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Life Span Development

http://www.prenhall.com/broderick

 

Useful review information http://www.northern.ac.uk/learning/NCMaterial/Psychology/lifespan%20folder/Psyoutline.html

Discovering Psychology http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/glossary.html

CliffnotesDevelopmental Psychology Glossary http://www.cliffsnotes.com/WileyCDA/Section/Developmental-Psychology-Glossary.id-305499,articleId-30164.html

Week 2-3 

Life span development is the study of human behavioral change from conception to death.  Genetics, careers, biology and other factors cause the changes.  Stage v. incremental change theory.

 

PowerPoint

Chapter 1

What is Life Span Development?

Survey: agree/disagree

Physical characteristics such as eye color, height, and weight are primarily inherited.

Intelligence is primarily inherited.

Personality is primarily inherited.

Events in the first 3 years of life have permanent effects on a person’s psychological development.

People’s personalities do not change very much over their lifetime.

People all go through the same stages in their lives.

Parents have a somewhat limited impact on their children’s development

The cultural context in which the individual lives has a primary effect upon that person’s psychological development.

Common sense is a better guide to child rearing than is scientific knowledge.

What is life span development

The study of human behavioral change from conception to death?

This definition presupposed that people change from conception to death, what do you think?

Why do people change?

Do they go through stages?

Why?

How does understanding these things help you and your practice?

Research base gives a foundation and tool for decision making

Encourages thinking about problems from a developmental perspective (ie. behavior didn’t just come out of nowhere…)

Be able to understand clients’ place in life and counsel appropriately

Facilitates counselors’ growth

 

Theory

Understanding psychology and behavior through theories

Building on history, learning from the past

Serves as ways to understand and counsel

Scientist/Practioner model-

Our theory and our practice is built upon research

Stage Models

A person’s activities have similar qualities within stages but different qualities across stages.

Shifts happen somewhat quickly (ie. language)

The four month old is fundamentally different than the same 4 year old.

Freud’s Personality Theory

First, DO NOT DISMISS THE IMPORTANCE OF FRUED

Id

Ego

Superego

Freud Psychosexual Stages

Oral (birth – 1)

Anal (1-3)

Phallic (3-5)

Oedipus & Electra complex

Latency (6-puberty)

Genital (puberty- )

 

Erik Erikson’s PsychoSocial Model

Assumed that the child or adult is an active, self-organizing individual who needs only the right social context to move in a positive direction.

Trust vs. Mistrust (birth-1)

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)

Initiative vs. Guilt (3-5)

Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)

Identity vs. Role Confusion (12-20)

Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young adulthood)

Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle adulthood)

Ego integrity vs. Despair (Late adulthood)

Piaget’s Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor (Birth-2)

Preoperational (2-6)

Concrete Operational (7-11)

Formal Operational (12- )

Incremental models

Unlike stages, some models are incremental. More like climbing a mountain than climbing stairs

Skinner’s Behaviorism

Conditioning

Classical. Unconditioned Stimulus->unconditioned response, Conditioned stimulus, conditioned response http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cP5lCleK-PM

Operant. Action is reinforced by something pleasurable

Positive reinforcement

Negative reinforcement

Positive punishment

Negative punishment

Bandura’s Social Learning

Modeling, observational learning

People learn by watching and making generalizations.

http://s239.photobucket.com/albums/ff297/123456789ten_0666/?action=view&current=bobodoll.flv

Adler’s Individual Psychology

All behavior, thoughts, and emotions are unified

All people strive for superiority (significance) and social interest

Life goals of work, friendship, and love.

Multidimensional or system models

Apply to all domains of development

Layers, or levels of interacting causes for behavioral change: biological, psychological, social, and cultural

Bronfenbrenner

Life-Span Developmental Theory

The same developmental processes that produce transformation of infants to children, and children into adults, are thought to continue throughout adulthood until death.

Biological supports

Cultural supports

BIG QUESTIONS

Nature and Nurture

Inherited or learned

Genetic risk factors? Environmental influences?

Critical Periods and Plasticity

Can a child (or adult) learn things whenever the opportunity or are there critical periods when things are learned easier. (Language, motor skills, etc)

Ability to change, to learn new skills

Big Questions

Continuity and Discontinuity

Does a trait always exist (ie. shyness)

Perhaps varying degrees of the trait

Do events have more or less permanent effects. Must an issues be dealt with eventually or can it be forgotten?

Universality and Specificity

Ethnic group/culture

SES

Sexual orientations

Big Questions

Qualitative and Quantitative change

Are changes qualitative transformations or more like quantitative changes in degree or increment

Activity and Passivity

How much are we impacted by society, our environment, our genes? How much are we creators of our own fate?

For example, is the parent controlling the child, or is the child controlling the parent?

How much do we create our own reality?

Implications

Be aware and appropriately cautious in theory developments. Be able to identify bogus treatments and theories but also be open to new interpretations and new ideas.

Interpret stage sequences as guidelines for development.

Take a multidimensional view of developmental processes. No one of these theories is right or wrong.

Be committed to ongoing education in the field

To think about/discuss

What causes psychological/relational/physical illness?

How do we go about preventing illness and promoting health?

Chapter Outline
 

REFLECTION AND ACTION

The Gap Between Science and Practice

THE BIG PICTURE: MODELS AND
METAPHORS

Stage Models (Freud, Erickson, Piaget)

The theories are different ways to view the same stuff.  We're  reflective practioners.  Do we use a cognitive or behavioral intervention?

 

FREUD's PERSONALITY THEORY

 

First, DO NOT DISMISS THE IMPORTANCE OF FREUD

ID--biological self.  Driven by pleasure principle.

EGO--Cognitive and physical skills.  Realistic self.  Reality principle.

SUPEREGO--Guilt.

 

We study theory as a roadmap to understand people.

 

PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES

ORAL--mouth (birth-1)

ANAL --overly cautious (age 1-3)

PHALLIC--assertion (3-5 yrs)  Assertion, self-centered vanity

Oedipus & Electra complex

LATENCY (age 6-puberty) Personality evolves

GENITAL (puberty-)

For Freud potty training is about control and pleasure.  Not for Erickson.

 

ERICKSON  Psychosocial.  Assumed that the child or adult is an active, self-organizing individual who needs only the right social context to move in a positive direction.  See table page 9.

1.  Trust v mistrust (birth)  Toward caregiver.  World is a safe place.  Or may have difficulty bonding. 

2. Autonomy v shame & doubt (age 1-3)     Independence tied to new motor and mental skills.  Co dependency would be a negative outcome.

3.  Initiative v. guilt (3-6)  More "grown up" responsibility.  If do things and are punished, may lead to guilt.  Initiative would be positive things they do.  Could lead to self-destructive behavior, less initiative because feel guilty.

4.  Industry v inferiority  (6-12)  Elementary school.  Compare to others.  Trying to fit in.  Learn academic and social skills--an enormous number of skills.  Able to build things.  Grades.

5.  Identity v role confusion (12-20)  Hobbies.  Which crowd? 

6.  Intimacy v. isolation (young adulthood)  About relationships, being with others, dating, going to school.

7.Generativity v stagnation (middle adulthood). Having children. 

8.  Ego identify v. despair (late adulthood).  Take stock of life.  Legacy. 

For Erickson, he says it goes in this order.

 

Piaget Cognitive Developmental stages  STAGE

Sensory Motor Stage  touch, feel, taste, hearing,

(Birth - 2yrs)

Pre-operational Stage  goal oriented behavior, little more complex thinking.

(2yrs-7yrs)

Concrete Operational Stage  logical thought,  when they start looking for gifted kids at 7 and 11 because they've jumped to the next stage.

(7yrs-11yrs)

Formal Operations Stage  abstract, can think about concepts.

(11yrs-16yrs)

 

Post Formal:  Think about our own thinking.

Incremental Models (learning theories, behaviorist tradition, classical and operant conditioning, social learning theory, modeling, information processing theories)  Bandura is social learning theory.

Unlike stages, some models are incremental.  More like climbing a mountain than stairs.

Bandura Bobo doll.  Watched film of aggressive acts toward doll.  Then kids did it. http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-4586465813762682933&ei=lz-CSeSDJqPWqAO9w6SMDg&q=bandura+bobo+doll&hl=en

Bandura's Social learning--Says we learn things from watching things around us and that's the driving force.  Fulfilling the pleasure principle is not the driving force.  The driving force that makes us do what we do is society and what we've learned.

 

Adler's Individual Psychology

All behavior, thoughts, and emotions are unified.

All people strive for superiority (significance) and social interest.  We all strive to make a difference in the world.We strive to fit, achieve a sense of community, feeling of

Life goals of (a) work, (b) friendship, and (c) love.   belonging.

 

Modeling, observational learning.

People learn by watching and making generalizations.

The major theorist in the development of classical conditioning is Ivan Pavlov.  Classical conditioning is Stimulus (S) elicits >Response (R) conditioning since the antecedent stimulus (singular) causes (elicits) the reflexive or involuntary response to occur. 

Classical conditioning.

Two things don't happen at same time.  Unconditioned stimulus (food).  Give the food a split second after the bell so that anticipation happens.

Deal with phobias through desensitization.  Breathe slower--body has no choice except to relax.

Operant conditioning.  Action is reinforced by something pleasurable.

Positive reinforcement--adding something

Negative reinforcement--taking something away  (If you practice the piano 45 minutes, you don't have to do your chores.

Reinforcement is encouraging or encouraging behavior.

Punishment is trying to remove a behavior.

Positive punishment

Negative punishment

Thorndike, Watson, and Skinner. http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/behsys/operant.html Skinner's Behaviorism

Multidimensional or Systems Models  (apply to all domains of development from the cognitive to the social.  Layers or levels.  transactional models, relational models, epigenetic (gene expression) models)

Apply to all domains of development.

Layers, or levels of interacting causes for behavioral change:  Biological, psychological, social, and cultural.  Adler is in here.

Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model--proximal processes, reciprocal interactions between an active, evolving biopsychological human organism and the persons, objects and symbols in its immediate external environment.

Series of concentric circles.  Multilayer like onion.  Demand characteristics--behavioral tendencies that often either encourage or discourage certain kinds of reactions from others.

Systems

Primary--child, the individual

microsystem (contacts) Neighborhood play area.  Church group.

mesosytem (2 degrees of separation)  How the microsystem relates to each other.  Not a direct effect.

exosystem (environment)

macrosystem (customs and character of the larger culture)  Frameworks of thought.  Politics.

 

Life span developmental theory

The same developmental processes that produce transformation of infants to children, and children into aduts, are thought to continue throughout adulthood until death.

Biological supports

Cultural supports

 

APPLYING MODELS AND METAPHORS
MAJOR ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT BIG QUESTIONS

Nature and (not versus) Nurture This is on a spectrum, a continuum.

Critical Periods and Plasticity (any time with right opportunities)  Can a child (or adult) learn things whenever the opportunity or are there critical periods when things are learned easier.  (Language, moor skills)

Continuity (persist, relatively unchanged throughout life) and Discontinuity (product of dynamic interactions)  Does a trait always exist (i.e. shyness)?  Perhaps varying degrees of the trait?  Do events have more or less permanent effects?  Must an issue be dealt with eventually or can it be forgotten?

Universality (basically the same for culture) and Specificity.  Nearly all theories assume that developmental process are the same for all human beings, and cross-cultural research tends to bear this out.

Qualitative (transformational) and Quantitative (incremental) Change.  Are changes aulitative transformations or more like quantitative changes in degree o incremental?

Activity and Passivity How much are we impacted by society, our environment, our genes?  How much are we creators of our own fate?  For example, is the parent controlling the child, or is the child controlling the parent?  How much do we create our own reality?

 
IMPLICATIONS
There are many ways of doing things.  There are different models of educating.  Be flexible.  Have an open mind.
Critically analyze things because of your knowledge.
Open to new ideas.
 
Brain seems to develop forever.

 

APPLICATIONS
SUMMARY
CASE STUDY AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
JOURNAL QUESTIONS
KEY TERMS

 

Week 4

Genetic biology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6CBBzw6xUJEDNA

23 paired chromosomes

Sperm and egg come together and create a genetically new individual.

Genes: 20,000-25,000. They act as a sort of blue print to produce proteins and enzymes

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3754653362393752644&ei=rCOLSa39MoT0-wGf_uHQDA&hl=en

More on Genes

The genes (genotype)interact to create traits (phenotype)

Dominant are expressed over recessive

Two recessive expressed

Example:

Curly hair=C

Straight hair=c

Inheritance of Sex

XX (female) or XY (male)

Hereditary Diseases

Recessive Gene

Cystic fibrosis

Sickle-cell anemia

Tay-Sachs disease

Hemophilia

Muscular dystrophy

Dominant, defective alleles

Huntington’s

Farsightedness

Test is now undergoing for early detection, possibility for gener therapy

Polygenic origin

Multiple genes involved

Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, alcoholism, schizophrenia

Chromosomal abnormalities

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Sex-linked

X-linked recessive such as hemophilia, baldness, color blindness

(results in men much more highly affected because there is no second X to get a dominant gene

Explaining Behavior

Human Genome Project

Twin studies between identitical (monozygotic) and fraternal twins (dizygotic)

Heritability-not the same thing as inherited.

The degree to which differences among individuals on a trait may be the result of their having different genes

Shared and non-shared environment.

Twin studies: such as both extraversion and neuroticism have been shown to be much more linked in fraternal twins than identical twins

http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/9690-through-the-lens-genetics-and-identical-twins-video.htm

Environmental Influences

Genes can have three levels of impact on environment:

Passive-due to children and parents sharing genes. Parents genes affects children’s environment, which then influence children’s gene expression

Evocative

A person’s genes affect their own behavior which in turn affect the reaction of another

Active

When people choose their own environment, companions, and activities

Hypertension

Pups with hypertension risk factor do not get hypertension unless raised by a hypertensive mother.

How about IQ?

According to one study, IQ heritability differed depending on one’s SES. In higher SES it was as high as 60%, in poor SES, near 0%.

Epigenetic Model

Development is the result of interacting genetic and environmental elements which are complex and intertwining (Coaction)

Occur at multiple levels of functioning

Environment, behavior, neural activity, genetic activity

Possible therapies

Somatic cell therapy

Insertion of healthy genes into appropriate tissue

Germline therapy

Altering the sperm or egg cells to pass on healthy genes to future generations

Teratogens

From before conception to birth, the environment is that of the mother.

Some things are certainly dangerous for the embryo.

Alcohol: FAS, abnormalities in facial structure, cognitive abilities growth deficits

Tobacco: low birth weight, constricted blood flow, premature birth, respiratory problems, learning problems

Cocaine: Prematurity or still birth, low birth weight, drug withdrawal, ADHD

AIDS: often transmitted to child either in birth canal or in breast milk

Lead: prematurity, low birth weight, brain damage

 

Fetal Health

Nutrition

Exercise

Low stress

Age

Genetic Counseling

Much counseling can be done preparing a family for what the child may have

Also counseling about the family environment both during pregnancy and after

Therapy during pregnancy

Massage therapy

Nutrition

Music???

THE NATURE-NURTURE ILLUSION
MECHANISMS OF GENETIC INFLUENCE: HOW DO GENES WORK?

Biological Inheritance

How Genes Influence Traits

The Inheritance of Sex

Hereditary Diseases

EXPLAINING BEHAVIOR: FOCUS ON GENETICS

Molecular Genetics

Behavior Genetics

Genetic Influences on Environments

SHIFTING FOCUS TO THE COACTION OF GENES AND ENVIRONMENT

Unexpected Sources of Environmental Effects

The Case for Coaction

The Epigenetic Model: A Multidimensional Perspective

HEALTHY PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT

Genetic Interventions

Environmental Influences on Prenatal Development


1 The involvement of genes in choosing environments that support personal behaviors and interests are referred to as:
Active
 
2 An example of a "polygenic origin" disorder, meaning that it runs in families but is not caused by genes at a single chromosomal location is:
Mental Illnesses
Muscular Dystrophy

3 Parents are upset at the physical appearance of their child who is born with a small head, widely spaced eyes, and a flat nose that does not resemble the mother or father. Their child's appearance is a result of:
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

4 Which period of the nine-month gestational period is classified by commencing development of the fetus' organ systems and structures?
The period of the embryo

5 As discussed in the text, the following are all stages that the body goes through when handling stressors, EXCEPT:
Manic phase

6 Methodological criticism of the behavior genetics approach includes:
It is based on the assumption that phenotype is the sum of genetic and environmental influences
The interpretation of findings from twin studies is controversial

7 The textbook talks about the different conditions that influence the negative effect of teratogens on pregnancy. Which of the following statements is NOT a correct principle influencing the impact?
The kind of damage done is the same irrespective of the stage of pregnancy

8 What does the text describe as the body's building blocks?
Proteins

9 Which of the following is NOT a disorder of polygenic origin?
Huntington's chorea

10 What is the division of a normal body cell called?
Mitosis

11 Androgens are:
Necessary hormones in the development of male characteristics

12 Samantha was born with Down's syndrome. As an infant, she was needy and required constant attention from her parents. Her parents therefore became overprotective and "babied" her as a child, keeping her close at all arial and doing many things for her even though she had the ability to do things herself. When she entered school, she was described as immature, clingy, and socially and cognitively delayed. This example illustrates which type of genetic influence on environment?
Evocative

13 According to the text and the Surgeon General, how much alcohol would be considered appropriate for a mother during pregnancy?
No safe dosage

14 Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to the fact that male conceptions outnumber female conceptions 14 to 10 but male births only slightly outnumber female births?
The X chromosomes of all males zygotes have "fragile X syndrome"
Though the X and Y sperm are produced in equal numbers, more Y zygotes are conceived for a multitude of reasons not covered in this chapter. In spite of their fertilizing prowess, the sperm carrying the Y chromosome are more susceptible to prenatal demise; therefore the female zygotes survive the prenatal period better than males. The problem for males is believed to be the mismatched sex chromosomes which make them more susceptible to some genetic disorders than females. The smaller Y chromosome does not carry the matching genes for the X-linked recessive diseases and therefore is more likely to be a victim of these diseases. Though males are more vulnerable to any breakage or dysfunction of the X chromosome, not all X chromosomes of male zygotes have "fragile X syndrome."


