked to prepare yourself to lead in a global environment?

15.  What do you think is most helpful in leading a diverse workforce?

16.  What advice would you offer for leaders of the future?

 

BE SURE TO KEEP CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION CONFIDENTIAL AND NEVER INCLUDE THAT INFORMATION IN YOUR EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

 

Exemplary Leadership Profile Case, Interview, and Observation

Meets all criteria with competency:  4 competences = A.  3 competencies = B.  2 competencies = C
 

Check if competency met:

Outcome 1:  Arranged interview and observation time with an exemplary leader and turned in summary by original due date.

 

Outcomes 2:  Wrote one page summary of the events, which included a brief analytical description of each of the following:  1.  Leader Interview 2.  Leader Observation 3.

 

Outcome 3:   LPI Leader Other Measure completed by the student about the leader (no raw data).

 

 

 

 

Documentary or Feature Film Leadership Stories.  Apply exemplary leadership research principles through leadership stories.

 

Discuss a story about communication and leadership you saw in the media (real or fictional).  In the past, students have discussed segments from feature films such as Erin Brockovich, Patton, 300, Lion King, for example.  Reflect and apply research-based exemplary leadership principles.  Documentaries about real-life leaders also make an excellent discussion choice. We have discussed documentary films such as eDreams and Gates and Buffett Go Back to School. 

 

You may want to answer these types of questions after viewing the segment: 

  1. How does our evolving definition of exemplary leadership fit this person and context? 

  2. What kind of leader is this person?

  3. How does the leader measure up to the K & P five principles? 

  4. What can we tell about the moral character and ethical responsibilities of this leader? 

  5. What link can you make to the Hackman and Johnson text?

 

For films you have seen, you might reflect on how a feature film highlighted in the Hackman and Johnson textbook supports or contradicts communication and theory research theory.  Each of these cases contains a brief description of the film’s content as well as links with the material covered in that section of the book. When viewing films for the leadership communication course, participants must focus on what the movie reveals about leadership.  Here is a summary of the feature films highlighted in the text:

CHAPTER 1 Erin Brockovich

CHAPTER 2 Remember the Titans

CHAPTER 3 Dave

CHAPTER 4 Stand and Deliver

CHAPTER 5 Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring

CHAPTER 6 Twelve Angry Men

CHAPTER 7 Thirteen Days

CHAPTER 8 Startup.com

CHAPTER 9 The Insider

CHAPTER 10 Tea with Mussolini

CHAPTER 11 The Godfather

CHAPTER 12 The Big Kahuna

 

Online students may want to rent/check out from a library and view a film on their own, then discuss leadership applications of the film in the discussion board.  This "presentation" should be a post of 200-400 words.  In addition, I hope you will respond to the postings to other students if you have seen the film.  You will see a section about film viewing in the discussion board.

 

FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

What are the five principles of EXEMPLARY LEADERSHIP?

What is your definition of LEADERSHIP?

What is your definition of organizational CULTURE?

What are characteristics of CREDIBILITY?

What do people seek in a leader?

How can a leader SHOW credibility?

What are ways to demonstrate an alignment of shared values through actions?

What are ways to TELL STORIES as a leader?

What are ways to DO A PERSONAL AUDIT?

What are appropriate ways to SEARCH FOR OPPORTUNITIES TO GET EXTRAORDINARY THINGS DONE?

What are ways to SEIZE THE INITIATIVE?

What are WORDS THAT DESCRIBE YOUR PERSONAL-BEST LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCE?

What are effective ways for a leader to SEARCH FOR OPPORTUNITIES BY SEEKING INNOVATIVE WAYS TO CHANGE, GROW, AND IMPROVE?

How can leadership behaviors used to STRENGTHEN OTHERS?

What leadership behaviors can help RECOGNIZE CONTRIBUTIONS?

As an effective leader, how can you CELEBRATE VALUES AND VICTORIES?

How can you demonstrate MORAL LEADERSHIP?

People feel best about themselves and what they do when they voluntarily do something.  People feel worst when what they do is motivated by not having anything else to do (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 319).

Giving encouragement is more personal and positive than other forms of feedback, and it’s more likely to accomplish something that other forms cannot:  Strengthening trust between leaders and constituents (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 321).

Bosses typically set up perceived under-performers to fail.  When there’s a problem, the manger tends to supervise and control more closely, so the employee thinks there's a lack of trust and confidence on the part of the manager (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 323).

The leader’s expectations have their strongest and most powerful influence in times of uncertainty and turbulence (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 323).

Before we can lead, we have to believe in others, and we have to believe in ourselves.  High expectations matter (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 326)

 

Effective leaders show they care by paying attention to people, what they are doing, and how they are feeling.  When looking for problems, managers get a distorted view of reality; over time, production declines; and the managers’ personal credibility hits bottom.  Wandering around with an eye for trouble is likely to get you just that.  More trouble (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 327).

Controlling managers have low credibility.  Inspecting, correcting, checking up signal lack of trust.  When the manager shows a lack of trust, the employee doesn’t trust the manager (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 328).

 

You have to get close to people if you’re going to communicate.  It means regularly walking the halls and plant floors, meeting often with small groups, and hitting the road for frequent visits with associates, key suppliers, and customers.  It may even mean learning another language if a large portion of your workforce or customer base speak it (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 329).

 

In terms of decision-making assignments, groups of friends were over 20 percent more effective than groups of acquaintances were.  Friends have to be strongly committed to the group’s goals.  If not, then friends may not do better (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 330).

 

Recognition is too often highly predictable, routine, and impersonal.  A one-size fits-all approach to recognition feels disingenuous, forced, and thoughtless better (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 331).

 

There still persists a myth that leadership is reserved for only a very few of us, when in fact, leadership is not associated with position.  Leadership is everyone’s business (Kouzes & Posner, 2003),

 

Feedback:  Ordinary people can become extraordinary leaders (Kouzes & Posner, 2003),

 

People who are most successful at bringing out the best in others are those who set achievable “stretch” goals and believe that they have the ability to develop the talents of others (Kouzes & Posner, 2003),

 

To become a leader, you don’t conquer your organization.  You don’t conquer leadership.  You conquer your own doubts and fears about leading (Kouzes & Posner, 2003),

 

 Regarding people who work with leaders who demonstrate the Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 2003), those employees or coworkers are more satisfied with their leader, feel more committed, excited, energized, influential, and powerful.

 

Leadership has been shown to account for improved performance as measured by a variety of factors:  Net income; sales, profits, and net assets; employee commitment, job satisfaction, and role clarity; and employee turnover, achievement of company goals, and teamwork (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 390).

 

 There’s absolutely no way that we can say that it will always work all the time with all people (pp. 394-395).

 Kouzes and Posner (2003) explain that virtues can become vices.  There’s a point at which each of the Five Practices, taken to extremes, can lead you astray (p. 395).

 

 According to U.S. Army Major General John H. Stanford, “Staying in love gives you the fire to ignite other people, to see inside other people, to have a greater desire to get things done than other people.  A person who is not in love doesn’t really feel the kind of excitement that helps them to get ahead and to lead others and to achieve.  I don’t know any other fire, any other thing in life that is more exhilarating and is more positive a feeling than love is” (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 399).  Many leaders use the word “love” freely when talking about their own motivations to lead.  Of all the things that sustain a leader over time, love is the most lasting.

 

Successful leaders stay in love:  With leading, with the people who do the work, with what their organizations produce, and with those who honor the organization  by using its work.  Leadership is NOT an affair of the head.  Leadership is an affair of the heart (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 399). 

 

   “Leadership is everyone’s business” (Kouzes & Posner, 2003, p. 383).

 

 When you clarify the principles that will govern your life and the ends that you will seek, you give purpose to your daily decision.  What is your personal creed?

 

   “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” Peter Drucker (1909 - 2005)

 

  “A sense of humor is part of the art of leadership, of getting along with people, of getting things done.” Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890 - 1969)

 

  “Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other.” John F. Kennedy (1917 - 1963), speech prepared for delivery in Dallas the day of his assassination, November 22, 1963.

 

  “Leadership is based on inspiration, not domination; on cooperation, not intimidation.” William Arthur Wood

 

  “The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership.”  Colin Powell (1937 - )

 

  “An empowered organization is one in which individuals have the knowledge, skill, desire, and opportunity to personally succeed in a way that leads to collective organizational success.” Stephen R. Covey, Principle-centered Leadership .

 

IMPORTANT:  Dr. J. Aitken is this course's developer, but other professors may teach the course.  If you have questions, ask your professor.  Undoubtedly, your professor will make changes.  Each professor is free to design the course in his or her own way, so be sure you know your individual professor's requirements.  Please do NOT expect the course materials to be updated until the first week of class.  On the first day, you will want to communicate with your professor about textbook, assignments, and expectations for your course.

 

TENTATIVE SYLLABUS IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE

This information may be changed and updated during the course.  This document does not constitute a contract.

The visuals are from Microsoft Office for use only in this presentation for enrolled students.

COPYRIGHT

This material only for the use of currently enrolled Park University students.  Instructional materials quoted or adapted directly from the course textbook and are protected by the publisher’s copyright. 

Instructional materials reference (quoted directly or closely adapted): 

Hackman, M. Z., & Johnson, C. E. (2004). Leadership: A Communication Perspective (4th ed.).  Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. 

Kouzes, & Posner. (2003).  The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI)-Deluxe Facilitator's Guide Package. Jossey-Bass.

 

Other materials are copyrighted by Joan E. Aitken or Park University, 2007. ©  All rights reserved.

Page reference:  Aitken, J. E.  (2006-2007).  Measuring leadership.  Kansas City, MO:  JoanAitken.org.  Retrieved month day, year, from http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/

 

Information below is for
ONLINE STUDENTS:

DISCUSSION BOARD ASSIGNMENTS AND DAYS DUE ARE FOR ONLINE STUDENTS

 

 

ONLINE DISCUSSION

1.  Participate frequently and consistently throughout the course. 

This course is about reflection for the process of change.  There is more thinking and writing than reading in this case.  You will see discussion prompts for this course, and your responses constitute a major portion of your learning and evaluation in this course.  Here you are to write about the ideas you read in the course materials and demonstrate your understanding of those readings.  The computer system keeps track of your activity, which contributes to your professor's information for assessing your performance. 

 

Each week you will want to post about 5-10 posts to the Discussion Board for six of the eight weeks.  You cannot work in advance because this is your class meeting and interaction with students for the week.  If you need to miss a week, simply make up the points in the extra credit available week 7. 

 

Log in at least two days a week to post your assignments and to read and respond to other students.  Typically, posts should be substantive and average 50-100 words in length.  Of course there are also times when you will just provide a phrase of single sentence too.  In previous courses, most students typically read about 50 content area pages and postings each week and about 300 content area pages and postings.  This sounds like a lot, but web pages are typically short and people go from in and out of unit sections and from page to page fairly efficiently.  By the end of the course, the average student submitted 60 posts.  By the end of the term, the content of your weekly writing assignments in the discussion board typically totals at least 2500 words (10 pages or about 2 pages of postings per week). 