15 As children get older, they choose environments and companions that are compatible with their interests. This is an example of:
Niche picking

 

Human Genome Project
This website on Human Genome Project presents the findings of this project. You can also can see the genetic disorders by chromosome.
http://gdbwww.gdb.org/

Minnesota Twin Family Study
This site describes various twin-related projects being conducted by the Department of Psychology at the University of Minnesota.
http://www.psych.umn.edu/psylabs/mtfs/default.htm

National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
This website has information regarding diagnosis and experiences with FAS. It also has current career opportunities and future events in this field of study and research.
http://www.nofas.org/

National Fragile X Syndrome
This website has information regarding Fragile X Syndrome, including interventions and treatments.
http://www.fragilex.org/

Cystic Fibrosis
This site gives information about cystic fibrosis and resources for this recessive gene disorder.
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cysticfibrosis.html

National Society of Genetic Counselors
"The leading voice, authority and advocate for the genetic counseling profession." As future counselors it is interesting to see what is happening in related professions, as well as gain more understanding regarding issues clients might be facing.
http://www.nsgc.org/

Genetics & Public Policy Center
In addition to the detail this site provides about how gene therapy works, the section on ethical considerations is interesting.
http://www.dnapolicy.org/genetics/transfer.jhtml

Nutrition and Lifestyle for a Healthy Pregnancy
Prepared by American Dietetic Association. This site has a lot of information on nutrition before conception and during pregnancy, the servings of different food groups, supplements, and complaints during pregnancy.
http://www.eatright.org/Public/NutritionInformation/92_adar1002b.cfm

California Teratogen Information Service
This site run by The Department of Pediatrics at UCSD provides lots of information and an information hotline phone number.
http://ctispregnancy.org/about_us/about_us.shtml

Genetics in Psychology
This section of the American Psychological Association website includes links to several articles on Behavioral Genetics.
http://www.apa.org/science/genetics/

American Public Health Association
Online catalog/guide on cross-cultural maternal health.
http://www.apha.org/ppp/red/Intro.htm

GLOSSARY From http://www.kumc.edu/gec/glossnew.html

Achondroplasia -- the most common and well known form of short limbed dwarfism characterized by a normal trunk size with disproportionally short arms and legs, and a disproportionally large head; autosomal dominant condition.

 

Advanced maternal age -- women over age 34 (age 35 at delivery) at increased risk for nondisjunction trisomy in fetus.

 

Alcoholism -- a chronic and progressive condition characterized by the inability to control the consumption of alcohol.
 
See full size imageAllele -- an alternative form of a gene; any one of several mutational forms of a gene.

 

 
 
 
 
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) -- a protein excreted by the fetus into the amniotic fluid and from there into the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

 

Alu repetitive sequence -- the most common dispersed repeated DNA sequence in the human genome accounting for 5% of human DNA. The name is derived from the fact that these sequences are cleaved by the restriction endonuclease Alu.

 

Amino acid sequence -- the linear order of the amino acids in a protein or peptide.

 

Amniocentesis -- prenatal diagnosis method using cells in the amniotic fluid to determine the number and kind of chromosomes of the fetus and, when indicated, perform biochemical studies.

 

Amniocyte -- cells obtained by amniocentesis.

 

Amplification -- any process by which specific DNA sequences are replicated disproportionately greater than their representation in the parent molecules.

 

Androgens-- male hormone (testosterone)
 
Aneuploidy -- state of having variant chromosome number (too many or too few). (i.e. Down syndrome, Turner syndrome).

 

Angelman syndrome -- a condition characterized by severe mental deficiency, developmental delay and growth deficiency, puppet-like gait and frequent laughter unconnected to emotions of happiness.

 

Apert syndrome -- a condition caused by the premature closure of the sutures of the skull bones, resulting in an altered head shape, with webbed fingers and toes. Autosomal dominant.

 

Artificial insemination -- the placement of sperm into a female reproductive tract or the mixing of male and female gametes by other than natural means.

 

Autosome -- a nuclear chromosome other than the X- and Y-chromosomes.

 

Autoradiograph -- a photographic picture showing the position of radioactive substances in tissues.

 

Bacteriophage -- a virus whose host is a bacterium; commonly called phage.

 

Barr body -- the condensed single X-chromosome seen in the nuclei of somatic cells of female mammals. base pair a pair of hydrogen-bonded nitrogenous bases (one purine and one pyrimidine) that join the component strands of the DNA double helix.

 

Base sequence -- a partnership of organic bases found in DNA and RNA; adenine forms a base pair with thymine (or uracil) and guanine with cytosine in a double-stranded nucleic acid molecule.

 

Baysian analysis -- a mathematical method to further refine recurrence risk taking into account other known factors.

 

Becker muscular dystrophy -- X-linked condition characterized by progressive muscle weakness and wasting; manifests later in life with progression less severe than Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

 

Behavior genetics -- based on an additive model:  phenotype = genes + environment

Canalization --a kind of developmental outcome that is not really learning but a limiting of channeling of behavior over the course of ontogenesis.

 
Carrier -- an individual heterozygous for a single recessive gene.

 

cDNA -- complementary DNA produced from a RNA template by the action of RNA- dependent DNA polymerase.

 

Centromere -- a region of a chromosome to which spindle traction fibers attach during mitosis and meiosis; the position of the centromere determines whether the chromosome is considered an acrocentric, metacentric or telomeric chromosome.

 

Charcot-Marie Tooth disease -- a condition characterized by degeneration of the motor and sensory nerves that control movement and feeling in the arm below the elbow and the leg below the knee; transmitted in autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and X-linked forms.

 

Chorionic villus sampling -- an invasive prenatal diagnostic procedure involving removal of villi from the human chorion to obtain chromosomes and cell products for diagnosis of disorders in the human embryo.

 

Chromosome -- in the eukaryotic nucleus, one of the threadlike structures consisting of chromatin and carry genetic information arranged in a linear sequence.

 

Chromosome banding -- a technique for staining chromosomes so that bands appear in a unique pattern particular to the chromosome.

 

Cleft lip/palate -- congenital condition with cleft lip alone, or with cleft palate; cause is thought to be multifactorial.

 

Clone -- genetically engineered replicas of DNA sequences.

 

Cloned DNA -- any DNA fragment that passively replicates in the host organism after it has been joined to a cloning vector.

 

Coaction -- genes and environment interact
 
Codominance--produce a blended or additive outcome.
 
Codon -- a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA that specifies an amino acid.

 

Consanguinity -- genetic relationship. Consanguineous individuals have at least one common ancestor in the preceding few generations.

 

Conservative change -- an amino acid change that does not affect significantly the function of the protein.

 

Contiguous genes -- genes physically close on a chromosome that when acting together express a phenotype.

 

Cosmids -- plasmid vectors designed for cloning large fragments of eukaryotic DNA; the vector is a plasmid into which phage lambda cohesive end sites have been inserted.

 

CpG islands -- areas of multiple CG repeats in DNA.

 

Cri-du-chat syndrome -- a chromosomal condition (monosomy 5p). Name comes from the distinctive mewing cry of affected infants; characterized by significant mental deficiency, low birthweight, failure to thrive and short stature; deletion of a small section of the short arm of chromosome 5.

 

Crossovers -- the exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosome during meiosis.

 

Cornelia de Lange syndrome -- condition involving growth deficiency, significant developmental delay, anomalies of the extremities and a characteristic facial appearance.

 

Cytogenetics -- the study of chromosomes.

 

Cystic fibrosis -- an autosomal recessive genetic condition of the exocrine glands, which causes the body to produce excessively thick, sticky mucus that clogs the lungs and pancreas, interfering with breathing and digestion.

 

Degenerate codon -- a codon that specifies the same amino acid as another codon.

 

Deletion -- the loss of a segment of the genetic material from a chromosome.

 

Deletion mapping -- the use of overlapping deletions to localize the position of an unknown gene on a chromosome or linkage map.

 

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  The strands of a chromosome, constructed from four simple moleculres of bases, adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.  Genes make up only about 3% of chromosomal DNA.  The function of the remaining 97% called intergenic CNA is not well understood.Disease -- any deviation from the normal structure or function of any part, organ, or system of the body that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs whose pathology and prognosis may be known or unknown.

dizygotic -- fraterial twins

DMD -- Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

 

DNA fingerprint technique -- a method employed to determine differences in amino acid sequences between related proteins; relies upon the presence of a simple tandem-repetitive sequences that are scattered throughout the human genome.

 

DNA hybridization -- a technique for selectively binding specific segments of single-stranded (ss) DNA or RNA by base pairing to complementary sequences on ssDNA molecules that are trapped on a nitrocellulose filter.

 

DNA probe -- any biochemical used to identify or isolate a gene, a gene product, or a protein.

 

DNA sequencing -- "plus and minus" or "primed synthesis" method, developed by Sanger, DNA is synthesized in vitro in such a way that it is radioactively labeled and the reaction terminates specifically at the position corresponding to a given base; the "chemical" method, ssDNA is subjected to several chemical cleavage protocols that selectively make breaks on one side of a particular base.

 

DOE -- Department of Energy.

 

Dominant -- alleles that determine the phenotype displayed in a heterozygote with another (recessive) allele.

 

Down syndrome -- a type of mental deficiency due to trisomy (three copies) of autosome 21, a translocation of 21 or mosaicism.

 

Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy -- the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy; transmitted as an X-linked trait. X-linked recessive. Symptoms include onset at 2-5 years with difficulty with gait and stairs, enlarged calf muscles, progression to wheelchair by adolescence, shortened life span.

 

Dystonia -- neurologic condition involving repeated twisting and movement. Involves a variety of muscle groups. Intelligence not effected. Three forms: childhood - autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, adult-acquired.

 

Dwarfism -- conditions of short stature with adult height under 4'10" as adult, usually with normal intelligence and lifespan. Ehlers Danlos Syndrome connective tissue condition including problems with tendons, ligaments, skin, bones, cartilage, and membranes surrounding blood vessels and nerves. Symptoms include joint laxity, elastic skin, dislocations. Many forms: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked forms.

 

ELSI -- ethical, legal and social implications (of HGP).

 

Epigenetic model -- a multidimensional perspective or systems theory of the nature-nuture relationship.
 
Endonuclease -- an enzyme that breaks the internal phosphodiester bonds in a DNA molecule.

 

Ethics -- the study of fundamental principles which defines values and determines moral duty and obligation.

 

Erythrocytes -- the hemoglobin-containing cell found in the blood of vertebrates.

 

Euchromatin -- the chromatin that shows the staining behavior characteristic of the majority of the chromosomal complement.

 

Eugenics -- the improvement of humanity by altering its genetic composition by encouraging breeding of those presumed to have desirable genes.

 

Exons -- portion of a gene included in the transcript of a gene and survives processing of the RNA in the cell nucleus to become part of a spliced messenger of a structural RNA in the cell cytoplasm; an exon specifies the amino acid sequence of a portion of the complete polypeptide.

 

Fetal alcohol syndrome -- a link between excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy and birth defects; characteristics include small head and eyes, folds of the skin that obscure the inner juncture of the eyelids, short, upturned nose, and thin lips.

 

FISH -- florescent in situ hybridization: a technique for uniquely identifying whole chromosomes or parts of chromosomes using florescent tagged DNA.

 

5' - end -- the end of a polynucleotide with a free (or phosphorylated or capped) 5' - hydroxyl group; transcription/translation begins at this end.

 

Fragile sites -- a non-staining gap of variable width that usually involves both chromatids and is always at exactly the same point on a specific chromosome derived from an individual or kindred.

 

Fragile-X syndrome -- X-linked trait; the second most common identifiable cause of genetic mental deficiency.

 

Gamete -- an haploid cell.gel electrophoresis the process by which nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) or proteins are separated by size according to movement of the charged molecules in an electrical field.

 

Gene -- a hereditary unit that occupies a certain position on a chromosome; a unit that has one or more specific effects on the phenotype, and can mutate to various allelic forms.

 

Gene amplification -- any process by which specific DNA sequences are replicated disproportionately greater than their representation in the parent molecules; during development, some genes become amplified in specific tissues.

 

Gene expression  -- The process of the cascade of biochemical changes that occu in the transmission and translation of DNA information to cells.
 
Gene map -- the linear arrangement of mutable sites on a chromosome as deduced from genetic recombination experiments.

 

Gene therapy -- addition of a functional gene or group of genes to a cell by gene insertion to correct an hereditary disease.

 

Genetic counseling -- the educational process that helps individuals, couples, or families to understand genetic information and issues that may have an impact on them.

 

Genetic linkage map -- a chromosome map showing the relative positions of the known genes on the chromosomes of a given species.

 

Genetic screening -- testing groups of individuals to identify defective genes capable of causing hereditary conditions.

 

Genetic variation -- a phenotypic variance of a trait in a population attributed to genetic heterogeneity.

 

Genome -- all of the genes carried by a single gamete; the DNA content of an individual, which includes all 44 autosomes, 2 sex chromosomes, and the mitochondrial DNA.

 

Genotype -- genetic constitution of an organism.

 

Germ cell -- a sex cell or gamete (egg or spermatozoan).Haldane equation Haldane's law: the generalization that if first generation hybrids are produced between two species, but one sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is the heterogamic sex.

 

Hardy-Weinberg Law -- the concept that both gene frequencies and genotype frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation in an infinitely large, interbreeding population in which mating is at random and there is no selection, migration or mutation.

 

Heritability -- estimates (degree) for a given trait
 
Heterozygote -- having two alleles that are different for a given gene.

 

Hemophilia -- a sex-linked disease in humans in which the blood-clotting process is defective.

 

Heterogeneity -- the production of identical or similar phenotypes by different genetic mechanisms.

 

HGP -- Human Genome Project.

 

HHMI -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

 

Homologous chromosomes -- chromosomes that pair during meiosis; each homologue is a duplicate of one chromosome from each parent.

 

Homozygote -- having identical alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments.

 

Housekeeping genes -- those genes expressed in all cells because they provide functions needed for sustenance of all cell types.

 

HUGO -- Human Genome Organization.

 

Huntington disease -- a disease characterized by irregular, spasmodic involuntary movements of the limbs and facial muscles, mental deterioration and death, usually within 20 years of the onset of symptoms.

 

Hybridization -- the pairing of a single-stranded, labeled probe (usually DNA) to its complementary sequence.

 

Ichthyosis -- any of several hereditary or congenital skin conditions; skin of affected individuals has a dry, scaly appearance.

 

Imprinting (genomic)-- a chemical modification of a gene allele which can be used to identify maternal or paternal origin of chromosome.

 

Incomplete penetrance -- the gene for a condition is present, but not obviously expressed in all individuals in a family with the gene.

 

In situ hybridization -- hybridization of a labeled probe to its complementary sequence within intact, banded chromosomes.

 

Introns -- a segment of DNA (between exons) that is transcribed into nuclear RNA, but are removed in the subsequent processing into mRNA.

 

Isochromosome -- a metacentric chromosome produced during mitosis or meiosis when the centromere splits transversely instead of longitudinally; the arms of such chromosome are equal in length and genetically identical, however, the loci are positioned in reverse sequence in the two arms.

 

Klinefelter syndrome -- an endocrine condition caused by a an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY); characterized by the lack of normal sexual development and testosterone, leading to infertility and adjustment problems if not detected and treated early.

 

Karyotype -- a set of photographed, banded chromosomes arranged in order from largest to smallest.

 

Lligase -- an enzyme that functions in DNA repair.

 

Linkage -- the greater association in inheritance of two or more nonallelic genes than is to be expected from independent assortment; genes are linked because they reside on the same chromosome.

 

Linkage -- analysis of pedigree the tracking of a gene through a family by following the inheritance of a (closely associated) gene or trait and a DNA marker.

 

Lod score -- logarithm of the odd score; a measure of the likelihood of two loci being within a measurable distance of each other.

 

Marfan syndrome -- autosomal dominant condition of connective tissue; affects the skeletal, ocular and cardiovascular systems.

 

Marker -- a gene with a known location on a chromosome and a clear-cut phenotype, used as a point of reference when mapping a new mutant.

 

Meiosis -- the doubling of gametic chromosome number.

 

Methylation -- addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to DNA or RNA.

 

Methylmalonic acidemia -- a group of conditions characterized by the inability to metabolize methylmalonic acid or by a defect in the metabolism of Vitamin B12.

 

Missense mutation -- a change in the base sequence of a gene that alters or eliminates a protein.

 

Mitochondrial DNA -- the mitochondrial genome consists of a circular DNA duplex, with 5 to 10 copies per organelle.

 

Mitosis -- nuclear division.

Molecular genetics -- study of what genes do and how their products influence the body and behavior

mRNA -- messenger RNA; an RNA molecular that functions during translation to specify the sequence of amino acids in a nascent polypeptide.

 

Multifactorial -- a characteristic influenced in its expression by many factors, both genetic and environmental.

 

Mutation -- process by which genes undergo a structural change.

 

Myotonic dystrophy -- a combination of progressive weakening of the muscles and muscle spasms or rigidity, with difficulty relaxing a contracted muscle; inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

 

Neurofibromatosis -- one of the most common single gene conditions affecting the human nervous system; in most cases, "cafe au lait" spots, are the only symptom; inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with 50% being new mutations.

 

Niche picking -- people choose environments that are compatible with their interests
 
NIH -- National Institutes of Health.

 

Nonsense mutation -- a mutation in which a codon is changed to a stop codon, resulting in a truncated protein product.

 

Noonan syndrome -- a condition characterized by short stature and ovarian or testicular dysfunction, mental deficiency, and lesions of the heart.

 

Northern analysis -- a technique for transferring electrophoretically resolved RNA segments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter paper sheet via capillary action.

 

Nucleotide -- one of the monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed; consists of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar and a phosphoric acid group.

 

Oncogenes -- genes involved in cell cycle control (growth factors, growth factor regulator genes, etc), a mutation can lead to tumor growth.
 
Ontogenesis -- refers to the history of an organism from birth, as opposed to its genetic makeup
 
Osteogenesis imperfecta -- a condition also known as brittle bone disease; characterized by a triangular shaped face with yellowish brown teeth, short stature and stunted growth, scoliosis, high pitched voice, excessive sweating and loose joints.

 

Parthenogenesis -- the development of an individual from an egg without fertilization.

 

PCR -- polymerase chain reaction; a technique for copying the complementary strands of a target DNA molecule simultaneously for a series of cycles until the desired amount is obtained.

 

Pedigree -- a diagram of the heredity of a particular trait through many generations of a family.

 

See full size image

Phenotype -- observable characteristics of an organism produced by the organism's genotype interacting with the environment.

 

 
 
 
Phenylketonuria (PKU) children are missing an important enzyme in this disorder.
 
Physical map -- map where the distance between markers is the actual distance, such as the number of base pairs.

 

PKU -- phenylketonuria, an enzyme deficiency condition characterized by the inability to convert one amino acid, phenylalanine, to another, tyrosine, resulting in mental deficiency. plasmid double-stranded, circular, bacterial DNA into which a fragment of DNA from another organism can be inserted.

 

Pleiotropy -- the phenomenon of variable phenotypes for a number of distinct and seemingly unrelated phenotypic effects.

 

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) -- a group of conditions characterized by fluid filled sacs that slowly develop in both kidneys, eventually resulting in kidney malfunction.

 

Polymerase -- any enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA or RNA from deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides.

 

Prader-Willi syndrome -- a condition characterized by obesity and insatiable appetite, mental deficiency, small genitals, and short stature. May be deletion of #15 chromosome.

 

Predisposition -- to have a tendency or inclination towards something in advance.

 

Presymptomatic diagnosis -- diagnosis of a genetic condition before the appearance of symptoms.

 

Primer -- nucleotides used in the polymerase chain reaction to initiate DNA synthesis at a particular location.

 

Probability -- the long term frequency of an event relative to all alternative events, and usually expressed as decimal fraction.

 

Proband -- individual in a family who brought the family to medical attention.

 

Probe -- single-stranded DNA labeled with radioactive isotopes or tagged in other ways for ease in identification.

 

Progeria -- a fatal disorder that causes rapid againg.
 
Prognosis -- prediction of the course and probable outcome of a disease.

 

Proteus syndrome -- a condition characterized by distorted asymmetric growth of the body and enlarged head, enlarged feet, multiple nevi on the skin; mode of inheritance is unknown.

 

Public policy -- a set of action guidelines or rules that result from the actions or lack of actions of governmental entities.

 

Recessive -- a gene that is phenotypically manifest in the homozygous state but is masked in the presence of a dominant allele.

 

Recombination -- the natural process of breaking and rejoining DNA strands to produce new combinations of genes and, thus, generate genetic variation. Gene crossover during meiosis.

 

Regulator genes --noncoded genes
 
Repeat sequences -- the length of a nucleotide sequence that is repeated in a tandem cluster.

 

Retinitis pigmentosa -- group of hereditary ocular disorders with progressive retinal degeneration. Autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and x-linked forms.

 

Retinoblastoma -- a childhood malignant cancer of the retina of the eye. reverse transcriptase viral enzyme used to make cDNA.

 

RFLP -- restriction fragment length polymorphism; variations occurring within a species in the length of DNA fragments generated by a species endonuclease.

 

Ribosomal protein -- one of the ribonucleoprotein particles that are the sites of translation.

 

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome -- condition with multiple congenital anomalies including: mental deficiency, broad thumbs, small head, broad nasal bridge and beaked nose.

 

Sanger sequence -- "plus and minus" or "primed synthesis" method; DNA is synthesized so it is radioactively labeled and the reaction terminates specifically at the position corresponding to a given base.

 

Selection -- the process of determining the relative share allotted individuals of different genotypes in the propagation of a population; the selective effect of a gene can be defined by the probability that carriers of the gene will reproduce.

 

Sex chromosome Chromosomes are the source of biological inheritance.  They come in pairs--23 of them.  Twenty-two of these pairs are matched and are called autosomes.  In autosome pairs, the two chromosomes look and function alike.  In the 23rd pair, the chromosomes are alike in females but not in males and are called the sex chromosomes.
 
Sex determination -- the mechanism in a given species by which sex is determined; in many species sex is determined at fertilization by the nature of the sperm that fertilizes the egg.

 

Sickle cell anemia -- an hereditary, chronic form of hemolytic anemia characterized by breakdown of the red blood cells; red blood cells undergo a reversible alteration in shape when the oxygen tension of the plasma falls slightly and a sickle-like shape forms.

 

Somatic cell hybrid -- hybrid cell line derived from two different species; contains a complete chromosomal complement of one species and a partial chromosomal complement of the other; human/hamster hybrids grow and divide, losing human chromosomes with each generation until they finally stabilize, the hybrid cell line established is then utilized to detect the presence of genes on the remaining human chromosome.

 

Somatic mutation -- a mutation occurring in any cell that is not destined to become a germ cell; if the mutant cell continues to divide, the individual will come to contain a patch of tissue of genotype different from the cells of the rest of the body.

 

Southern blotting -- a technique for transferring electrophoretically resolved DNA segments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter paper sheet via capillary action; the DNA segment of interest is probed with a radioactive, complementary nucleic acid, and its position is determined by autoradiography.

 

Spina bifida -- a congenital condition that results from altered fetal development of the spinal cord, part of the neural plate fails to join together and bone and muscle are unable to grow over this open section.

 

Syndrome -- a recognizable pattern or group of multiple signs, symptoms or malformations that characterize a particular condition; syndromes are thought to arise from a common origin and result from more than one developmental error during fetal growth.

 

Tay-Sachs disease -- a fatal degenerative disease of the nervous system due to a deficiency of hexosamidase A, causing mental deficiency, paralysis, mental deterioration, and blindness; found primarily but not exclusively among Ashkenazi Jews. Autosomal recessive.

 

Teratogens -- any agent that raises the incidence of congenital malformations.

 

Trait -- any detectable phenotypic property of an organism.

 

Transduction -- the transfer of bacterial genetic material from one bacterium to another using a phage as a vector.

 

Transferase -- enzymes that catalyze the transfer of functional groups between donor and acceptor molecules.

 

Transcription -- the formation of an RNA molecule upon a DNA template by complementary base pairing.

 

Translation -- the formation of a polypeptide chain in the specific amino acid sequence directed by the genetic information carried by mRNA.

 

Translocation -- a chromosome aberration which results in a change in position of a chromosomal segment within the genome, but does not change the total number of genes present.

 

Triplet code -- a code in which a given amino acid is specified by a set of three nucleotides.

 

Trinucleotide repeats -- one unusual mechanism that has only recently been identified involves the expansion across generations.
 
Tumor suppressor gene -- genes that normally function to restrain the growth of tumors; the best understood case is for hereditary retinoblastoma.

 

Transgenic organism -- one into which a cloned genetic material has been experimentally transferred, a subset of these foreign gene express themselves in their offspring.Turner syndrome a chromosomal condition in females (usually 45,XO) due to monosomy of the X- chromosome; characterized by short stature, failure to develop secondary sex characteristics, and infertility.

 

UNESCO -- United National Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.

 

VNTR -- variable number tandem repeats; any gene whose alleles contain different numbers of tandemly repeated oligonucleotide sequences.

 

Vector -- a self-replicating DNA molecule that transfers a DNA segment between host cells.

 

Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome -- an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the anomalous growth and proliferation of blood vessels on the retina of the eye and the cerebellum of the brain; cysts and cancers in the kidneys, pancreas, and adrenal glands.

 

Western blotting analysis -- a technique used to identify a specific protein; the probe is a radioactively labeled antibody raised against the protein in question.

 

X chromosome -- matched pair of elongated chromosomes (female)
 
X-inactivation -- the repression of one of the two X-chromosomes in the somatic cells of females as a method of dosage compensation; at an early embryonic stage in the normal female, one of the two X-chromosomes undergoes inactivation, apparently at random, from this point on all descendent cells will have the same X-chromosome inactivated as the cell from which they arose, thus a female is a mosaic composed of two types of cells, one which expresses only the paternal X-chromosome, and another which expresses only the maternal X-chromosome.

X-linked recessive disorder --  hemophilia, baldness, color blindness, night blindness

XYY syndrome -- genetic condition in males with extra Y chromosome (in 1 in 1000 male births). Symptoms: tall stature (over 6'), may including sterility, developmental delay, learning problems.

 

YAC -- yeast artificial chromosome; a linear vector into which a large fragment of DNA can be inserted; the development of YAC's in 1987 has increased the number of nucleotides which can be cloned.

 

Y chromosome -- males only.

 

 
Zoo blot -- northern analysis of mRNA from different organisms.

-------------------------------------------

23 paired chromosomes

sperm and egg come togethr and create a genetically new individual

20,000-25,000

look who's talking and star wars  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ClWY6qwiZE

Genes are an influential part of who we become.

Genotype is which gene you have and phenotype is how the genes are expressed.

Hereditary Diseases

Recessive Gene

Cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia, Ty-Sachs disease, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy

Some diseases are on dominant gene, defective alleles, such as Huntington's farsightedness,

Polygenic origin--multiple genes involved.  Diabetes, Alzheimer's, alcoholism, schizophrenia

Chromosomal abnormalities--Down syndrome (Trisomy 21) 3 genes involved

Sex-linked gene  On the x chromosome.  x-linked recessive such as hemophilia, baldness, color blindness  Results in men much more highly affected because is no second x to get a dominant gene

Explaining Behavior

Human Genome Project--decades of research--ongoing.

Twins studies between identical--How stuff works  through the Lens Genetics and identical twins

Heritability is how it's related.  Not the same thing as inherited.

Genes can have three levels of impact on environment

Passive--due to child and parents sharing genes.  Parents genes affects children's environment, which then influence children's gene expression.  If inherit introverted genes from parents and they  encourage introverted behavior, that's passive influence.

Evocative--A person's genes affect their own behavior which in turn affect the reaction of another.

Active  When people choose their own environment, companions and activites.

IQ  According to one study, IQ heritability differed deending on one's SES.  In higher SES it was as high as 60%, in poor SES, near 0%.

Epigenetic Model  Development is the result of interacting genetic and environmental elements which are complex and intertwining (Coaction)  Occur at multiple levels of functioning.  Environment, behavior, neural activity, genetic activity.

 

Genetic biology

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6CBBzw6xUJEDNA

23 paired chromosomes

Sperm and egg come together and create a genetically new individual.

Genes: 20,000-25,000. They act as a sort of blue print to produce proteins and enzymes

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3754653362393752644&ei=rCOLSa39MoT0-wGf_uHQDA&hl=en

More on Genes

The genes (genotype)interact to create traits (phenotype)

Dominant are expressed over recessive

Two recessive expressed

Example:

Curly hair=C

Straight hair=c

Inheritance of Sex

XX (female) or XY (male)

Hereditary Diseases

Recessive Gene

Cystic fibrosis

Sickle-cell anemia

Tay-Sachs disease

Hemophilia

Muscular dystrophy

Dominant, defective alleles

Huntington’s

Farsightedness

Test is now undergoing for early detection, possibility for gener therapy

Polygenic origin

Multiple genes involved

Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, alcoholism, schizophrenia

Chromosomal abnormalities

Down syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Sex-linked

X-linked recessive such as hemophilia, baldness, color blindness

(results in men much more highly affected because there is no second X to get a dominant gene

Explaining Behavior

Human Genome Project

Twin studies between identitical (monozygotic) and fraternal twins (dizygotic)

Heritability-not the same thing as inherited.

The degree to which differences among individuals on a trait may be the result of their having different genes

Shared and non-shared environment.

Twin studies: such as both extraversion and neuroticism have been shown to be much more linked in fraternal twins than identical twins

http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/9690-through-the-lens-genetics-and-identical-twins-video.htm

Environmental Influences

Genes can have three levels of impact on environment:

Passive-due to children and parents sharing genes. Parents genes affects children’s environment, which then influence children’s gene expression

Evocative

A person’s genes affect their own behavior which in turn affect the reaction of another

Active

When people choose their own environment, companions, and activities

Hypertension

Pups with hypertension risk factor do not get hypertension unless raised by a hypertensive mother.

How about IQ?

According to one study, IQ heritability differed depending on one’s SES. In higher SES it was as high as 60%, in poor SES, near 0%.

Epigenetic Model

Development is the result of interacting genetic and environmental elements which are complex and intertwining (Coaction)

Occur at multiple levels of functioning

Environment, behavior, neural activity, genetic activity

Possible therapies

Somatic cell therapy

Insertion of healthy genes into appropriate tissue

Germline therapy

Altering the sperm or egg cells to pass on healthy genes to future generations

Teratogens

From before conception to birth, the environment is that of the mother.

Some things are certainly dangerous for the embryo.

Alcohol: FAS, abnormalities in facial structure, cognitive abilities growth deficits

Tobacco: low birth weight, constricted blood flow, premature birth, respiratory problems, learning problems

Cocaine: Prematurity or still birth, low birth weight, drug withdrawal, ADHD

AIDS: often transmitted to child either in birth canal or in breast milk

Lead: prematurity, low birth weight, brain damage

 

Fetal Health

Nutrition

Exercise

Low stress

Age

Genetic Counseling

Much counseling can be done preparing a family for what the child may have

Also counseling about the family environment both during pregnancy and after

Therapy during pregnancy

Massage therapy

Nutrition

Music???

 

 

Week 5

Chapter 3

Lifespan Development

Chapter 3

Plan for today

Brain/Neurons

Cognitive development in early childhood

Break

Presentation

Application/Practice

Introduction

We are our brain.

Our brain is integrally related to everything we sense, think, feel, every emotion, every thought, every decision, every behavior, etc.

Why don’t you remember things from when you were 1 (infantile amnesia)?

Why is it that a person who has Alzheimer’s can’t remember things?

Why do Prozac help some people with depression but doesn’t help others.

Brain Development

Production of neurons (5th week), ¼ million per minute

Neurons migrate to different parts and create hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.

Parts of the brain

Neurons start firing even without any sensory input (4 months)

The Brain

Brain

Neurons

Neurotransmitters

Chemical that are directly related to the activity of neurons.

Excite or inhibit neuron firing

How does all this related to how we function?

The snake example above

Neurobiology of various complications

Depression

Highly related to serotonin and dopamine

Why can’t I take a serotonin pill?

Why do meds work differently for different people. What does the SSRI do?

ADHD

fMRI, sMRI.

pre-frontal cortex (right hemisphere) smaller and under functioning, smaller cerebellum and basal ganglia which both moderate the output of behavior (inhibition). Delayed brain maturation. Balance of white and grey matter is delayed by about 5 years. Parietal lobes also limited (especially important for attention)

Why is that a stimulant would help ADHD? The stimulant is most often related to adding dopamine into the neuropathways. This actually allows the possibility for things to work on a more regular basis.

 

Neurobiology of Autism

Brain size increase 5-10%

Decreased cerebellar neurons

Cerebral cortex dysgenesis

Particular deficits in the mirror neurons, those neurons that fire when the person sees the actions of others.

In-utero development

Hearing-15 weeks.

Vision-25 weeks.

Critical period. Cat experiment.

Post-natal brain development

Brain continues to grow. Neurons reproduce, arrange, and prune.

Main growth is actually not generation of new neurons, but creation of synapses (synaptogenesis)

Different parts develop at different times.

Modes of synaptic development

Experience-Expectant

Overproductionà pruning

As in the cat expirement

Experience-Dependent

No production without stimulus

Multiple languages

Learning to juggle

How we think (Piaget)

A child (or really anyone) cannot learn something that they cannot make some sense of

Process of Adaptation-

Assimilation-understanding information in a way that fits what we already know

Accommodation-existing knowledge is modified to provide a better match

Example: Are ostriches birds?

Individual Variance

It is important to understand that this cognitive theory is domain specific

These different areas do not develop at the same rate or in the same sequence.

Spatial abilities, mathematical abilities, physical causality, etc.

How to study thinking in an infant?

Habituation paradigm http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7407185868554613898&ei=XlmUSbT6AoH0-wG7ueynDA&hl=en

Orienting response

Habituation

Dishabituation

Example (Green and yellow circles with 6 month old)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UiB2ZX1phmc

Objects?

Object concept

Objects have properties: visual, spatially, etc.

Preferential looking paradigm

Object permanence-does the child have a mental image of something that it is not presently being perceived

Representational thought (Hidden object test and/or impossible event test). 8-12 months.

Remembering

Recognition-the ability to differentiate between experiences that are new and previously experienced. "I’ve seen that before"

Ability to recognize mother’s voice at 3 days old.

Recall-the ability to bring to mind an experience that has happened in the past

(note: This will become important again when we study late adulthood)

Intentionality

Means-end behavior (9 months or less)

Agency-the ability to act without an external trigger

Intention-internal mental state, such a plan or desire

Theory of mind -Understanding others’ intentions (other person reaching for something)

 

Pre-operational

Symbols-ie. riding broom like a horse

At about 2 years old

Numbers

Number conservation task

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_trtZ5Xkp4

Centration-thought tends to be focused on one salient feature at time

Decentration-taking in multiple pieces at the same time

Preoperational egocentrism

False belief task (where is the Candy?)

Most children attribute the same knowledge to others that they have themselves(p.89)

 

Symbolic artifacts

Analogical symbols such as pictures or maps

Is a picture of an ice-cream cone cold?