2.  Use correct writing style.

Because this communication course, you will want to communicate effectively online.  Online abbreviations--such as LOL--can be confusing, difficult for international students, and may create feelings of exclusion toward people in the class who have no experience with online discussion jargon.  Some degree of language formality, precision, and politeness will enhance your online communication.  You will want to proof-read your postings for correct spelling, grammar, capitalization, punctuation, and style to improve your clarity. 

3.  Focus on research-based information, not personal opinion. 

Most communication courses focus on communication competence based on US scientific research.  You will want to clearly identify opinion as merely one point of view. Better yet, you may want to answer an assigned discussion prompt or write a summary of some concept from the reading that you like and translate that information into application in your life.  You will want to tell personal stories, but always ground the postings in research-based principles.  Change names and do not discuss information that is confidential to your family or business.

4.  Make general comments appropriate for the whole class. 

Comments directed toward individual students may be fine, but avoid one-to-one personal interactions because other students may read your postings.  Use complete sentences:  Realize that students often read unread messages only, in which case cryptic individual responses will make no sense. 

6.  Use the subject line to indicate your content.  Make general comments appropriate for the whole class. 

Sometimes students feel overwhelmed by the number of postings in the discussion board.  You can help others by giving specific information in your subject line so they can better focus on reading what they want or need to read.

 

ONLINE DISCUSS / POST ASSIGNMENTS

 

PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP (Due Sunday)

Emphasize the reading for this week.

VIDEO (Due Sunday)

QUANTITATIVE REASONING (Due Sunday)

 

Try to complete the postings by the days indicated.  Post in at least five categories.  Always post about the K & P reading in the Measuring Leadership (5 principles) category.  Online posts are typically brief (less than 100 words).  You will want to check back and respond to other students during the week.  Expect access to disappear on Monday following the week the postings are due. 

 

Note the drop-down menu will give you access each topic for the week.

 

PARTICIPATION, MINOR ASSIGNMENTS, AND DISCUSSION BOARD RUBRIC

Competence mastery may be demonstrated through one or more of the following example behaviors. 

Wk 1

Wk 2

Wk 3

Wk 4

Wk 5

Wk 6

Demonstrate Cognitive Skills

  1. Engaged actively in discussion with other students, without teacher prompts.

  2. Demonstrated knowledge of research-based principles of communication and leadership.

  3. Shared personal application of course content.

  4. Provided research-based information periodically to supplement and support ideas.

  5. Analyzed course materials within a personal framework.

  6. Provided fully developed ideas and answers to assigned weekly questions or prompts.

  7. Extended the discussion by providing application of course content through real or hypothetical examples.

  8. Evaluated leadership anecdotes in terms of research-based communication and leadership principles.

  9. Responded to discussion prompts in ways that applied research-based information.

  10. Interpreted research-based information from course materials.

  11. Showed unique perspectives and original thought in responding to discussion prompts.

           

Demonstrate Technical and Professional  Skills

  1. Used a formal, academic tone in speaking or writing (avoided slang, abbreviations, or online jargon).

  2. Wrote or presented assignment-based messages, which contribute to learning course content.

  3. Posted or orally expressed multiple substantive weekly message according the course assignment and weekly deadlines (due dates).

  4. Used clear oral or written communication, with upper-level college writing with appropriate punctuation, grammar, and spelling.   

           

Demonstrated Professional Disposition

  1. Demonstrated adaptive and sensitive communication toward others. 

  2. Applied principles of effective communication.

  3. Solved problems, and approaches work with an open-minded, scientific attitude.

  4. Contributed task-oriented information.

  5. Took responsibility for learning and demonstrating learning of the course content.

  6. Responded with a useful answer or explanation to the weekly assigned questions or topic.

           

Demonstrated Leadership Skills

  1. Gave personal examples and perspectives, but avoided overly opinionated, personal, or judgmental comments.

  2. Encouraged others to contribute.

  3. Avoided irrelevant or distracting chatter.

  4. Spoke or wrote concisely  (discussion board), with analysis and  respect. 

  5. Avoided overly long postings or dominating class discussion.

  6. Encouraged a strong intellectual online community.

  7. Worked collaboratively with other students.

  8. Showed appropriate followership skills.

           
               

 

ONLINE DISCUSS / POST

Note there is a dropdown menu to give you access to each thread.  Post original comments and respond to others each week at least two different days.  Length typically is approximately 50 -100 words each.  Make sure your overall pattern of posting discussion meets the deadlines below.  If you miss the deadlines once or twice you may still receive a grade so long you submit everything by Sunday.  The LPI MEASURING LEADERSHIP discussion is required.  You have choices, but you cannot earn more than the available points.

 
PRE-READING (Due Wednesday)  (1 point).

ENRON ETHICS (Due Friday) (1 point)

KNOWLEDGE QUESTION (Due Friday) (1 point)
MEASURING LEADERSHIP LPI (Due Sunday)  (2 points)

Discuss Kouzes & Posner reading for the week.  Implementing this reading needs to be your focus (2 points)

VIDEO (Due Sunday) (1 point)

QUANTITATIVE LOGIC (Due Sunday) (1 point)

 

Communication Arts Major Survey

HELP?!?! Tell us what you think about the department!

PRCOM Listserv

A mailing list for communication majors at Park U.  Join the conversation!

KGSP-FM

Listen Live to Student Radio Station

 

Fun Encouraged Here!

We want our online students to feel part of the Park University Communication and Leadership community.  This discussion thread is for discussion for students only, in hopes of helping you to know each other better.   Please email a picture to me, which I can put on our website here:  http://JoanAitken.org/Fun.htm I'd like for the picture to be you, but it can be anyone or anything you want so that we have some visual to associate with you.

 

In terms of decision making, groups of friends are more than 20% more effective than groups of acquaintances (Kouzes & Posner).  The future of organizational communication will require creative uses of distance communication and technology.  This electronic classroom is a great place to experiment—and make mistakes—while you figure out ways to accomplish what you need to lead in the business world.  What can you do to become friends with the other students in this course?
 

It's important to make mistakes and . . .
Photo credit:  http://www.p-rposters.com/

 

Hello!  I'm Joan Aitken.  Welcome to the course! 

INTRODUCTION & PICTURE

Introduce yourself and attach a picture I can put on our website here.  I'd like for the picture to be you, but it can be anyone or anything you want so that we have some visual to associate with you.

Departmental webpages with blogs for students:

Communication Jobs and Events

Graduate Project and Thesis Page

Here are additional webpages created for Park students:

Careers in Communication

eCollege Login

Graduate Major

Internships

Job Database

LISTSERV

JoanAitken.org

Project and Thesis Information

Resumes

WELCOME TO MEASURING LEADERSHIP! 

 

Content this page: Discuss/Post Videos - eCollege - Getting 20 Measures Completed - LPI Measure - Proctor - No books - Self-check Quiz - Submitting Assignments - Syllabus - Textbooks - Week one assignments - Work ahead
 

Getting Started

To begin, login a eCollege using your Park ID and password here http://parkonline.org/

Once you login, select the appropriate term and course.  NOTICE THE ARROW with the + and - that must be activated to indicate whether the semester is open.

Go to the Q/A Start Here Link on the lower left of the eCollege page.  For technical assistance with the Online classroom, email eCollegeHelpDesk@parkonline.org or call the helpdesk at 866-301-PARK (7275). 

 

 

Contact:  816-584-6785 (w) and 816-569-3566 (h)

 

COURSE ACCESS Through eCollege
 

http://parkonline.org/

 

COURSE SYLLABUS

http://www.park.edu/syllabus/syllabus.aspx?

 

COURSE PLANNING WEBPAGE

Sometimes students have difficulty finding information in all the different eCollege categories.  Thus, I provide all the course planning information located in ecollege is on one page for easy searching:  http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/ To search, use “Control F” and enter the keyword.  If you want to work ahead, you will be able to find course content here.

 

Required Textbook for Dr. Aitken's Course

TEXTBOOKS

Please obtain your required textbooks, skim the book, and read chapters one and two to begin.  Used copies and student sharing should work fine.  If you are having difficulty finding course materials, you can see what is needed at the Online Academics Bookstore, select "Measuring Leadership" located on the left of the page at http://JoanAitken.org/Store/

 

1.  Kouzes LEADERSHIP PRACTICES INVENTORY.  Required Leadership Assessment Inventory you will complete.  No substitutions in Dr. Aitken's course.  Get the Facilitator's Package because it contains all the elements needed, which includes the following:

 

The Leadership Challenge, 3rd or 4th (hardback or softback) Edition  by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner.  Jossey-Bass
•  ISBN-10: 0787984914
•  ISBN-13: 978-0787984915

The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI): Self Participant's Workbook with Self Insert (Package), One 120 page Participant's Workbook plus a 4 page Self Insert (The Leadership Practices Inventory) (Paperback)
by James M. Kouzes 
•  ISBN-10: 0787956562
•  ISBN-13: 978-0787956561

Leadership Development Planner , 3rd Edition by James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner.  Jossey-Bass
•  ISBN-10: 0787945684
•  ISBN-13: 978-0787945688

The Leadership Practices Inventory - Scoring Software Rev 2e CD (CD-ROM)
by JM Kouzes (Author) •  Publisher: Jossey Bass Wiley; 2nd ed edition (November 21, 2000)
•  ISBN-10: 0787954128
•  ISBN-13: 978-0787954123

Remember, the least expensive way to purchase may be through The Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI)-Deluxe Facilitator's Guide Package (Loose-leaf, with CD-ROM Scoring Software, Self/Observer, Workbook, Planner & copy of The Leadership Challenge book ) (3rd ed.)  by Kouzes and Posner.  Jossey-Bass, 2003.  Apparently, this is not in print anymore, so you may want to find a used copy or buy the pieces individually. 

 

2.  Hackman, M. Z., & Johnson, C. E. (2004). Leadership: A Communication Perspective (4th or latest ed.).  Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.  I have provided notes from the book on the course webpage.  You probably used this textbook in another course.  We will use this book as background and concentrate on the measures you can complete for this course. 

 

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Recommended for Dr. Aitken's Course:

 

3.  ENRON ETHICS CASE STUDY.  Be prepared to discuss details of the Enron case.  Suggested sources are as follows:

 

Bryce, R.  (2004).  Pipe dreams:  Greed, ego, and the death of Enron.  New York:  PublicAffairs. 
 

ENRON:  Smartest Guys in the Room Video or DVD.

 

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

 

WEEK ONE ASSIGNMENTS

 

Go to the Discuss/Post discussion board and answer all the questions. 

You can find answer in the week's lecture materials.  Make sure you use the dropdown menu so that you see the multiple threads and answer five questions.  Please interact with other students.