Language

Phonology

Very early after birth, infants prefer language from their mother’s native tongue

Babbling (6 mos)

Voicing

By age 3, most children can make themselves understood to familiar listeners, nonfamily members understand by around 4

Semantics

Vocabulary and Meaning

By 5, can understand 15,000 words, 9-10 new words per day.

Syntax: grammar

Past tense

plural

Pragmatics: Greetings, slang, common language

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory

Mediated learning-focus not on the internal thinking of the child, but the "child in context". Teachers, parents, peers, provide the framework for a child to understand.

For example: Numbers (coins)

Teaching how to problem solve

Or even cultural differences

Culturally defined concepts

Zone of proximal development-a learner is able to grasp a concept or perform some skill only with support or scaffolding from someone else. (p. 97)

Applications

Take a child’s eye view (anything from aesthetics and office space to complexity of language

Recognize your own, and the child’s egocentrism. (p.99)

Educate caretakers. Most of what the caretaker and child are experiencing is normal. Empathize, be patient

More suggestions

Careful with fears. Usually better results with coping with a fear, or creating adaptive behavior rather than convincing that it isn’t real

Play therapy

Be attentive

Maintain cooperation over time

Flexibility

Watch language-simple and concrete

Make consequences immediate

Don’t be afraid but take concerns seriously-children often greatly relieved to know that finally they have met someone who is not frightened by what frightens them

Don’t jump to conclusions

 

Case Study, p. 105

 

We are our brain.

Our brain is integrally related to everything we sense, think, feel, every emotion, every thought, every decision, every behavior, etc.

Infantile amnesia--can't remember things from when you were one.  Certain parts of the brain aren't developed enough.

 

Brain Development

Production of neurons in 5th week at 1/4 million per minute.

Neurons migrate to different parts and create hindbrain (heart rate control, digestion control), midbrain, and forebrain (higher level thinking, sensory processing).

 

Phrenology:   The idea that different parts of the brain are uniquely in control of different things.

 

There are some things that area local, but also complicated and interconnected.

Neurons start firing even without any sensory input (4 months).

 

They all function together to create who you are.

HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER?  The electrical impulse carries.  The dendryte tells the cell body to act or not act.  The electrical signal is controlled by chemicals.  The gap is the synapse.

 

 

Neurotransmitters

 

Chemical that are directly related to the activity of neurons.

Excite or inhibit neuron firing.

 

You can't cross the blood---brain barrier.  Lots of chemicals are digested.  Even if it got into blood, doesn't get into brain.

 

SSR

 

Differences in drugs--may not be transmitted or binding. There are multiple reasons why the serotonin might not be received.  We have no way to figure it out.

 

Our behaviors influence the amount of serotonin.  Exercise.  Diet.

 

In utero development

Hearing 15 weeks.

Vision 25 weeks

Critical period.  Cat experiment.  Sewed and eye shut.  When opened, cat couldn't see.  Now they don't wait on child's cataract.

 

Post-natal brain development

Brain continues to grow.  Neurons reproduce, arrange, and prune.

Main growth is actually not generation of new neurons, but creation of synapses (synaptogenesis)

Different pars develop at different times.

 

Different parts develop at different times--domain specific.

 

Modes of synaptic development

Experience-expectant. Overproduction to pruning.

Experience dependent.  No production without stimulus. Multiple languages.  Learning to juggle.

 

How we think (Piaget)

A child or anyone cannot learn something that they cannot make sense of it.

 

Assimilation--adapt to new stimulation

accommodation--modify knowledge

.

Individual Variance

It is important to understand that this cognitive theory is domain specific.

 

Object permanence.

Impossible event test--somehow baby understands things that aren't supposed to happen.

 

First 6 months can use a baby sitter because don't understand separation.

 

Remembering is made up of two things:  recognition and recall.

 

Intentionality at about 9 months  means-end behavior (9 months or less)  I know when I get what I want.

 

Agency--the ability to act without an external trigger.

 

Intention--internal mental state, such as a plan or desire.

 

theory of mind--Understanding others' intentions (other person reaching for something)

 

Preoperational stage--begin to use symbols.

 

In beginning, we have centration--thought tends to be focused on one salient feature at time.

 

Decentration--taking multiple pieces at the same time.

 

Preoperational egocentrism

 

False belief task  (where is the candy?) 

--Most childre attribute the same knowledge to others that they have themselves (p. 89)

 

Language

Phonology --making sounds

very early after birth, infants prefer language from their mother's native tongue.  Recognize mother's voice at age 3.

Babbling (6 mos)

Voicing

By age 3, most children can make themselves understood to familiar listeners, nonfamily members understand by around 4

 

You have to hear sounds before 2 to speak like a native speaker

 

Preferential--should know about that.

 

Semantics--study of meaning of words

 

1. Children begin to learn the "phonology" or sound of their native language by what age:
Before birth

2. Lily and her mother sit on the floor and play with a doll together. The phone rings and Lily's mother jumps up to answer it. In doing so, she accidentally covers the doll with Lily's blanket which is also on the floor. In the 15 seconds that Lily is sitting on the floor by herself, she has difficulty figuring out where the doll has gone and subsequently begins to cry. Which concept has Lily not yet developmentally obtained?
Object permanence

3. Piaget believed that children's poor perspective-talking skills reflected which of the following:
Preoperational egocentrisms
 
4. Jennifer suffered severe head trauma to her forebrain during a car accident. After this accident, she was unable to process new memory. Jennifer was able to remember events prior to the accident. However, she was unable to remember events following the accident. The specific brain structure that was most likely damaged by the accident is:
Hypothalamus

5. The life-span of a functioning neuron is:
The entire life of the individual

6. After birth, the brain's axons and dendrites grow and reproduce at a rapid pace, and many synapses form; however, starting at around the first birthday, many neurons die off and unnecessary synapses disappear through:
Neural pruning

7. Neurons communicate by:
Sending and receiving electrochemical messages.  HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER?  The electrical impulse carries.  The dendryte tells the cell body to act or not act.  The electrical signal is controlled by chemicals.  The gap is the synapse.

8. Justin is a four month-old infant. He has developed sucking schema by sucking the bottle. Now whatever comes in his hand, whether it is a toy or a pacifier or cloth, he tries to use the same sucking schema. This is an example of:
Assimilation

9. Piaget reported that when babies are around 8 to 12 months old, they will divert their attention from a goal, such as grabbing an object, in order to produce another action that will help achieve the goal. This process is referred to as:
Means-end behavior

10. Baby Mandy is playing with a blue ball. Mom takes the ball and places it under Mandy's purple blanket which is next to where Mandy is sitting. Mandy then successfully retrieves the ball from under the blanket to continue playing with it. Mandy has displayed:
Representational thought

11. In the major milestones in motor development, a child is able to run, jump, and climb at:
2-3 years

12. Babies begin babbling, repeating consonant-vowel-consonant combinations, such as "dadada," at about age ______, and limit their babbling to sounds permissible in their native language by about age _______. 
6 months; 9 months

13. At what age do children begin to intentionally communicate with others?
At about 8-12 months

14. According to Vygotsky, tools and signs are anything that people use to help them think and learn. The most important tool for Vygotsky was:

Language

15. Scaffolding:
Serves as a temporary prop until the child has mastered a task
Allows more advanced thinkers or more capable members of a culture to help novice learners
Is learning that occurs when a more cognitively advanced individual guides a learner with prompts, cues, and other supports
*All of these
 

  1. Sensorimotor: (birth to about age 2)

    During this stage, the child learns about himself and his environment through motor and reflex actions. Thought derives from sensation and movement. The child learns that he is separate from his environment and that aspects of his environment -- his parents or favorite toy -- continue to exist even though they may be outside the reach of his senses. Teaching for a child in this stage should be geared to the sensorimotor system. You can modify behavior by using the senses: a frown, a stern or soothing voice -- all serve as appropriate techniques.

     

  2. Preoperational: (begins about the time the child starts to talk to about age 7)

    Applying his new knowledge of language, the child begins to use symbols to represent objects. Early in this stage he also personifies objects. He is now better able to think about things and events that aren't immediately present. Oriented to the present, the child has difficulty conceptualizing time. His thinking is influenced by fantasy -- the way he'd like things to be -- and he assumes that others see situations from his viewpoint. He takes in information and then changes it in his mind to fit his ideas. Teaching must take into account the child's vivid fantasies and undeveloped sense of time. Using neutral words, body outlines and equipment a child can touch gives him an active role in learning.

     

  3. Concrete: (about first grade to early adolescence)

    During this stage, accommodation increases. The child develops an ability to think abstractly and to make rational judgements about concrete or observable phenomena, which in the past he needed to manipulate physically to understand. In teaching this child, giving him the opportunity to ask questions and to explain things back to you allows him to mentally manipulate information.

     

  4. Formal Operations: (adolescence)

    This stage brings cognition to its final form. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements. At his point, he is capable of hypothetical and deductive reasoning. Teaching for the adolescent may be wideranging because he'll be able to consider many possibilities from several perspectives.

    Quoted from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm


Mesa United Way
This website describes prenatal brain development and prenatal and postnatal influences on brain growth.
http://www.mesaunitedway.org/learn/infantbrain.htm

Stages of Language Acquisition in Children
This page from a University of Pennsylvania linguistics course describes the various stages of language development in children from 6 months to 30 + months, with examples of vocalizations at each stage.
http://www.ling.upenn.edu/courses/Fall_2003/ling001/acquisition.html

Habituation
This website has information about the Habituation paradigm and how cognition studies are done with infants.
http://www.mpipf-muenchen.mpg.de/INCA/Projekte_e.htm

Prenatal and Postnatal Brain Development
There is excellent information on the Virtual Children's Hospital website regarding brain development. "The Fetal and Young Child Nervous System: The Story of the Development and Maldevelopment of the Brain" is the title of the site and there are thorough and detailed explanations.
http://www.vh.org/pediatric/provider/pediatrics/FetalYoungCNS/FetalYoungCNS.html

The Secret Life of the Brain
This PBS series, The Secret Life of the Brain, is an excellent source of information about brain development.
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/

Vygotsky
Vygotsky Resources—provides links to lots of other sites pertaining to Vygotsky and his research; the site breaks them down into the following categories: biographical information, theories, information for teachers, in practice, and other resources.
http://www.kolar.org/vygotsky

Brain Development Influences
This article discusses nature/nurture and early brain development in infants.
http://www.classbrain.com/artread/publish/article_30.shtml
 

Lifespan Development

Chapter 3

Plan for today

Brain/Neurons

Cognitive development in early childhood

Break

Presentation

Application/Practice

Introduction

We are our brain.

Our brain is integrally related to everything we sense, think, feel, every emotion, every thought, every decision, every behavior, etc.

Why don’t you remember things from when you were 1 (infantile amnesia)?

Why is it that a person who has Alzheimer’s can’t remember things?

Why do Prozac help some people with depression but doesn’t help others.

Brain Development

Production of neurons (5th week), ¼ million per minute

Neurons migrate to different parts and create hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.

Parts of the brain

Neurons start firing even without any sensory input (4 months)

The Brain

Brain

Neurons

Neurotransmitters

Chemical that are directly related to the activity of neurons.

Excite or inhibit neuron firing

How does all this related to how we function?

The snake example above

Neurobiology of various complications

Depression

Highly related to serotonin and dopamine

Why can’t I take a serotonin pill?

Why do meds work differently for different people. What does the SSRI do?

ADHD

fMRI, sMRI.

pre-frontal cortex (right hemisphere) smaller and under functioning, smaller cerebellum and basal ganglia which both moderate the output of behavior (inhibition). Delayed brain maturation. Balance of white and grey matter is delayed by about 5 years. Parietal lobes also limited (especially important for attention)

Why is that a stimulant would help ADHD? The stimulant is most often related to adding dopamine into the neuropathways. This actually allows the possibility for things to work on a more regular basis.

 

Neurobiology of Autism

Brain size increase 5-10%

Decreased cerebellar neurons

Cerebral cortex dysgenesis

Particular deficits in the mirror neurons, those neurons that fire when the person sees the actions of others.

In-utero development

Hearing-15 weeks.

Vision-25 weeks.

Critical period. Cat experiment.

Post-natal brain development

Brain continues to grow. Neurons reproduce, arrange, and prune.

Main growth is actually not generation of new neurons, but creation of synapses (synaptogenesis)

Different parts develop at different times.

Modes of synaptic development

Experience-Expectant

Overproductionà pruning

As in the cat expirement

Experience-Dependent

No production without stimulus

Multiple languages

Learning to juggle

How we think (Piaget)

A child (or really anyone) cannot learn something that they cannot make some sense of

Process of Adaptation-

Assimilation-understanding information in a way that fits what we already know

Accommodation-existing knowledge is modified to provide a better match

Example: Are ostriches birds?

Individual Variance

It is important to understand that this cognitive theory is domain specific

These different areas do not develop at the same rate or in the same sequence.

Spatial abilities, mathematical abilities, physical causality, etc.

How to study thinking in an infant?

Habituation paradigm http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7407185868554613898&ei=XlmUSbT6AoH0-wG7ueynDA&hl=en

Orienting response

Habituation

Dishabituation

Example (Green and yellow circles with 6 month old)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UiB2ZX1phmc

Objects?

Object concept

Objects have properties: visual, spatially, etc.

Preferential looking paradigm

Object permanence-does the child have a mental image of something that it is not presently being perceived

Representational thought (Hidden object test and/or impossible event test). 8-12 months.

Remembering

Recognition-the ability to differentiate between experiences that are new and previously experienced. "I’ve seen that before"

Ability to recognize mother’s voice at 3 days old.

Recall-the ability to bring to mind an experience that has happened in the past

(note: This will become important again when we study late adulthood)

Intentionality

Means-end behavior (9 months or less)

Agency-the ability to act without an external trigger

Intention-internal mental state, such a plan or desire

theory of mind -Understanding others’ intentions (other person reaching for something)

 

Pre-operational

Symbols-ie. riding broom like a horse

At about 2 years old

Numbers

Number conservation task

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_trtZ5Xkp4

Centration-thought tends to be focused on one salient feature at time

Decentration-taking in multiple pieces at the same time

Preoperational egocentrism

False belief task (where is the Candy?)

Most children attribute the same knowledge to others that they have themselves(p.89)

 

Symbolic artifacts

Analogical symbols such as pictures or maps

Is a picture of an ice-cream cone cold?

Language

Phonology

Very early after birth, infants prefer language from their mother’s native tongue

Babbling (6 mos)

Voicing

By age 3, most children can make themselves understood to familiar listeners, nonfamily members understand by around 4

Semantics

Vocabulary and Meaning

By 5, can understand 15,000 words, 9-10 new words per day.

Syntax: grammar

Past tense

plural

Pragmatics: Greetings, slang, common language

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory

Mediated learning-focus not on the internal thinking of the child, but the "child in context". Teachers, parents, peers, provide the framework for a child to understand.

For example: Numbers (coins)

Teaching how to problem solve

Or even cultural differences

Culturally defined concepts

Zone of proximal development-a learner is able to grasp a concept or perform some skill only with support or scaffolding from someone else. (p. 97)

Applications

Take a child’s eye view (anything from aesthetics and office space to complexity of language

Recognize your own, and the child’s egocentrism. (p.99)

Educate caretakers. Most of what the caretaker and child are experiencing is normal. Empathize, be patient

More suggestions

Careful with fears. Usually better results with coping with a fear, or creating adaptive behavior rather than convincing that it isn’t real

Play therapy

Be attentive

Maintain cooperation over time

Flexibility

Watch language-simple and concrete

Make consequences immediate

Don’t be afraid but take concerns seriously-children often greatly relieved to know that finally they have met someone who is not frightened by what frightens them

Don’t jump to conclusions

 

Case Study, p. 105

 

WEEK 6

 

CAUSES OF EMOTION

Biological

Neurological

Sociological

Psychology

FUNCTION

Survival

Communication

Cognition--help us think in a certain direction

Mental health and wellness

UNIVERSAL

experienced in every culture--fear, sadness, happiness, anger, and surprise. 2-6 months of age

Izard's theory these emotions are innate and are fundamentally connected to neural activity

Sroufe theory--emotions are not full formed

emotional intelligence education

 

Attachment

Baby Jessica.  2 year old went from adoptive parents to biological parents.

 

Attachment problems may cause trust problems later.

 

John Bowlby Theory separation anxiety.  Strange situation videoBasic trust.  Attachment Theory.  Separation anxiety, stranger anxiety

 

Child will habituation to presence of stranger.

 

Attachment types

Secure

Insecure  (Anxious ambivalent, avoidance, disorganize-disoriented)

 

Relationship to Borderline Personality Disorder in  mothers and disorganize-disoriented

 

Is the attachment style caused by the environment or i it innate?

 

How might we understand attachment in terms of theory?

 

Chapter 4

Emotions and Attachment in Early Childhood

What are some presenting problems that might be associated with emotion?

Difficulties in school

Tantrums

Behavioral problems

Causes of emotions

Biological

Neurological

Sociological

Psychological

Function

What is the function of emotion?

Survival

Communication

Cognition

Mental health and wellness

Basic emotions

These seems to be universal

Fear, sadness, happiness, anger, and surprise.

These are usually seen between 2-6 months of age

Izards theory-these emotions are innate and are fundamentally connected to neural activity

Sroufes theory-emotions are not fully formed at birth but develop with interaction and time

Attachment

Baby Jessica

In August 1993, Baby Jessica, a 2 year old girls was taken from the DeBoers (the parents who thought they had adopted her). The adoption was contested from the start and never finalizes. She was given to her biological parents, the Schmidts.

Attachment

John Bowlby-theorized that the relationship that an infant has with one or a few caregivers during the 1st year of life provide him with a working model of himself and others

Attachment types

Secure

Insecure

Anxious Ambivalent

Stress at lack of parent, ambivalence or anger towards parent, preoccupied with parent

Avoidant

Fail to cry at lack of parent

Disorganize-disoriented

Note relationship to Borderline in mothers

Discussion

Is the attachment style caused by the environment or is it innate?