 

Begin collecting LPI data.

Begin the core assessment project week one by printing off and distributing the inventories to people you know (e.g., friends, coworkers, supervisors). Follow the LPI instructions, obtain 20 measures from co-workers and managers, and use the LPI software to generate results.  Include the software report in your project.  You may want to provide the entire project in a txt or rft document instead of a Word document (doc.). 

 

The main thing is to not make people feel coerced into completing the inventories. "I'm doing this for a leadership class, and I need honest feedback so I can improve my communication skills. Please don't put your name on the form, and you can simply put it in this envelope with others. . . " Something along that line.

 

The measures are in the Facilitator's Package as leaflets (8 x 10).  You can download the measure from here: Other Measure  for the one you pass out and Self Measure for the one you complete on yourself. These materials are in the LPI facilitators package you purchased for the course. The scale is 1 (never) to 10 (always). Blanks and N/A should be recorded as a 1. The instructions are in your LPI package. 

 

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Questions and Answers (I may update these during the course so all students receive the same information.)

 

Q.  How do I arrange a proctor for the final exam?

None needed.  Your final exam is timed and you get one chance at it.  You can use friends in the course, the course webpage, the scholarly databases, class notes, and books to complete the exam.

 

Q.  Tell me again where to find the “measure” in the LPI materials. 

A.  It's an 8 x 10 booklet in your facilitator's package.  1=never to 10=always (or something like that).  You can download from http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/Measures  Right click to download LeadershipMeasureOther.pdf

 

Q.  Do we all have to discuss the same film or video link, or can we choose to discuss any movie with strong leadership characters? 

A. For the Enron discussion I'd like you to read the Bryce book and watch the Smartest Guys in the Room film clips or entire film. 

In the Discuss/Post, I'll ask you also to talk about a video/film.  Any films you want to discuss are fine.  I'll give you some links to videos and film suggestions, but students typically talk about all kinds of films they have seen.  Films can serve as good examples for what we study in the course.  Thus, my video links are just suggestion.  You can put in the person or company under discussion into the Google video search and find your own.  Under the video links here http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/#Quick_Overview  all were working the first week of the course.  I have no control over external links, but you can find lots available through your own Internet video search.


Q.  I emailed you, why didn't you answer me?

I answer everything within a day or it becomes lost in the dozens and dozens of emails I receive daily.  Make sure you identify your class in the subject line because I don't open emails I cannot identify.  Send it again.

 

Q.  I posted a question in the dropbox/gradebook, why didn't you answer me?

A. I have no way of knowing that you put information there.  I never go back there after I grade something.  Telephone or email me.

 

Q.  How do I submit assignments?

A.  All participation assignments go in the weekly Discuss/Post discussion board, including the week 3 Observation/Interview assignment.

All LPI core assessment assignments go in the appropriate dropbox. 

 

Q.  What's the big deal about sumbitting the LPI report on time? 

A.  The core assessment plan and project must be based on that printout, so without the LPI printout, you cannot complete this course.  If you are unwilling to collect the data, and use the LPI software to run the data (or calculate it by hand), please drop the course.

 

Q.  I can’t get my books the first week, so what do I do about the first week’s postings?

A.  I keep the week one discussion board open for two weeks so you have until the end of week 2 to post.  After that, your access is closed at the end of each week.

 

Because books can take a while to arrive, I gave you a summary of all the materials so you don't need the books. You can answer everything except the Bryce book from what I provide in the lecture summaries.

In case a discussion board question is difficult to answer, I provide multiple threads through the dropdown menu, so you have some choice.  Make sure one of your answers is in the Kouze and Posner LPI discussion.

 

Q.  If there aren't 20 people at work, how do I get enough LPI "Other" forms completed?

 

A.   Make sure you ask all coworkers, supervisor(s), and reports.  Then you can fill in with people from your religious community who know you, other students in the MA program, and former co-workers, professors you have in the MA program, friends, and family.  The more measures you analyze through the software, the more accurate the picture.  You will want to separate groups in the analysis so you can tell what behaviors you need to improve in different contexts.

 

For week 4, turn in the results from at least 10 people.  You can continue to collect data. The more data you have, the more accurate the results.  Please enter the data as groups (e.g., friends, family, coworkers).  As you collect and enter more results, you can make the new results your printout that you submit with your full project due week 6.

 

Q  Can I use a different system to measure my leadership.

 

This course uses Kouzes and Posner LPI.  That way everyone is talking about the same thing.  You will find many additional measures in Hackman and Johnson to stimulate your learning and self-analysis.

 

Q.  What do I do if I can't find the LPI software.

You can go to my bookstore (http://JoanAitken.org/Store/ ).  Look under the course and find the software.
OR Follow the instructions in the back of your LPI materials to hand score.

OR Send me your data in a word or txt file at least a week in advance of the due date, and I'll input it for you. 

 

Q.  I’ve already taken the LPI at work.

 

Great, you will need to complete this measure again, but you have the advantage of reporting to us what how you have improved since you last complete the LPI training.  Leadership improvement is ongoing.

 

Q.  Observation/Interview Assignment.  I want to interview a poor supervisor at work as part of performance appraisal and use that for my first assignment.

 

Avoid poor managers.  This course is about high quality exemplary leadership.  A supervisor is not necessarily a leader.  Find someone who is a really talented exemplary leader.  .  Interview him or her.  Avoid interviewing family and friends and find someone new who will stimulate your thinking.

 

Q.  What do I do if eCollege doesn’t work?

 

Contact eCollege.  Meanwhile, you can access course content through http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/


Q. Can you open up all the weeks? I know I am going to be gone and would like to work ahead.

A. No, but I provide all the information in one place so that you can look ahead if you want.  You can navigate that page http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/ through the Table of Content links or the "Control F" find function of your computer. 

The discussion board is our class for the particular week only, although you can work in week one through week 2.  If you miss a week during weeks 1-6, you can post week 7 for extra credit.

The assignments are available all term, and you can view them through the “Assignments” link on the lower left of the page.

 

Q. Schedule.  Can you list out everything that is due every week?

A.  That information has always been in the syllabus located at http://www.park.edu/syllabus/syllabus.aspx?ID=96127  under "Course Topic/Dates/Assignments”  Park faculty are instructed to put their syllabi in the Park U syllabus system--not eCollege—so it can be checked administratively. But I did link from eCollege via “Syllabus.” 

http://JoanAitken.org/CA670/#Quick_Overview  You may need to wait a moment for the exact place to come up.  And via "Course Schedule." And in the “Assignment” link at the lower left. And the due weeks will be in the gradebook. 

Q. Your syllabus is really hard to understand since you have face to face and online classes on the same one.

A. The syllabus only has information for online students:  http://www.park.edu/syllabus/syllabus.aspx?ID=96127 . I don’t know what you’re looking at, but you’re welcome to call me if you have questions.

 

Q.  On the self-check quiz I just took it and it will not let me re-take it. It doesn't say what I got it or let me try again. I thought this was able to be taken unlimited times.

Remember, as the instructions say, “This is a "self-check" quiz, no points are awarded for taking this quiz, but hopefully it will support your learning of the content,” so there's no reason to re-take the quiz.  Your feedback will be posted after the week ends and everyone has had a chance to take the quiz.

 

 

 

 

COURSE DEVELOPER NOTES FOR FACULTY. THE INFORMATION BELOW DOES NOT APPLY TO DR. AITKEN'S COURSE.

 

INFORMATION BELOW IS FOR FACULTY ONLY!

 

FACULTY are free to change this course as they deem appropriate.  Below are example assignments.

 

Professor's Choice 1.  Cultural Microethnography Assignment

Effective global leaders have an understanding of diverse cultural perspectives. To assist you in developing cultural awareness, each student will select a cultural group that is marginalized within their broader cultural context (for example, an ethnic group, religious group, or those sharing a similar lifestyle orientation). Find out more about this cultural group by talking with at least three members and/or observing members of the group as a participant/observer (for example, go to a group function, a meeting, or attend a rally).

Group your report in research based information (e.g., include 5-20 references).  Write a report detailing your experience. In particular, focus on the following:

a.  your feelings, thoughts, and expectations before the assignment;
b.  your interactions with the people in the culture you explored; and
c.  how the experience has changed your perceptions.

Your microethnography data must be collected during the course (an essay about a trip to Japan two summers ago is not acceptable). Provide specific details in your report regarding the encounter(s) you experienced with members of the cultural group you investigated.

 

Professor's Choice 2.  Cultural Comparison Group Project

Working in groups, course participants will be responsible for preparing a collaborative report comparing leadership practices in three distinct cultures. This report should explore leadership practices in various contexts, such as social, political, and business leadership. The primary emphasis of the report should be a comparison of cultural similarities and differences among the three countries. Comparisons of such factors as economic and legal systems, the structure of government, or other demographic details should be kept to a minimum.

The main emphasis of the report should be a comparison of the behavior of leaders and followers within the three countries. The report should attempt to integrate content from the course instructional materials as well as sources not already covered in the assigned readings. Observation hours and creative approaches to this assignment are appreciated. There is not one particular preferred format.

Final reports may be include a website presentation or an electronic file with text; graphs, charts, and tables; and visual images. An annotated bibliography with an attachment of the first page of each source or the entire PDF file should be included. The grade on this assignment will be based on the final product submitted and will be assigned to the group as a whole.

 

Professor's Choice 3. Secondary Book Analysis

Summarize and evaluate a leadership book (secondary text) based on your leadership research and theory and the principles explained in your course materials.  Delineate the key principles advocated in the book and analyze whether or not they are research based (cite the relevant research). 

You cannot use a book you read previously or are reading for another course.  The book review will involve a presentation, content, and length requirements according to your professor's requirements (class presentation with a written summary).

1.  Leading Organizations (Gill Robinson Hickman, Ed.)
2.  Leadership and the New Science (Margaret Wheatley)3.  Bass and Stogdill’s Handbook of Leadership. The Handbook is the most comprehensive summary of leadership research through the 1980s, containing approximately 7,500 citations.

Some professors teaching leadership courses supplemental sources in addition to the primary text. There are literally hundreds of leadership books that could be used as supplemental texts.