How might we understand attachment in terms of theory?

Attachment Causes and consequences

Causes-sometimes difficult to know, sometimes not

Parenting Style

Functionality

Perhaps based on early contact

Perhaps cognitive, neurobiological functioning

Consequences

Affects parenting (especially emotions)

Mental health of child and family

Temperament

Difficult

Easy

Slow to warm

Goodness of fit?

How does one appropriately parent each temperament?

Is authoritative always the best way?

If securely attached and easy temperaments are so great, what about the family with not so easy children?

Do we try to change temperament, or cope with it?

Counselor suggestions

Provide a voice for the baby

Provide support for the parent

Learn some new skills

Further discussion

Development of Self

Pre-self

Intentional self/I

Objective Self/Me

Self-recognition

Self-monitoring

Applicability to Psychological Theory

Freud-The self is developing.

Erikson-Autonomy and Initiative.

Piaget-Preoperational.

Adler-Significance/Belonging

Brofenbrenner-Relationship of self to others

Emotions are critical to development

Underlies ability to control behavior

Parenting

Authoritative

Responsive and demanding

Authoritarian

Unresponsive and demanding

Permissive

Responsive and undemanding

Neglecting/Uninvolved

Unresponsive and undemanding

Methods of control

Power assertion

Love withdrawal

Induction

What is the best way to control behavior????

Application

Model appropriate attachment in your session. Ie. Build trust, set boundaries, but also be forgiving and allow freedom of thought and expression

Parent/Teacher Education

 

Review

Theory

Theoretical models up to this point (why is this important) (also talked about Big Questions)

Psychosexual model: Oral, Anal, Phallic

Psychosocial: Trust, Autonomy, Initiative

Behaviorism

Conditioning (Operant and Classical)

Very related to parenting style

Bandura: Social Learning (Modeling)

Adler: Inferiority

Primarily self interested (some beginning of social interest)

Brofenbrenner

Very influenced by many level of the system

More passive influence

Infancy/Early Childhood

In-utero environment

Cognitive: Sensory Motor, Pre-operational, Language development, etc.

Emotion: Basic Emotions, Temperament, Beginning Development of self, Trust, Goal directed behavior, Initiation, Attachment

Physical: Growing by leaps and bounds (literally), Heredity

Neuropsychological: Brain Development, Neuronal connections

Social

Haven’t really talked about

Tends to be primary self focused

Some parallel play

Chapter 6 & 7

Middle Childhood

Introduction to Middle Childhood

Middle Childhood (6-12)

Profound changes in thinking from early childhood to middle childhood

What differences exist between 2 years old, 5 years old, and 10 years old?

Cognitive development

Concrete Operational

Egocentrism: The failure to recognize your own subjectivity

Sensible, logical, problem solving

Private logic

Complexity dependent on the domain of knowledge

Difficult to question already presumed theories (remember the discussion about assimilation and accommodation)

Memory

Knowledge

Declarative-things we can talk about

Semantic: factual information (red lights mean stop)

Episodic: knowledge of events remember at time when

What is 2 + 2? When did you first learn that?

Nondeclarative-things that just can not really be put into words

Procedural-how to do things

Patterns

Cognitive improvements

Using the digit span test

From 2 digit at age 2 to 5 digit at age 7 (working memory)

Faster processing speed

More knowledge base and growing depth

Allows for chunking

Greater logical thinking skills

Greater language skill

Memory strategies such as pneumonic devices.

More improvements

Organizing strategy: Sorting items in a meaningful way

Metacognition: thinking about our own thinking

Self-instruction/study

Math retrieval instead of counting

Problem solving

Cooperative learning

Social Cognition

Social Cognition= understanding of the social world, primarily focuses on the ways people think about other people and they reason about social relationships.

Need social development to reduce egocentrism and promote altruism (social interest)

Friendships

Friendships (Selman’s theory)

Friends???

Stage 0:Undifferentiated/Egocentric (3-6)

Stage 1:Differentiated/Subjective (5-9)

Stage 2:Reciprocal/Self-reflective (8-12)

Stage 3:Mutual/Third-Person (10-15)

Stage 4:Intimate/In-Depth (late teen +)

Self-Concept

Exercise: Who are you?

Complete the sentence "I am …." and " I am a …."

How do you describe yourself?

Self concept

Changes in self-concept

Early Childhood: Cognitive, Physical competence, appearance, peer acceptance, behavior

Middle childhood: + scholastic, athletic, global self-worth

Adolescence: + job, close friendship, romantic relationships, morality

College: sense of humor, Intellectual ability, Creativity

Early/Middle Adulthood: Intelligence, Sociability, nurturance, household management, provider

Lose focus on scholastics, peer acceptance

Late adulthood: Cognitive abilities, leisure activities, health status, life satisfaction

More Identity Issues

The Previous model seems to miss a lot of other identity issues such as:

Gender-roles, stereotypes, etc.

Race and ethnicity

Sexual Identity

Disabilities

Influences

Social comparison

People observe the performance of others and use it as a basis for evaluating their own abilities and accomplishments

Self-enhancing bias

Life is purposive

Positive beliefs about oneself

Downward social comparison

Comparing oneself to those less successful or less developed

Moral Development

Freud-emotions, emergence of superego

Piaget-thinking

Premoral (0-5)

Heteronomous (5-8)-black/white

Autonomous- (8+)-rules are social agreements

Kohlberg’s Moral Development

Kohlberg. What are the moral implications of wearing your seatbelt?

Preconventional

Stage 1: punishment and obedience

Stage2: concrete, individualistic orientation (you scratch my back, I scratch yours.

Conventional

Stage 3: Social-relational (shared feelings)

Stage 4: Member of society

Postconventional

Stage 5: Prior right and social contract (specific rules deemphasized)

Stage 6: Universal ethical principals

Prosocial Behavior

Social Interest; gemeinschaftsgefuhl (Alfred Adler)=the feeling with/for the community.

Altruism

Empathy

Sympathy

Modeling and learning prosocial attitudes

Non or Anti-social behavior

Non-social behavior

Not contributing

Anti-Social

Presence of aggression, risky, disregard for social mores.

Oppositional-defiant disorder

Conduct disorder

Causes

Applications

We’ve talked about:

Development of self-concept

Cognitive development in middle childhood (concrete operational)

Intelligence

Social Development (Friends)

Moral Development

What do we do with all of this?

Infancy/Early Childhood

In-utero environment

Cognitive senory motor, preopertional, language development, etc.

Emotion:  Basic Emotions, Temperament, Beginning Developent of self, Trust, Goal directed behavior, Initiation, Attachment

Physical:  Growing by leaps and bounds (literally), Heredity.

Neuropsychological:  Brain Development,

 

Development of self.

Presentl (0-6 monts)

Intentional self/I (6-12 months)

Objective self/Me (12-24 months)  *Self recognition, early self control, early self esteem, look in the mirror and recognize self.

Self monitoring (24-60)  Can describe yourself, regulate yourself. 

 

Chapter 6 and 7

 

Introduction to Middle Childhood

Middle Childhood (6-12)

Profound changes in thinking from early childhood to middle childhood.  What differences exist between 2 year old, 5 years olds, and 10 years old?

Concrete operational is sensible, logical.

  1. Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age 2. Children experience the world through movement and senses (use five senses to explore the world). During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric, meaning they cannot perceive the world from others viewpoints and explore using senses. The sensorimotor stage is divided into six substages: "(1) simple reflexes; (2) first habits and primary circular reactions; (3) secondary circular reactions; (4) coordination of secondary circular reactions; (5) tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity; and (6) internalization of schemes." [4] Simple reflexes is from birth to 1 month old. At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking. First habits and primary circular reactions is from 1 month to 4 months old. During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of scheme (habit and circular reactions). A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb). The third stage, secondary circular reactions, occurs when the infant is 4 to 8 months old. At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body; they are more object oriented. At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction. Coordination of secondary circular reactions is from 8 months to 12 months old. During this stage they can do things intentionally. They can now combine and recombine schemes and try to reach a goal (ex: use a stick to reach something). They also understand object permanence during this stage. That is, they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can't see them. The fifth stage occurs from 12 months old to 18 months old. During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects; they try different things to get different results. During the last stage they are 18 to 24 months old. During this stage they shift to symbolic thinking. [4]

  2. Preoperational stage: from ages 2 to 5 (magical thinking predominates. Acquisition of motor skills) Egocentricism begins strongly and then weakens. Children cannot conserve or use logical thinking.

  3. Concrete operational stage: from ages 5 to 11 (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking) Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. They are no longer egocentric.

  4. Formal operational stage: after age 11 (development of abstract reasoning). Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind.

Concrete operational.

Egocentrism.  The failure to recognize your own subjectivity.

Sensible, logical, problem solving.  Private logic.

 

Complexity is dependent on the domain of knowledge.

Difficult to question already presumed theories (remember the discussion about assimilation and accommodation)

 

Memory

Sensory Memory (keyboard) --Working Memory (RAM)--Long Term Memory (Hardrive)

Same process works in reversal to retrieve.

 

Cognitive improvements

 

Using the digit span test.

 

Knowledge

Declarative-things we can talk about.

Semantic:  factual information (red lights mean stop)

Episodic:  Knowledge of events remember at time when.  Episodic if you can remember when you learned something.

What is 2 + 2?  Lots of things you know you can't remember when you learned it.

 

Nondeclarative things that just cannot really be put into words.  Tying your shoes.  Procedural--know how to do things.  Patterns.

 

Cognitive improvements

Using the digit span test

From 2 digit at age 2 to 5 digit at age 7  (working memory)

Faster processing speed

More knowledge base dna growing depth

Allow for chunking

Greater logical thinking skills

Greater language skills

Memory strategies such as pneumonic devices. 

 

More improvements

Organizing strategy:  Sorting items in a meaningful way.

Metacognition:  Thinking about our own thinking.

Self instruction and study

Math retrieval instead of counting.

 

Social Cognition is the understanding of the social world, primarily focuses on the ways people think about other people and they reason about social relationships.

Need social development to reduce egocentrism and promote altruism (social interest)

Friendships

 

KOHLBERG'S SIX STAGES

Level 1. Preconventional Morality

Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. Kohlberg's stage 1 is similar to Piaget's first stage of moral thought. The child assumes that powerful authorities hand down a fixed set of rules which he or she must unquestioningly obey. To the Heinz dilemma, the child typically says that Heinz was wrong to steal the drug because "It's against the law," or "It's bad to steal," as if this were all there were to it. When asked to elaborate, the child usually responds in terms of the consequences involved, explaining that stealing is bad "because you'll get punished" (Kohlberg, 1958b).

Although the vast majority of children at stage 1 oppose Heinz’s theft, it is still possible for a child to support the action and still employ stage 1 reasoning. For example, a child might say, "Heinz can steal it because he asked first and it's not like he stole something big; he won't get punished" (see Rest, 1973). Even though the child agrees with Heinz’s action, the reasoning is still stage 1; the concern is with what authorities permit and punish.

Kohlberg calls stage 1 thinking "preconventional" because children do not yet speak as members of society. Instead, they see morality as something external to themselves, as that which the big people say they must do.

Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. "Heinz," they might point out, "might think it's right to take the drug, the druggist would not." Since everything is relative, each person is free to pursue his or her individual interests. One boy said that Heinz might steal the drug if he wanted his wife to live, but that he doesn't have to if he wants to marry someone younger and better-looking (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 24). Another boy said Heinz might steal it because

maybe they had children and he might need someone at home to look after them. But maybe he shouldn't steal it because they might put him in prison for more years than he could stand. (Colby and Kauffman. 1983, p. 300)

What is right for Heinz, then, is what meets his own self-interests.

You might have noticed that children at both stages 1 and 2 talk about punishment. However, they perceive it differently. At stage 1 punishment is tied up in the child's mind with wrongness; punishment "proves" that disobedience is wrong. At stage 2, in contrast, punishment is simply a risk that one naturally wants to avoid.

Although stage 2 respondents sometimes sound amoral, they do have some sense of right action. This is a notion of fair exchange or fair deals. The philosophy is one of returning favors--"If you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours." To the Heinz story, subjects often say that Heinz was right to steal the drug because the druggist was unwilling to make a fair deal; he was "trying to rip Heinz off," Or they might say that he should steal for his wife "because she might return the favor some day" (Gibbs et al., 1983, p. 19).

Respondents at stage 2 are still said to reason at the preconventional level because they speak as isolated individuals rather than as members of society. They see individuals exchanging favors, but there is still no identification with the values of the family or community.

Level II. Conventional Morality

Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships. At this stage children--who are by now usually entering their teens--see morality as more than simple deals. They believe that people should live up to the expectations of the family and community and behave in "good" ways. Good behavior means having good motives and interpersonal feelings such as love, empathy, trust, and concern for others. Heinz, they typically argue, was right to steal the drug because "He was a good man for wanting to save her," and "His intentions were good, that of saving the life of someone he loves." Even if Heinz doesn't love his wife, these subjects often say, he should steal the drug because "I don't think any husband should sit back and watch his wife die" (Gibbs et al., 1983, pp. 36-42; Kohlberg, 1958b).

If Heinz’s motives were good, the druggist's were bad. The druggist, stage 3 subjects emphasize, was "selfish," "greedy," and "only interested in himself, not another life." Sometimes the respondents become so angry with the druggist that they say that he ought to be put in jail (Gibbs et al., 1983, pp. 26-29, 40-42). A typical stage 3 response is that of Don, age 13:

It was really the druggist's fault, he was unfair, trying to overcharge and letting someone die. Heinz loved his wife and wanted to save her. I think anyone would. I don't think they would put him in jail. The judge would look at all sides, and see that the druggist was charging too much. (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 25)

We see that Don defines the issue in terms of the actors' character traits and motives. He talks about the loving husband, the unfair druggist, and the understanding judge. His answer deserves the label "conventional "morality" because it assumes that the attitude expressed would be shared by the entire community—"anyone" would be right to do what Heinz did (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 25).

As mentioned earlier, there are similarities between Kohlberg's first three stages and Piaget's two stages. In both sequences there is a shift from unquestioning obedience to a relativistic outlook and to a concern for good motives. For Kohlberg, however, these shifts occur in three stages rather than two.

Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order. Stage 3 reasoning works best in two-person relationships with family members or close friends, where one can make a real effort to get to know the other's feelings and needs and try to help. At stage 4, in contrast, the respondent becomes more broadly concerned with society as a whole. Now the emphasis is on obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's duties so that the social order is maintained. In response to the Heinz story, many subjects say they understand that Heinz's motives were good, but they cannot condone the theft. What would happen if we all started breaking the laws whenever we felt we had a good reason? The result would be chaos; society couldn't function. As one subject explained,

I don't want to sound like Spiro Agnew, law and order and wave the flag, but if everybody did as he wanted to do, set up his own beliefs as to right and wrong, then I think you would have chaos. The only thing I think we have in civilization nowadays is some sort of legal structure which people are sort of bound to follow. [Society needs] a centralizing framework. (Gibbs et al., 1983, pp. 140-41)

Because stage 4, subjects make moral decisions from the perspective of society as a whole, they think from a full-fledged member-of-society perspective (Colby and Kohlberg, 1983, p. 27).

You will recall that stage 1 children also generally oppose stealing because it breaks the law. Superficially, stage 1 and stage 4 subjects are giving the same response, so we see here why Kohlberg insists that we must probe into the reasoning behind the overt response. Stage 1 children say, "It's wrong to steal" and "It's against the law," but they cannot elaborate any further, except to say that stealing can get a person jailed. Stage 4 respondents, in contrast, have a conception of the function of laws for society as a whole--a conception which far exceeds the grasp of the younger child.

Level III. Postconventional Morality

Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. At stage 4, people want to keep society functioning. However, a smoothly functioning society is not necessarily a good one. A totalitarian society might be well-organized, but it is hardly the moral ideal. At stage 5, people begin to ask, "What makes for a good society?" They begin to think about society in a very theoretical way, stepping back from their own society and considering the rights and values that a society ought to uphold. They then evaluate existing societies in terms of these prior considerations. They are said to take a "prior-to-society" perspective (Colby and Kohlberg, 1983, p. 22).

Stage 5 respondents basically believe that a good society is best conceived as a social contract into which people freely enter to work toward the benefit of all They recognize that different social groups within a society will have different values, but they believe that all rational people would agree on two points. First they would all want certain basic rights, such as liberty and life, to be protected Second, they would want some democratic procedures for changing unfair law and for improving society.

In response to the Heinz dilemma, stage 5 respondents make it clear that they do not generally favor breaking laws; laws are social contracts that we agree to uphold until we can change them by democratic means. Nevertheless, the wife’s right to live is a moral right that must be protected. Thus, stage 5 respondent sometimes defend Heinz’s theft in strong language:

It is the husband's duty to save his wife. The fact that her life is in danger transcends every other standard you might use to judge his action. Life is more important than property.

This young man went on to say that "from a moral standpoint" Heinz should save the life of even a stranger, since to be consistent, the value of a life means any life. When asked if the judge should punish Heinz, he replied:

Usually the moral and legal standpoints coincide. Here they conflict. The judge should weight the moral standpoint more heavily but preserve the legal law in punishing Heinz lightly. (Kohlberg, 1976, p. 38)

Stage 5 subjects,- then, talk about "morality" and "rights" that take some priority over particular laws. Kohlberg insists, however, that we do not judge people to be at stage 5 merely from their verbal labels. We need to look at their social perspective and mode of reasoning. At stage 4, too, subjects frequently talk about the "right to life," but for them this right is legitimized by the authority of their social or religious group (e.g., by the Bible). Presumably, if their group valued property over life, they would too. At stage 5, in contrast, people are making more of an independent effort to think out what any society ought to value. They often reason, for example, that property has little meaning without life. They are trying to determine logically what a society ought to be like (Kohlberg, 1981, pp. 21-22; Gibbs et al., 1983, p. 83).

Stage 6: Universal Principles. Stage 5 respondents are working toward a conception of the good society. They suggest that we need to (a) protect certain individual rights and (b) settle disputes through democratic processes. However, democratic processes alone do not always result in outcomes that we intuitively sense are just. A majority, for example, may vote for a law that hinders a minority. Thus, Kohlberg believes that there must be a higher stage--stage 6--which defines the principles by which we achieve justice.

Kohlberg's conception of justice follows that of the philosophers Kant and Rawls, as well as great moral leaders such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King. According to these people, the principles of justice require us to treat the claims of all parties in an impartial manner, respecting the basic dignity, of all people as individuals. The principles of justice are therefore universal; they apply to all. Thus, for example, we would not vote for a law that aids some people but hurts others. The principles of justice guide us toward decisions based on an equal respect for all.

In actual practice, Kohlberg says, we can reach just decisions by looking at a situation through one another's eyes. In the Heinz dilemma, this would mean that all parties--the druggist, Heinz, and his wife--take the roles of the others. To do this in an impartial manner, people can assume a "veil of ignorance" (Rawls, 1971), acting as if they do not know which role they will eventually occupy. If the druggist did this, even he would recognize that life must take priority over property; for he wouldn't want to risk finding himself in the wife's shoes with property valued over life. Thus, they would all agree that the wife must be saved--this would be the fair solution. Such a solution, we must note, requires not only impartiality, but the principle that everyone is given full and equal respect. If the wife were considered of less value than the others, a just solution could not be reached.

Until recently, Kohlberg had been scoring some of his subjects at stage 6, but he has temporarily stopped doing so, For one thing, he and other researchers had not been finding subjects who consistently reasoned at this stage. Also, Kohlberg has concluded that his interview dilemmas are not useful for distinguishing between stage 5 and stage 6 thinking. He believes that stage 6 has a clearer and broader conception of universal principles (which include justice as well as individual rights), but feels that his interview fails to draw out this broader understanding. Consequently, he has temporarily dropped stage 6 from his scoring manual, calling it a "theoretical stage" and scoring all postconventional responses as stage 5 (Colby and Kohlberg, 1983, p. 28).

Theoretically, one issue that distinguishes stage 5 from stage 6 is civil disobedience. Stage 5 would be more hesitant to endorse civil disobedience because of its commitment to the social contract and to changing laws through democratic agreements. Only when an individual right is clearly at stake does violating the law seem justified. At stage 6, in contrast, a commitment to justice makes the rationale for civil disobedience stronger and broader. Martin Luther King, for example, argued that laws are only valid insofar as they are grounded in justice, and that a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws. King also recognized, of course, the general need for laws and democratic processes (stages 4 and 5), and he was therefore willing to accept the penalities for his actions. Nevertheless, he believed that the higher principle of justice required civil disobedience (Kohlberg, 198 1, p. 43). http://faculty.plts.edu/gpence/html/kohlberg.htm

The talking tree in the woods.  Each kid hung out on own limb.

Friendships (Selman's theory)

Stage 0:  Undifferentiated, egocentric (3-6)

Stage 1:  Differentiated, subjective (5-9)Lots of order.  Come play on the swings.

Stage 2:  Reciprocal, self-reflective, sharing, cooperative, reciprocity, try to persuade (8-12)

State 3:  Mutual, third person, understand different views (10-15)

Stage 4:  Intimate, in depth, sharing vulnerability, realistic portrayal of self, societal, collaborative, integrative, commitment (late teen)

 

Social comparison

People observe the performance of others and use it as a basis for evaluating their own abilities and accomplishments.

How to describe weaknesses.  Needs:  Area of growth

Self enhancing bias is your drive to see yoursef in a positive light.  Life is purposive.  Positive beliefs about oneself.

Downward social comparison.

Kohlberg's Moral Development

Preconventional.

Stage q punishment and obedience.

Stage 2 do things to get stuff.

Conventional

Stage 3 social relational (shared feelings)

Stage 4 Member of society.  What other people think of you.

Postconventional

Stage 5 Prior right and social contract

Stage 6 Universal ethical principles

Prosocial Behavior

Social interest gemeinschaftgefuhl (Adler) = the feeling with/for the community.

Altrusim

Empathy

Sympathy

Modeling and learning prosocial attitudes.

Non or antisocial behavior

Nonsocial--apethetic

Anti

Presence of aggression, risky, disregard for coial mores.

Oppositional defiant disorder

Conduct disorder

Test next week

Focus on chapter 1 (1/3 questions)  Know theories, stage, models, stages of development, and the names that are the biggest figures.  Know the order of the stages.  Multiple choice or matching.  Know qualitative, plasticity.

Not lot on genetics or brain.coaxion, genes. neuron, how they communicate,

 

 

Influences

Social comparison

People observe the performance of others and use it as a basis for evaluating their own abilities and accomplishments

Self-enhancing bias

Life is purposive

Positive beliefs about oneself

Downward social comparison

Comparing oneself to those less successful or less developed

Kohlberg’s Moral Development

Kohlberg. What are the moral implications of wearing your seatbelt?

Preconventional

Stage 1: punishment and obedience

Stage2: concrete, individualistic orientation (you scratch my back, I scratch yours.

Conventional

Stage 3: Social-relational (shared feelings)

Stage 4: Member of society

Postconventional

Stage 5: Prior right and social contract (specific rules deemphasized)

Stage 6: Universal ethical principals

Prosocial Behavior

Social Interest; gemeinschaftsgefuhl (Alfred Adler)=the feeling with/for the community.

Altruism

Empathy

Sympathy

Modeling and learning prosocial attitudes

Non or Anti-social behavior

Non-social behavior

Not contributing

Anti-Social

Presence of aggression, risky, disregard for social mores.

Oppositional-defiant disorder

Conduct disorder

Causes

Discussion

Separate into groups based on Gender

Gender roles are less assumed in "American" culture now than they have been in the past?

What roles should be gender specific?

Do you discriminate between genders?

Group Presentation

Sex Role Development

Difference between sex and gender. This distinction is very difficult to make and is rarely used consistently, even in circles that are specifically talking about these issues.

Sex=biological

Gender=social

Gender Identity Development

Gender Identity

Awareness of one’s own gender assignment

Typically can recognize men vs. women (although not associated to genitalia by around 1-2 years old

Around 2-3, they can correctly identify their own gender and recognize others’

Gender stability

(3-4 years old)-awareness that girls grow to be women and boys to be men. And awareness that you will grow to that

Gender Constancy

By around 5? Gender is permanent.

 

TRANSGENDER--Transgender is the state of one's "gender identity" (self-identification as woman, man, or neither) not matching one's "assigned sex" (identification by others as male or female based on physical/genetic sex).

Sex differences in behavior

Only differences

Aggression

Language skills

Math skills-boys better at problem solving, girls better on computations

Spatial skills

What do you think causes these differences?

Tend to have different interests. Tend to have different styles of play

Common myths

Females are more sociable, more dependent than males.

Males are more analytical

Males are more logical, females more interpersonal

Co-action of influences

Biology

Hormones

Cognition

Schema’s (essentially formal thought about gender identity)

Society (Social Learning)

Parents, media, friends, etc.

Glass Ceiling, discrimination, etc.

Psychological

Oedipus & Electra complexes

Desire for opportunity

Gender and Culture

 

Quiz 1

 

Name: _______________

 

 

 

  1. Jean Piaget’s is well-known for his ________ theory of development

    1. Cognitive

    2. Behavioral

    3. Psychosexual

    4. Multidimensional

 

  1. Broffenbrenner’s bioecological model resembles which of these shapes:

    1. line

    2. Steps

    3. Circle

    4. Rectangle

 

  1. Which of the following major issues of development is concerned with the age at which children seem to no longer have the ability to acquire language skills easily?

    1. Nature and nurture

    2. Continuity and discontinuity

    3. Quantitative and qualitative

    4. Critical periods and plasticity

 

  1. Which of the following is not an incremental model?

    1. Psychosocial

    2. Bandura’s Social Learning

    3. Skinner’s Behavioral model

 

  1. Stage models are more closely associated which type of change?

    1. Quantitative

    2. Qualitative

 

 

 

 

Name

Quiz 2

 

  1. The _________  refers to the way in which genes are expressed Phenotype -- observable characteristics of an organism produced by the organism's genotype interacting with the environment.

    1. Genotype

    2. Meiosis

    3. Phenotype

    4. Environment

 

  1. The epigenetic model emphasis which of the following?

    1. Environmental influences

    2. Behavior influences

    3. Genetic activity

    4. Coaction of multiple influences

 

  1. A teratogen is a substance or agent that affects a child

    1. When the child consumes the substance during early childhood

    2. When taken or absorbed by the mother during pregnancy

    3. through receiving immunizations

    4. by ensuring that the child is strong and healthy

 

  1. The surgeon general has stated that it is safe to drink 1 glass of wine during pregnancy. 

    1. True

    2. False

 

  1. This chapter focused primarily on

    1. Brain development

    2. Genetics and in-utero environment

    3. Cognitive development

    4. Early childhood

 

Here’s an additional question related to this chapter

  1. A teenager enjoys participating in a sport, and chooses to join a sports team and his/her school.  This is an example of which type of genetic influence

    1. Passive

    2. Evocative

    3. Active

 

Name________________

 

Quiz 3

 

1.      A kitten whose eyes are covered during the first months of its life loses the ability to see clearly in ways that would have been possible without the loss of early visual stimulation. This effect remains despite later attempts to remediate the loss. This is an example of which of the following?

a.                   behavior genetics

b.                  critical period

c.                   plasticity

d.                  visual demand

2.      At least in Piaget’s earlier writings, his theory of cognitive development was primarily a  ____________ model of development?

a.                   Incremental

b.                  Multidimensional

c.                   Stage

d.                  Random

3.      Carla, a 10-month-old infant, is seated in a playpen, playing with her toys.  She sees her caregiver enter the room carrying a bottle of milk for another child in the day care center. Carla watches the caregiver give the bottle to the other child.  Carla extends her hands toward the bottle, making noises that indicate she wants one as well. Her caregiver notices this, picks Carla up, and quickly prepares a bottle for her. In this example, Carla is demonstrating

a.                   knowledge of inferred intention.

b.                  preoperational thinking.

c.                   decentration.

d.                  means-end behavior.

4.      When considering the various cognitive developments, Piaget and others have stated that various areas of cognition can development at different rates.  In this sense, development is referred to as _____________

a.                   Domain specific

b.                  General

c.                   Adaptive

d.                  Habituating

5.      ______________  refers to the ability to make the sounds that are important in the learning of language:

a.                   Phonology

b.                  Syntax

c.                   Semantics

d.                  Pragmatics

Name________________

 

Quiz 4

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a universal basic emotion:

    1. Fear

    2. Guilt

    3. Happiness

    4. Anger

  2. Suzie, an infant, is very active, responds intensely to stimulation, avoids new stimulation, and tends to be irritable. Her temperament is said to be

    1. difficult.

    2. easy.

    3. slow-to-warm up.

    4. resilient.

  3. The quality of a children’s attachments has been found to affect 

    1. what children expect social interactions to be like.

    2. whether children remember positive or negative aspects of events better.

    3. children’s concepts of themselves.

    4. all of the above.

  4. Which of the following parenting styles is characterized by a parent being responsive to their child and not being demanding (low expectation)?

    1. Authoritative

    2. Authoritarian

    3. Permissive

    4. Neglecting/uninvolved

  5. Which of the following is a method of control that includes reasoning with a child and helping them understand the effects of their behavior on others?

    1. Corporal Punishment

    2. Withdrawal of Love

    3. Power Assertion

    4. Induction

 

Name________________

 

Quiz 5

 

  1. During middle childhood (around 6-12) years old, Piaget theorized that people are in which stage of cognitive development?

    1. Sensorimotor

    2. Formal Operational

    3. Concrete Operational

    4. Pre-Operational

 

  1. _______________ memory holds information we are actively thinking about at the moment.  It has a limited capacity and a time frame of about 15-30 seconds.

    1. Working

    2. Long-Term

    3. Semantic

    4. Sensory

 

  1. ______________ is the idea that most people are motivated to maintain moderately positive beliefs about themselves.

    1. Social comparison

    2. Downward social comparison

    3. Conscience

    4. Self-enhancing bias

 

  1. Kohlberg is known for his theory of __________  development.

    1. Moral

    2. Social

    3. Cognitive

    4. Gender

 

  1. _______________ can be thought of as “feeling with” another person, not to be confused with ____________ which refers to “feeling for” another person.

    1. Altruism; hedonism

    2. Sympathy; empathy

    3. Empathy; sympathy

    4. Morality of caring; morality of justice

Name________________

 

Quiz 6

 

  1. Which of the following terms refers to the idea that boys grow into men, and girls grow into women?

    1. Gender identity

    2. Gender stability

    3. Gender constancy

    4. Gender dysphoria

 

 

 

Mid-Term Study Guide. 

            This is not a comprehensive exhaustive list of everything that is on the mid-term, however, it provides you with some areas of focus.  If you have a good understand of all of these areas, you will be well prepared for the exam.  I would also recommend using the quizzes as guides.  The test is almost entirely multiple choice (about 60 items).  There is also a matching section (15 items).

 

  • Theories (the greatest number of test items relate to chapter 1.  Additionally, later chapters are all informed by the basics of chapter 1.  Be sure you know these theories and concepts well.)

    • Stage, Incremental, etc.

      • Know how these different categories of models differ

    • Specific theories

      • Know specifics of the models, for example:

        • Know the order of the stages

        • Know the difference between classical and operant conditioning

        • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING--change in behavior takes place when a neutral event or stimulus is associated with a stimulus that causes an automatic response.  As a result the neutral stimulus causes the person to make the same automatic response in the future.

        • OPERANT CONDITIONING--The process by which a person learns to produce a formerly random or accidental behavior or operant in response to a cue because the behavior was previously reinforced in that situation.

      • Be able to match major theorists with their theory (ie. Freud=psychosexual)

    • Major questions in development

      • Qualitative vs. qualitative, plasticity, etc.

    • When does development stop?

  • Genetics and in-utero environment

    • Phenotype -- observable characteristics of an organism produced by the organism's genotype interacting with the environment.

    • Genotype -- genetic constitution of an organism.
    • Carrier -- an individual heterozygous for a single recessive gene.

    • What is coaction of genes?  Interaction with environment.

    • SHIFTING FOCUS TO THE COACTION OF GENES AND ENVIRONMENT

      Unexpected Sources of Environmental Effects

      The Case for Coaction

      The Epigenetic Model: A Multidimensional Perspective

    • How do the behaviors/health of mother influence the health of infant

  • Neuro

    • How do neurons communicate with each other? Sending and receiving electrochemical messages.  HOW DO NEURONS COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER?  The electrical impulse carries.  The dendryte tells the cell body to act or not act.  The electrical signal is controlled by chemicals.  The gap is the synapse.

    • (synapses, neurotransmitters)

      Neurotransmitters--Chemical that are directly related to the activity of neurons. Excite or inhibit neuron firing.

    • Understand experience-expectant and experience-dependent growth

    • Experience-expectant. Overproduction to pruning. Cat experiment.

      Experience dependent.  No production without stimulus. Multiple languages.  Learning to juggle.

    • Understand the concept of pruning:  After birth, the brain's axons and dendrites grow and reproduce at a rapid pace, and many synapses form; however, starting at around the first birthday, many neurons die off and unnecessary synapses disappear through:
      Neural pruning

    • Different parts grow at different times and at different rates Growth of the human brain and skull slows down at about 2.5 years old

  • Early childhood

    • How do we study cognitive abilities in children who can’t talk?

      • Understand the habituation paradigm--baby's tendency to orient to new stimulation and to habituation to repeated or old stimulation.  Grows bored.

      •  Preferential looking paradigms--to investigate the language ability of very young children, even children who are not yet able to speak or to understand complex instructions.  The IPL paradigm just requires the child to listen to sentences and watch TV screens. The paradigm is based on the fact that children, and, in fact, adults too, tend to look at scenes corresponding to sentences that they hear.

    • What is sensorimotor and preoperational thought?

    • Know things like: object permanence, means-end behavior

    • Object permanence.

      Impossible event test--somehow baby understands things that aren't supposed to happen.

      First 6 months can use a baby sitter because don't understand separation.

      Remembering is made up of two things:  recognition and recall.

      Intentionality at about 9 months  means-end behavior (9 months or less)  I know when I get what I want.

      Agency--the ability to act without an external trigger.

      Intention--internal mental state, such as a plan or desire.

      theory of mind--Understanding others' intentions (other person reaching for something)

      Preoperational stage--begin to use symbols.

      In beginning, we have centration--thought tends to be focused on one salient feature at time.

      Decentration--taking multiple pieces at the same time.

      Preoperational egocentrism

      False belief task  (where is the candy?) 

      --Most childre attribute the same knowledge to others that they have themselves (p. 89)

       

    • Language development.  Phonology, semantics, etc.  when do these developments usually happen?

    • Phonology --making sounds

      very early after birth, infants prefer language from their mother's native tongue.  Recognize mother's voice at age 3.

      Babbling (6 mos)

      Voicing

      By age 3, most children can make themselves understood to familiar listeners, nonfamily members understand by around 4

      You have to hear sounds before 2 to speak like a native speaker

      Preferential--should know about that.

      Semantics--study of meaning of words

       

    • Attachment theory

    • Temperament

    • Parenting styles

    • Self-Concept

  • Middle Childhood

    • Friendships (Selman) 

      • Friendships require balancing intimacy and autonomy

    • Social comparisons: down social comparison, self-enhancing bias, etc.

    • Moral Development (Kohlberg)

  • Gender

    • What are some differences in gender development

    • Know gender identity, gender constancy, gender stability and when

    • What influences gender identity and gender expression

    • Transgender

STAGE MODELS

Period of time.