4.  The Leader’s Companion (Thomas Wren, Ed.)

5.  On Leadership (John Gardner)

6.  The Courageous Follower (Ira Chaleff)

7.  Jesus CEO (Laurie Beth Jones)

8.  The Leadership Challenge (James Kousez and Barry Posner)

9.  Stewardship (Peter Block)

10.  Servant Leadership (Robert Greenleaf)

11.  Lincoln on Leadership (Donald T. Phillips)

12.  Primal Leadership (Daniel Goleman, Richard Boykatsis, and Ann McKee)

13.  Leadership on the Edge (Dennis Perkins and associates)

14.  Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (Steven Covey)

15.  Meeting the Ethical Challenges of Leadership (Craig Johnson)

16.  Leadership the Eleanor Roosevelt Way (Robin Gerber)

17.  Focus on Leadership (Larry Spears, Ed.)

18.  Good to Great (Jim Collins)

19.  The Nature of Organizational Leadership (Stephen Zaccaro and Richard Klimoski, Eds.)

20.  Creative Communication (Craig Johnson and Michael Hackman)

21.  The Future of Leadership (Warren Bennis, Gretchen Spreitzer, and Thomas Cummings, Eds.)

22.  Transforming Leadership (James MacGregor Burns)

23.  Leading Teams (J. Richard Hackman)

24.  When Teams Work Best (Frank LaFasto and Carl Larson)

25.  Developing Potential Across a Full Range of Leadership (Bruce Avolio and Bernard Bass, Eds.)

 

Week 1 QUANTITATIVE REASONING Leadership Behaviors Ranking 

 

If a person's LPI results ranged from 40 to 60 percentile, what would that mean?

The image “http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec15_files/image016.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

QUANTITATIVE LOGIC

 

In communication and leadership, you will need to use logic and inference to solve problems.  Quantitative interpretation is an essential skill in measuring leadership because you need to read tables and analyze results in your own research and when evaluating the research of scholars.  As a fun way to get your logic juices flowing and for practice reading tables in multiple directions, complete the Sudoku below.  Time yourself and let us know how long it took and how experienced you are at doing these logic puzzles.

 

This information quoted directly from Sudoku.com:  Sudoku doesn't require any special math skills or calculations. It is a simple and fun game of logic -- all that's needed is brains and concentration.

There is really only one rule to Sudoku: Fill in the game board so that the numbers 1 through 9 occur exactly once in each row, column, and 3x3 box. The numbers can appear in any order and diagonals are not considered. Your initial game board will consist of several numbers that are already placed. Those numbers cannot be changed. Your goal is to fill in the empty squares following the simple rule above.

Many of the games available on Sudoku.com feature unique twists on Sudoku basics. Experiment with the different Sudoku games and discover these exciting variations!

Sudoku grid

1. Fill the grid so that the numbers 1 through 9 appear in each row.

2. Fill the grid so that the numbers 1 through 9 appear in each column.

3. Fill the grid so that the numbers 1 through 9 appear in each 3x3 box.

4. A complete Sudoku puzzle contains the numbers 1 through 9 in every row, column, and 3x3 box.

 

Week 3 QUANTITATIVE LOGIC

http://www.inertiasoftware.com/images/sample/sudoku.gif

Source

 

Week 4 QUANTITATIVE REASONING Leadership Behaviors Ranking 

Rationale:  Generally, mathematics in college math classes focuses on calculation.  Mathematics in the social sciences, however, focuses on interpretation.  In communication studies, you need to know how to use software that will calculate and show you results.  Then you need to take the next inferential reasoning step to interpret the results. 

Learning Outcome:  Interpret LPI results.

Assignment:  Consider this table of a subject's results in the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI).  Write an interpretation of one of the five principles and suggest a strategy of communication behavioral change to the subject.

This page shows the ranking, from most frequent ("high") to least frequent ("low") of all 30 leadership behaviors based on the average Observers' score. A horizontal line separates the 10 least frequent behaviors from the others. An asterisk (*) next to the Observer score indicates that the Observer score and the Self score differ by more than plus or minus 1.5.

 

High                                        Practice                               Self  Observer

14.Treats others with dignity and respect     Enable                 9     9.8

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24.Gives people choice about how to do their  Enable              9     9.3

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9. Actively listens to diverse points of view Enable                  10     9.3

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30.Gives team members appreciation and        Encourage        7     9.2 *

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5. Praises people for a job well done         Encourage              5     9.2 *

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19.Supports decisions other people make       Enable              7     9.0 *

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1. Sets a personal example of what is         Model                 10     8.9

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11.Follows through on promises and            Model                10     8.9

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29.Ensures that people grow in their jobs     Enable               10     8.9

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27.Speaks with conviction about meaning of    Inspire              9     8.9

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8. Challenges people to try new approaches    Challenge        10     8.5

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23.Makes certain that goals, plans, and       Challenge             8     8.5

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16.Asks for feedback on how his/her actions   Model               5     8.4 *

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6. Makes certain that people adhere to        Model                   5     8.4 *

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10.Expresses confidence in people's abilities Encourage          8     8.3

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4. Develops cooperative relationships         Enable                   5     8.2 *

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22.Paints "big picture" of group aspirations  Inspire                  6     8.2 *

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26.Is clear about his/her philosophy of       Model                     5     8.1 *

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15.Creatively rewards people for their        Encourage               9     7.8

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2. Talks about future trends influencing our  Inspire                   5     7.8 *

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25.Finds ways to celebrate accomplishments    Encourage       8     7.7

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3. Seeks challenging opportunities to test    Challenge            10     7.6 *

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20.Recognizes people for commitment to shared Encourage     5     7.5 *

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18.Asks "What can we learn?"                  Challenge               7     7.2

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13.Searches outside organization for          Challenge              7     7.0

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28.Experiments and takes risks                Challenge             10     6.8 *

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12.Appeals to others to share dream of the    Inspire                7     6.8

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17.Shows others how their interests can be    Inspire               5     6.6 *

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7. Describes a compelling image of the future Inspire               5     6.4

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21.Builds consensus around organization's     Model                5     6.2

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Low   * Difference between Observers' and Self rating was greater than 1.5 © Copyright 2003 James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner.  Published by Pfeiffer. All rights reserved.