INCREMENTAL MODELS

MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELS

FREUD-psychosexual

Oral-mouth-birth

Anal-overly cautious-2

Phallic-assertion, self centered-3-5 years

Latency (genital) age 5

ID pleasure-biological self

EGO cognitive

SUPEREGO-guilt

ERICKSON-Psychosocial--personality "Stages of Man"

1.  trust v mistrust-birth

2. autonomy v shame and doubt- 1-3 yrs

3. initiative v guilt 3-6

4. industry v inferiority 6-12

5. identity v role confusion 12-20

6. intimacy v isolation young adult

7. generativity v stagnation middle

8. ego identity v. despair late

PIAGET-Cognitive

1.  sensorimotor 0-2

2. preoperational 2-7

3. concrete 7-12

4. formal operational thought 12-adult

LEARNING THEORIES

Behaviorist tradition John Locke

Chains:  classical and operant conditioning

Modeling

Information processing theories

 

Apply to all domains of development from the cognitive to the socials.  Layers, levels of interacting causes for behavioral change (physical, biological, psychological, social, cultural).

Transactional models

Relational models

Epigenetic models

Bronfenbrenne Bioecological Model Environment

Lifespan developmental theory -adaptation continues from birth to death

TEST REVIEW

1. When Billy's mom made him peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, she always folded the sandwich bread corner-to-corner. When Billy became old enough to make his own sandwiches, he always folded the bread corner-to-corner, too. Billy learned his sandwich-making techniques through:

 

 

Correct Answer:

Modeling

  Children learn a great deal simply by watching those around them, which is known as observational learning, or modeling. In this form of learning, one individual (the learner) observes another individual (the model) performing some behavior, and learns to do it, too (from close observation). Growing up, Billy observed the way his mother made sandwiches, perceived this to be the competent way, and modeled his sandwich-skills after her. Modeling plays an important role in how children acquire personality characteristics and skills (especially social skills).

End of Question 1

 

Question 2

2.

According to Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development, the stage in which a child needs to learn important academic skills and compare favorably with peers in school to achieve competence is the ____ stage.

 

Correct Answer:

Industry vs. Inferiority

  If children accomplish competence in this stage, they will see themselves as contributing to their social context. If, however, they do not develop competence in this stage, feelings of incompetence and inadequacy will develop and children will feel inferior in their social context.

 

End of Question 2

Question 3

3.

Mary and Fred have one child and want to adopt a second. Since their first child's infancy had been extremely difficult on Mary, she was excited at the possibility of adopting an older child, perhaps a well-behaved, toilet-trained 3 year-old, and skipping the infancy period entirely. Fred, on the other hand, had serious misgivings not knowing about the quality of care giving and relationships in this child's early life. In a 3 year-old's case, he felt that inadequate care and improper resolution of what Ericksonian stage could lead to irreparable damage in later development?

 

End of Question 3

 

Correct Answer:

Trust vs. Mistrust

  If an infant's needs for nourishment, stimulation, affection, and attention are not met during this stage from 0-1 year-old, infants will fail to establish basic trust or to feel valuable, carrying "mistrust" with them into the next stage of development. Mistrust in others and self will make it more difficult to successfully achieve a sense of autonomy.

Question 4

4.

If a new event is experienced that is very similar to the event in the original learning context, the learned behavior may be extended to this new event, bringing about broader change. This phenomenon is called:

 

End of Question 4

Correct Answer:

Generalization

  If new events are experienced that are similar to the events within the original context, learned behavior may be extended through generalization.

Question 5

5.

Which of the following is characteristic of the Stage Model of Development:

 

End of Question 5

 

Correct Answer:

A period of time, perhaps several years, during which a person's activities (at least in one broad domain) have certain characteristics in common. These common characteristics change as the person moves from one level of development to another.

  It is the characteristic of stage model that development is seen in stages in which each stage is characterized by certain characteristics and as the person moves to the next stage the common characteristics change.

Question 6

6.

A 38-year-old woman quits her high-paying marketing job to focus on her children and become a school counselor. What stage would Erikson consider this to be:

 


Correct Answer:

Generativity vs. Stagnation

  The woman has decided that money is not as fulfilling as raising her children and helping others—her personal identity and interpersonal attitudes have evolved into a different set of priorities.


7. The reflective practitioner does all of the following except:  

Correct Answer:

Relies solely on objective technical applications to determine the best way to operate in a situation.

  The reflective practitioner uses a variety of sources such as professional and personal experience, as well as background knowledge, in addition to technical theory and applications when determining how to best approach a problem.


8. Classical and operant conditioning are examples of which type of developmental theory:  

Correct Answer:

Incremental Model

  Classical and operant conditioning are part of social learning theories, where a change in behavior takes place because environmental events are paired with certain behaviors. The changes are narrow in scope (incremental) compared to stage theories and not as broad as multidimensional models.


9. Which of the following is NOT considered a stage model:  

Correct Answer:

Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Model

  Bronfenbrenner's is a multidimensional model, not a stage model.


10. You are doing a demonstration with Stella, who is three years old. You have two equal-sized glasses, filled to the top with the same volume of water. You ask her whether there is more water in one glass than the other, or the same, and she responds, "The same." Now, you pour the entire contents of one of these glasses into a tall, thin glass, and the entire contents of the other into a short, but very wide, glass. You ask her which glass contains more water, and she points to the tall glass. Which of Piaget's cognitive stages of development is Stella in?  

Correct Answer:

Preoperational thought

  Stella does not understand the logic of the volume of the water being preserved no matter what vessel contains it. Instead, she is focused on one salient piece of information, the height of the water in the glass. To her, the taller glass contains more water because its level is higher.


11.Monica is often quiet around the dinner table. Her parents have learned that she "just wants to be left alone." However, when Monica is troubled and wants to be supported, her parents fail to recognize her need to talk and Monica becomes more inverted. Monica's shyness is a(n):  

Correct Answer:

The second and third choices

  Although shyness may be inherited, Monica's tendency to be shy elicits a predictable response from her parents, which reinforces her shyness.


12.Which of the following is characteristic of the stage model of development?  

Correct Answer:

A period of time (perhaps several years) during which a person's activities (at least in one broad domain) have certain characteristics in common. These common characteristics change as the person moves from one level of development to another.

  It is the characteristic of stage models that development as seen in stages in which each stage is characterized by certain characteristics and as the person moves to the next stage the common characteristics change. The first and fourth choices are characteristic of the multidimensional model and the second choice is characteristic of the incremental model.


13. Ella is influenced by a movie she sees in which the main character skips school and does not get caught. She thinks this seems like a fun idea and convinces her friend Sandra to skip school with her. As a result, both girls are given detentions and grounded by their parents. Sandra no longer trusts Ella and decides to stop associating with her. Bronfenbrenner might argue that what has taken place here illustrates the concept of __________.  


 

Correct Answer:

Proximal processes

  This example illustrates the concept of proximal processes because Ella and Sandra are both influencing and being influenced by their immediate environments.


14.The pleasure principle drives which of Freud's personality aspects?  

 

Ego

 

Id

 

Superego

 

Anal personality

 

Correct Answer:

Id

  The id is irrational, driven by the pleasure principle, that is, by the pursuit of gratification.


15. Which of the following does NOT illustrate social learning theory?  

Six year-old Amanda observes her older brother Sam receiving a treat after he does the dishes. The next day, Amanda jumps up from the table immediately after lunch and insists on washing the dishes.

Four year-old Johnny frequently gets in trouble at pre-school for hitting his classmates. When the teacher talks to his mother, she learns that there has been a history of abuse between his mother and father and Johnny has witnessed his father hitting his mother.

***Angie brings home a report card with two A's and two B's. Her parents give her three dollars, one for every A. During the next grading period, Angie spends more time studying and puts extra effort into her schoolwork.

Fourteen-year-old Sophie looks up to her classmate Maria because she is pretty and popular. One day after school, Sophie sees Maria smoking a cigarette. A few weeks later, someone offers Sophie a cigarette at a party. Although Sophie knows that smoking is bad for her health and she would get in trouble if her parents caught her, she decides to give it a try.

  This is an example of operant conditioning, because Angie's own behavior is being reinforced. In social learning theory, a subject learns a new behavior through observing a model's behavior.

 

CHAPTER 3
Multiple Choice Questions


This activity contains 15 questions.

Question 1

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window Children begin to learn the "phonology" of their native language by what age:

Before birth
At birth
3-6 months
6-9 months
Approx. 1 year

End of Question 1


Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window Lily and her mother sit on the floor and play with a doll together. The phone rings and Lily's mother jumps up to answer it. In doing so, she accidentally covers the doll with Lily's blanket which is also on the floor. In the 15 seconds that Lily is sitting on the floor by herself, she has difficulty figuring out where the doll has gone and subsequently begins to cry. Which concept has Lily not yet developmentally obtained?

Recall
Object permanence
Observational learning
Recognition

End of Question 2


Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window Piaget believed that children's poor perspective-talking skills reflected which of the following:

Fragile X syndrome
Psychosocial crisis
Preoperational egocentrisms
None of these

End of Question 3


Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window Jennifer suffered severe head trauma to her forebrain during a car accident. After this accident, she was unable to process new memory. Jennifer was able to remember events prior to the accident. However, she was unable to remember events following the accident. The specific brain structure that was most likely damaged by the accident is:

Limbic System
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Hypothalamus

End of Question 4


Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window The life-span of a functioning neuron is:

12 hours
12 months
2 years
The entire life of the individual

End of Question 5


Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window After birth, the brain's axons and dendrites grow and reproduce at a rapid pace, and many synapses form; however, starting at around the first birthday, many neurons die off and unnecessary synapses disappear through:

Myelination
Synaptogenesis
Neural pruning
Object permanence

End of Question 6


Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window Neurons communicate by:

Sending and receiving messages through direct connections
Sending and receiving electrochemical messages
Through the blood-nerve barrier
The first and second choices

End of Question 7


Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window Justin is a four month-old infant. He has developed sucking schema by sucking the bottle. Now whatever comes in his hand, whether it is a toy or a pacifier or cloth, he tries to use the same sucking schema. This is an example of:

Assimilation
Accommodation
Both assimilation and accommodation
None of these

End of Question 8


Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window Piaget reported that when babies are around 8 to 12 months old, they will divert their attention from a goal, such as grabbing an object, in order to produce another action that will help achieve the goal. This process is referred to as:

Intention
Using symbols
Means-end behavior
Observational learning

End of Question 9


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window Baby Mandy is playing with a blue ball. Mom takes the ball and places it under Mandy's purple blanket which is next to where Mandy is sitting. Mandy then successfully retrieves the ball from under the blanket to continue playing with it. Mandy has displayed:

Orienting response
Deferred imitation
Representational thought
Memory recall

End of Question 10


Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window In the major milestones in motor development, a child is able to run, jump, and climb at:

4 months
7 months
12 months
2-3 years

End of Question 11


Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window Babies begin babbling, repeating consonant-vowel-consonant combinations, such as "dadada," at about age ______, and limit their babbling to sounds permissible in their native language by about age _______.

1 month; 3 months
3 months; 6 months
6 months; 9 months
9 months; 12 months

End of Question 12


Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window At what age do children begin to intentionally communicate with others?

At birth
At about 8-12 months
At about 18-24 months
When they begin speaking

End of Question 13


Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window According to Vygotsky, tools and signs are anything that people use to help them think and learn. The most important tool for Vygotsky was:

Writing things down
Observation
Language
Smelling

End of Question 14


Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window Scaffolding:

Serves as a temporary prop until the child has mastered a task
Allows more advanced thinkers or more capable members of a culture to help novice learners
Is learning that occurs when a more cognitively advanced individual guides a learner with prompts, cues, and other supports
All of theseCHAPTER 4
Multiple Choice Questions


This activity contains 15 questions.

Question 1

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window A baby is playing with some blocks while his mother and a stranger watch. When his mother gets up to leave the room, he does not seem to be distressed and continues playing. When the mother returns and calls to him, he turns his head away from the direction of her voice and continues playing with his toys. What pattern of attachment does the baby seem to be exhibiting?

Securely attached
Anxious ambivalent – insecurely attached
Avoidant – insecurely attached
Disorganized/disoriented – insecurely attached

End of Question 1


Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window Which of the following is NOT part of Izard's theory of emotions?

Emotions are the direct product of the underlying neural processes related to each of the emotional expressions
Emotions require cognitive components, such as appraisal or intent, in order to exist
Emotions are based on evolution rather than learning
Emotions emerge in infancy and early childhood in a form that is comparable to the emotions experienced by adults

End of Question 2


Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window The textbook mentions purposes of attachment. Which of the following is the purpose of the attachment?

Proximity Maintenance
Behavior Inhibition
Secure Base
The first and third choices
The second and third choices

End of Question 3


Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window Restrictions on visitation of parents to their children during hospitalization (based on concerns about infection and disruptions to medical routines) changed to a policy that allows parents complete access to their children. The change occurred because of research on the emotional effects of mother-child separation during hospitalization conducted by who?

Bronfenbrenner
Erikson
Bowlby
Freud
None of these

End of Question 4


Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window Bobby, a one year-old, is in a doctor's waiting room with his mother. This is the first time they have been to this particular doctor's office. After a few minutes he begins to play with the toys located in the corner of the room. Bobby's mother leaves the room to go to the restroom and he begins to cry. When she returns he greets her happily and reaches up to be held. According to the text, Bobby is displaying the following type of attachment?

Disorganized/disoriented—insecurely attached
Anxious ambivalent—insecurely attached
Securely attached
Avoidant—insecurely attached
None of these

End of Question 5


Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window Rebecca, a 1 year-old, hits her head on the corner of a table and begins to cry. According to attachment theorists her mother should:

Ignore her crying to encourage her to be more independent
Wait until she was done crying to soothe her verbally
React promptly and soothe her verbally and/or physically
Tell her to stop crying and act like a big girl

End of Question 6


Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window In regard to 4 month-old infants Kagan and his colleagues describe as "high reactive," all of the following are true except:

They produce sluggish limb activity
They have high levels of muscle tension
They react irritably to sensory stimulation
New smells or sounds may cause them to cry

End of Question 7


Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window Kathleen is a three month-old infant who is sitting in her rocking seat smiling and gazing at her mom who is playing peek-a-boo with her. The phone rings and her mom stops focusing on Kathleen to answer the phone. Kathleen starts to wave her arms in a fussy manner to try and get her mom's attention, and failing to do so, looks up at the ceiling fan instead. According to Tronick's observations, what processes are being demonstrated by the infant?

Basic trust and attachment theory
Other-directed and self-directed behaviors
Secure base and safe haven
None of these

End of Question 8


Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window According to Sroufe, emotional development is the foundation for:

The response to the new psychosocial stimulus
The study of individual adaptation and psychopathology
The infants' behavior as a result of differentiation and integration of the original reflexes
All of these

End of Question 9


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window A student named Jack is in the fifth grade and consistently exhibits conduct-disordered behavior. Ten years later, as an adult, he displays a number of disorders including antisocial personality, depression, and substance abuse. According to the text, this is an example of the:

Principle of temperament
Principle of life rhythmicity
Principle of multifinality
None of these

End of Question 10


Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window What is the relationship between infant reactivity and later shyness?

Low reactivity leads to high shyness
Low reactivity leads to low shyness
High reactivity leads to high shyness
High reactivity leads to low shyness

End of Question 11


Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window A research technique involves seating an infant facing his mother while the mother interacts in a normal and playful way with her infant. Then, when the mother changes her behavior, by being unresponsive to her infant, the infant will then use facial expressions, movements and verbalizations (other-directed coping behaviors) to get the mother's attention. When the mother then re-engages with the infant, the infant looks away or seems less interested (self-directed coping behaviors). This research technique is called:

The attachment technique
Security experiment
Strange situation test
The "still-face" paradigm

End of Question 12


Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window Around what age do most infants begin to show separation anxiety accompanied by wariness of strangers?

6 months
12 months
8 months
24 months

End of Question 13


Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window I was hiking along a wooded path with friends when I caught a glimpse of a small snake in front of me only a moment or two before I would have stepped on it. In fear, I uttered a small scream, my muscles tensed, and I quickly jumped to the other side of my friend, who was next to me and found the entire situation quite amusing. My frightened response is an example of:

My biological preparedness to respond emotionally to at least some harmful stimuli
Low-road emotional processing
High-road emotional processing
The first and second choices
The second and third choices

End of Question 14


Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window John recently survived a car accident. Doctors determined that he had suffered some damage to the frontal region of his brain during the accident. What syndrome associated with cognitive limitations and emotional problems might be affecting John's functioning since the accident?

Phineas Gage matrix
Limbic System matrix
Frontal Gage matrix
Fragile X Syndrome
CHAPTER 5
Multiple Choice Questions


This activity contains 15 questions.

Question 1

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window Justin is 20 months old and is wearing a hat. He walks next to the full-length mirror in the bedroom, stops, looks into it, and reaches up to touch the hat while watching himself do it in the mirror. What is this developmental benchmark considered?

Self-esteem
Self-actualization
Self-recognition
Pre-self

End of Question 1


Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window A parent who is high on warmth and low on demandingness toward his or her child would be demonstrating which parenting style?

Authoritarian
Authoritative
Permissive
Neglecting/Uninvolved

End of Question 2


Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window Mr. Samoff is an authoritarian parent. Which of the following is likely to be characteristic of his behavior toward his children?

Highly responsive and highly demanding
Low on responsiveness and highly demanding
Moderately to high on responsiveness and low demanding
Low on responsiveness and low demanding

End of Question 3


Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window Five year-old Lucy grabs the toy her younger brother is playing with and begins to play with it herself. Her father sees the interaction, pulls Lucy aside, and says to her in a firm tone, "Lucy, it is not nice to take other people's things without asking. Look how upset it made your brother. I would like you to give the toy back." While her father is speaking to her, Lucy is attentive, but not fearful. She gives the toy back to her brother and thinks more about what just took place. Lucy has most likely experienced:

Love withdrawal
Social referencing
Maturity demands
Anxious arousal

End of Question 4


Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window Self-recognition, early self-control, and early self-esteem (feelings of autonomy) begin to manifest themselves in children at which age?