 

Week 5 QUANTITATIVE REASONING

Rationale:  Research suggests that students in social sciences like communication studies "need practice expressing verbally the quantitative meanings of both problems and solutions.  They need to be able to write fluently in complete sentences and coherent paragraphs; to explain the meaning of data, tables, graphs, and formulas; and to express the relations among these different representations" (Sheen, 2007, p. 12).   Steen, L. A.  (2007, November).  How mathematics counts.  Educational Leadership, 9-14.

 

Learning Outcome:  To interpret LPI data to provide a basis for suggesting changes in communication behavior.

 

Assignment: Write an explanation of what the data on this table mean.

This table compares a subject’s Self scores and those of their Observers to the scores of several thousand people who have taken this version of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The horizontal lines at the 30th and 70th percentiles divide the graph into three segments, roughly approximating a normal distribution of scores.  Using percentile ranks is a method of ranking each score on the continuum of the normal distribution.  Percentile ranks are scores that express the percentage of people who scored as well as or lower than a given person's score.  Percentiles range from the 99.9th percentile to less than the 1st percentile. A percentile of 50 is average.  If you have questions about what “percentile” means, go back to week/unit 1 lecture.  S=Self and O=Other  Scroll down to see table.

 

 

 

Model

Inspire Vision

Challenge Process

Enable Act

Encourage Heart

99

 

 

 

 

 

90

 

 

 

 

 

80

 

 

S

O

 

70

 

 

 

 

 

60

O

 

 

 

O

50

 

O

O

S

 

40

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

S

 

 

S

20

S

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

     

        © Copyright 2003 James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner.  Published by Pfeiffer.  All rights reserved.

 

 

Week 6 QUANTITATIVE REASONING  Inferential Problem Solving (Dr. Aitken)

Rationale:  Measurement and calculation are part of all vocational subjects, including communication and leadership.  Tables, data, and graphs are common in research in our field.  Students in communication need to be able to make logical inferences, which is crucial to critical thinking and problem solving.  Steen, L. A.  (2007, November).  How mathematics counts.  Educational Leadership, 9-14.

Learning Outcome:  Use analysis and inference in problem solving.

Assignment:  Solve the problem using the written information to fill in table elements.  Then use inferential reasoning to complete other parts of the table.

 

The communication team at Park University is a diverse group of talented people.  As team leader, you need to figure out if new assignments and skills match well.  Figure out who is doing what and if you should re-assign tasks.

Eduardo, Betty, Bart, Shaniqua, and Rong have new work assignments (in no particular order) of Blog-moderator, F2F-sales, Report-writer, Supervisor-advertising, and Speech-writer.  These five new assignments should be coordinated with certain skills (again, in no particular order), which are Presenter, Persuader, Writer, Researcher, and Networker.  From the clues given, try to determine what are the skills and the new assignments for each person and decide if reassignments s.

 

1,  No new assignment begins with the same letter as that of the person’s name who has that assignment.

2.  The Report-writer is not Bart's new assignment or Shaniqua's new assignment.

3.  The Speech-writer and the person who has the Researcher skill both have names beginning with the same letter.

4.  Neither Eduardo's new assignment nor Betty's new assignment is also the Persuader, nor is the Supervisor-advertising also the Persuader.

5.  Bart's new assignment and the Networker are not assigned to be Supervisor-advertising or Speech-writer.

6.  Rong's skill is not a Writer.

Scroll down for table.

 

Skill

Presenter

Persuader

Writer

Researcher

Networker

New Assignment

Blog-moderator

F2F-

sales

Report-

writer

Supervisor-

advertising

Speech-

writer

Eduardo

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Betty

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bart

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shaniqua

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rong

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Assignment

Blog-moderator

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

F2F-sales

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Report-writer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Supervisor-advertising

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Speech-writer

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skill

Presenter

Persuader

Writer

Researcher

Networker

New Assign

Blog-moderator

F2F-

sales

Report-

writer

Supervisor-

advertising

Speech-

writer

Eduardo

 x

 x

 x

 x

 o

 x

x

Betty

 x

 x

 o

 x

 x

 x

 x

 x

 x

 o

Bart

 x

 x

 x

o

 x

 x

 o

 x

 x

 x

Shaniqua

 x

 o

 x

 x

 x

 o

 x

 x

 x

 x

Rong

 o

 x

 x

 x

 x

 x

 x

 x

 x

New Assignment

Blog-moderator

 x

 o

 x

 x

 x

 

 

 

 

 

F2F-sales

 x

 x

 x

 o

 x

 

 

 

 

 

Report-writer

 x

 x

 x

 x

 o

 

 

 

 

 

Supervisor-advertising

 o

 x

 x

 x

 x

 

 

 

 

 

Speech-writer

 x

 o

 x

 

 

 

 

 

 

I've solved this three times from scratch, and I would say I averaged an hour or so overall.

Once you are sure of an item, you can cross out other choices in the row going both ways because you automatically eliminate.

The upper right quadrant is the easiest to solve.  Make inferences to the other quadrants from what you know.

Some more difficult relationships, which took me longer to figure out.

Eduardo is the report writer so not Supervisor-advertising.

Bart is not the networker and neither are Supervisor-advertising.

Speech writer is not the researcher

Eduardo is not the supervisor-advertising.

Betty is not the supervisor-advertising.

Bart is not networker.

Eduardo is not the persuader.

 

Core Assessment due week 6.  Use you LPI printout as the foundation for the plan you've implemented.  Detailed instructions under "Assignment" on lower left.

 

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