0-6 months
6-12 months
12-24 months
24-60 months

End of Question 5


Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window At preschool, the teacher had a plateful of cookies that she explained were for after naptime. Early in the day the teacher left Peggy unattended near the plate. Peggy was not able to stop herself from eating a cookie and afterward felt guilty. What statement is true?

Peggy's self-system includes self-control
Peggy has developed self-conscious emotions
Peggy has developed to a self-monitoring phase of self-self
Peggy is at the pre-self stage of development

End of Question 6


Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window Billy is a five year-old boy who often goes to school irritable, anxious, and angry. He always follows his teacher's instructions. However, when his teacher is not around he does mischievous things. Billy is often bullied by other students. What type of parenting style does Billy's parents most likely have?

Neglecting/uninvolved
Permissive
Authoritative
Authoritarian

End of Question 7


Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window In the text, Meltzoff argues that from the regularity and reliability of caregiver-infant interactions babies extract notions of "self invariance" and "other invariance". This can also be called the possession of a "pre-self," which involves all of the following except:

Enjoying self-directed behavior
Likings of permanence of body
Separateness from others
Rhythms of interpersonal connections

End of Question 8


Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window Expression of frequent negative emotions and lack of behavioral and emotional self-control in toddlers is called:

Normal toddler behavior
Bipolar disorder
Emotional dysregulation
Storming

End of Question 9


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window Sometimes Bobby's mommy won't talk to him or look at him for the rest of the day if he does something naughty. Bobby's mommy is using an example of __________ control.

Love-withdrawal
Kindness
Power assertion
Induction

End of Question 10


Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window Goals that we choose to meet for ourselves because of their personal importance are called:

Valence
Pretensions
Self-concept
Self-esteem

End of Question 11


Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window Chuck and Jane have always appeared socially isolated, entertaining only family and never initiating interaction with their neighbors, the Smiths. Their son, Theo, who was born a year after the Smiths moved next door, has never interacted with the Smiths nor the Smith's son, who is the same age. Through what process did Theo's behavior develop?

Representations of interactions
Emotional signaling
Social referencing
Self-regulation

End of Question 12


Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window In preparation for a trip outside, young Bobby grabs his shoes and tries to put them on. Since Bobby is not yet proficient at tying his shoelaces, he struggles and needs help. Instead of helping Bobby learn how to tie his own shoes, his mother walks over, grabs the shoe out of Bobby's hand and says in an irritated manner, "You're taking too long, just let me do it!" With regard to parental responsiveness, the mother's style is:

Child-Centered
Permissive
Parent-Centered
Authoritative

End of Question 13


Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window In order for "time-out" to be an effective method of discipline for young children, it is essential that it be used with:

Immediacy and Consistency
An intended threat
All negative behaviors
A grain of salt

End of Question 14


Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window Maria is a client that came to therapy very depressed, feeling unworthy and lonely. She stated that her husband put her down every day for no reason. Some of the goals in her treatment plan are to identify what kind of job she would like to perform and to find educational opportunities that will prepare her for finding a job in the field of her preference. She is working on:

Identifying her I concept
Me concept
Self-esteem
RelationshipsCHAPTER 6
Multiple Choice Questions


This activity contains 16 questions.

Question 1

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window Gary, a four year-old, has been friends with Minh, age five, for several months. Minh often comes over to Gary's house play. On one such occasion, Gary demands that Minh share his brand-new Spider Man action figure with him, and Minh refuses. Gary grabs at the toy, but Minh runs away. Gary tells Minh that he is no longer his friend. Which of Selman's stages of friendship development would Gary fall under?

Stage 0: Undifferentiated/Egocentrism
Stage 1: Differentiated/Subjective
Stage 2: Reciprocal/Self-reflective
Stage 3: Mutual/Third-person
Stage 4: Intimate/In-depth/Societal

End of Question 1


Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window On the school playground, the noon-supervisor stops a child from playing hide-and-seek because his shoe laces are untied. Still actively searching for his play buddies, and without paying attention to his shoes, he mechanically ties his shoelace in less than 5 seconds. In reference to knowledge, this ability demonstrates what type?

Semantic
Episodic
Declarative
Procedural

End of Question 2


Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window Development of problem-solving skills in middle childhood involves several kinds of changes. One of these changes occurs because:

Children devise and use an increasing range of strategies as they get older
They usually have more resources, such as domain knowledge and logical thinking skills
They tend to plan better as they get older
All of these

End of Question 3


Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window Johnny, a 5 year-old, is presented with two piles of 6 buttons. He is asked to count the buttons in each pile to confirm that there is the same amount in both piles, which he does. The presenter then takes one pile of buttons and lines them up in a single row across the table, while keeping the other pile grouped together. She then asks Johnny to tell her which group has more buttons. He responds that the buttons lined up across the table in a row has more. According to Piaget, this is evidence that Johnny is in what developmental stage?

Concrete operational stage
Sensorimotor stage
Preoperational stage
All of these

End of Question 4


Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window In the discussion of whether or not there is a comprehensive way to look at how competent children are in making and sustaining friendships, Selman proposed a framework for friendship making that included the concept of:

Friendship understanding
Friendship skills
Friendship valuing
All of these

End of Question 5


Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window Cooperative learning environments:

Are as effective for preschoolers as they are for older elementary school children
Seem to be most effective when decision-making is shared
Require active scaffolding by an adult
The second and third choices

End of Question 6


Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window Advances in technology have revealed that adults and children utilize different skills and hemispheres of the brain to perform mathematical calculations. Children rely most heavily on all of the following except:

Concept formation
Strategy use and reasoning
Previous rote learning
Right-hemisphere capacities

End of Question 7


Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window Children in Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage should be able to:

Mix complicated chemical formulas
Understand the laws of relativity
Be able to discern that two 8-ounce glasses of different shapes hold the same amount of liquid
Create world peace

End of Question 8


Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window Formal operational thought refers to the ability to:

Recognize you own subjectivity
Construct logical thoughts about abstract contents
Master fine motor skills
Tell right from wrong
None of these

End of Question 9


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window Seven-year-old Marcus is incredibly knowledgeable about outer space. He has an expansive recall memory of outer space facts. However, when asked about the details of the video about tigers he watched at school today, he is unable to remember very much. What is this differentiation in memory due to?

Assimilation
Domain specific knowledge
Elaboration
Sensory memory

End of Question 10


Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window In terms of human memory, which of the following are involved in declarative knowledge, or knowledge about facts and events?

Semantic knowledge
Episodic knowledge
Procedural knowledge
The first and second choices
The second and third choices

End of Question 11


Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window In the friendship framework and the spheres of influence, biological predispositions and sociocultural factors are also known as:

Nature and nurture
Interpersonal performance and psychosocial components
Antecedent forces and subsequent effects
The second and third choices

End of Question 12


Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window In addition to analytic ability, Sternberg includes other abilities to create a more comprehensive picture of intelligence. In applying this theory to learning, which of the following elements would be appropriate to include in a class?

Essay writing
Performing skits
Role-playing
Watching videos
All of these

End of Question 13


Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window It's Taylor's first day of kindergarten and the teacher has asked him to introduce himself to the class. His response, "My name is Taylor Davis. I am 5 years old. I live in a house. I have a big dog. I have a little sister." What type of knowledge is Taylor exhibiting?

Nondeclarative knowledge
Procedural
Episodic
Semantic

End of Question 14


Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window Which of the following does NOT contribute to memory improvement with age?

As children grow older, their ability to process information quickly improves
A child's knowledge base expands with age and experience
Children's logical thinking improves with age; since they are better able to understand their experiences they are more likely to remember
Older children are less vulnerable to false memories, because their prior knowledge base allows them to separate reality from suggestions

End of Question 15


Question 16

16
Open Hint for Question 16 in a new window According to Selman, the most mature and effective type of interpersonal orientation is characterized by:

A self-transforming style
An other-transforming style
A balance between self-control and assertiveness
A balance between intimacy and autonomy

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window Kohlberg's conventional level of morality roughly corresponds to which of Piaget's stages of moral development?

Premoral Period
Heteronomous Morality
Autonomous Morality
Universal Morality

End of Question 1


Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window Which of the following is NOT a stage in Piaget's theory of moral development?

Premoral Stage
Heteronomous Morality
Conventional Level
Autonomous Morality

End of Question 2


Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window In looking at Kohlberg's views of morality, Gilligan argues that men and women have different "voices" in relation to moral decision making. She labels these differences as the morality of _________ for men and morality of _________ for women.

Justice; Caring
Caring; Justice
Superiority; Inferiority
Giving; Receiving

End of Question 3


Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window When Mika is asked why he should not hit his brother, he responds, "Because Mommy says so and if I do I will get yelled at." Mika's level of moral development fits with which of Piaget's and/or Kohlberg's stages?

Preconventional Morality
Autonomous Morality
Conventional Morality
The first and second choices

End of Question 4


Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window Billy knows that when he goes out to dinner he needs to follow certain rules and mind his manners at the table. Such standards are an example of :

Moral rule
Conventional rule
Personal rule
Esteem

End of Question 5


Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window Motivators for altruism are:

Money and fame
Popularity
Empathy
Sympathy
The third and fourth choices

End of Question 6


Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window What is being referred to when most people are motivated to maintain moderately positive beliefs about themselves:

Global self-worth
Downward social comparison
Self-enhancing bias
Global self-esteem

End of Question 7


Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window Beginning at the age of 3, children are able to discern between moral rules, conventional rules, and personal rules. Which of the following is NOT an example of these types of rules?

Elder women are addressed as Auntie
Bedtime is at 7:30
Stealing from others is wrong
Chocolate is good

End of Question 8


Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window Brandi is a six-year-old first grader. When you ask her about the rules in her classroom, she lists several, including, "Listen to the teacher," "Be respectful to others," and "Keep your hands to yourself." You then ask her why the rules are important, and she responds, "Because teacher says so, and you don't want to get a note sent home to Mom." Which level of moral development is Brandi demonstrating?

Autonomous morality
Social-relational perspective
Concrete, individualist orientation
Punishment and obedience orientation

End of Question 9


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window According to the text, our emotional reactions to others are an important source of helping behaviors. Which of the following are sources of helping behaviors?

Self-esteem
Empathy
Sympathy
The second and third choices
All of the above

End of Question 10


Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window John's classmate accidentally tripped and bumped into him in the lunch line. John immediately assumed that his classmate bumped into him intentionally and then hit his classmate in the face forcefully with a closed fist. What type of bias did John show?

Intentional Attributional Bias
Threat Attributional Bias
Hostile Attributional Bias
None of these

End of Question 11


Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window Recognizing another's emotional condition and experiencing what they are assumed to be feeling is a description of:

Sympathy
Empathy
Concern
None of these

End of Question 12


Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window Angie decides to get a divorce. When two of her friends discuss her decision, one of them says, "Although I don't personally agree with Angie's decision, it is ultimately her choice and I will be there to support her." This response demonstrates what level of morality?

Preconventional
Postconventional
Conventional
None of these

End of Question 13


Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window Travis was very upset when Larry stole some candy, but did not care when Mike put his elbows on the dinner table when he was told not to. What might explain his different reactions?

Stealing is a personal rule and putting elbows on the dinner table is a conventional rule
Stealing is a conventional rule and putting elbows on the dinner table is a personal rule
Stealing is a moral rule and putting elbows on the dinner table is a conventional rule
Stealing is a moral rule and putting elbows on the dinner table is a personal rule

End of Question 14









CHAPTER 8
The children in a classroom are asked to name which of their classmates they would like to play with (a positive nomination) and which of their classmates they would not like to play with (a negative nomination). Mabel received a high number of both positive and negative nominations. To which sociometric category would she belong?

Popular
Average
Neglected
Rejected
Controversial

End of Question 1


Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window Jake, a three year-old boy, feels competition with his father for his mother's attention. He gets jealous when his parents go out on a weekend evening and leave him with a babysitter. According to Freud, what is Jake experiencing?

Penis Envy
Electra Complex
Oedipus Complex
Maternal Complex

End of Question 2


Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window Justin is aware that he is a boy and his gender is permanent and it will never change even if he wears dresses or ribbons and even if he plays with dolls or changes any behavior or appearance to resemble girls. This is an example of:

Perceptual distinctions between the sexes
Gender stability
Gender constancy
Gender stereotype

End of Question 3


Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window Sociometry is a:

Classic way of assessing social competence
Measurement of individuals within the peer group
Measurement of rejection only
The first and second choices
None of these

End of Question 4


Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window Jane, a 4 year-old, has penis envy. She also has sexual desires toward her father and sees her mother as competition. Eventually, she makes peace and identifies with her mother. Freud labeled this the:

Penis Complex
Oedipus Complex
Electra Complex
Sexual Complex
None of these

End of Question 5


Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window A second step in identity formation in which a child understands that over time one's gender category stays the same is referred to as _________ and occurs by about ________:

Gender Constancy; 2½ years old
Gender Constancy; 3 or 4 years old
Gender Stability; 2 ½ years old
Gender Stability; 3 or 4 years old

End of Question 6


Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window Which of the following statements regarding the stability of Coie's sociometric categories is NOT true?

The impact of peer group classification is moderately stable, particularly for the broad-band dimensions of acceptance and rejection.
Peer rejection is the most stable of all the broad-band dimensions.
Those in the popular and rejected categories are more likely than others to maintain their status over time.
Those in the neglected and controversial categories tend to maintain their status, but only over short periods of time.

End of Question 7


Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window A social group that shares activities, behaviors, values, and appearance is considered a:

Family
Clique
Subculture
None of these

End of Question 8


Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window As Max entered his senior year in high school his once predominantly sports-minded, male social group had become more interest and gender diverse. What can explain this change?

Degrouping
Cliques
Protective Factors
Social Dosage Effect

End of Question 9


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window Which of the following statements is correct?

Boys' play in groups is more physical and more aggressive than girls' play.
It is hard to tell the difference between play of boy same-sex groups and girl same-sex groups.
Boys and girls play at the same level of aggression within their same-sex groups.
None of these

End of Question 10


Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window Three girls are in the yard playing jump rope when one of them says, "I don't want to play jump rope anymore, let's do something else." One of the other girls responds by saying, "How about we play jump rope for just a few more minutes and then we can maybe play with our dolls?" The other girl agrees that they will play jump rope a little longer and then switch to something else. This common way of interaction among girls is known as

Soft play
Collaborative speech
Loss of voice
Domineering discourse
Responsive interplay

End of Question 11


Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window Peer relationships such as dyads, cliques, and crowds are important because:

They play a role in the development of self-understanding
They provide a sense of acceptance and belonging
Peer relationships are not important
The first and second choices

End of Question 12


Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window April and Serena are two 5th graders watching tetherball at recess. Their classmates John and Thomas arrive and they all discuss who the best players are. April and Serena stick close together while John and Thomas maintain their distance. This interaction is an example of what?

Edging
Borderwork
Domineering Discourse
Degrouping

End of Question 13


Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window Lisa and Cassie are part of a clique in their high school. Most of the girls in the group are on the swim team. They tend to dress alike and listen to similar music. Generally, they all go to the same parties or movies on the weekends. The text calls this tendency to share behavior and attitudinal attributes:

Single-Mindedness
Homophily
Heterosexuality
Natural selection

Chapter 9

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Puberty: The Adolescent Metamorphosis

A Glandular Awakening

The Changing Brain

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

Formal Operational Thought

Scientific Problem Solving

Constructing Ideals

Advances in Metacognitive Skill: Thinking About Thought

IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT

Some Basic Considerations

Adolescent Identity Development

Identity Status

Assessment of Identity Domains

Developmental Sequence in Identity Formation

Identity Crisis: Truth or Fiction

Identity Development and Diverse Groups

 

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window

After reviewing studies of depressed mood, Petersen and her colleagues found that about what fraction of teens experience depressed mood at any given time?

 

End of Question 1

Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window

Michael, 16, plans to go to college after he graduates from high school and then go on to medical school, just like his parents, who are both physicians. He says that he wants to continue the family tradition and has never considered other careers. In which of Marcia's stages of adolescent identity development does Michael appear to belong?

 

End of Question 2

Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window

On entering the ninth grade, Bill was sure everyone was judging his red hair and making fun of him behind his back. When he mentioned his dilemma to a friend, she replied that she thought his hair was brown and she had not noticed the same reactions to him. What might account for this discrepancy in observations?

 

End of Question 3

Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window

John, an adolescent male who shares his room with his younger brother, always finds it annoying that on Saturday morning when he is still trying to sleep at 10:30 A.M. because he did not go to bed until 2:00 A.M., his younger brother has already been awake for hours and makes a lot of noise. What term can be used to explain why John is so annoyed?

 

End of Question 4

Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window

Justin, 18 years old, is very creative. He is not sure whether he wants to do interior designing, fashion designing, or graphic designing. Since he has flare for art he has taken different classes related to the above fields, but he is not sure what major he would choose at this point in time. What stage do you think he belongs to according to Marcia's stages?

 

End of Question 5

Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window

For girls, the first menstruation is known as:

 

End of Question 6

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window

Shannon has just turned 13 and is sure that her parents cannot possibly understand what a teenage girl is going through today. They don't realize that Shannon is different from other girls and she is going to leave her mark on this world. According to Elkind, Shannon is exhibiting what?

 

End of Question 7

Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window

Which of the following theories is best supported by current research about the development of sexual orientation?

 

End of Question 8

Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window

The social opinion that boys who have multiple sexual partners are considered positively while girls who do the same are considered negatively is called:

 

End of Question 9

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window

As a little boy, Dennis spends a lot of time with his four sisters and all their girlfriends that come over to play. In school he also chooses to play and spend time with mostly girls. According to Bem's theory, this behavior could promote:

 

End of Question 10

Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window

Which of the following are possible reasons for late onset of menstruation in female adolescents:

 

End of Question 11

Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window

The production of estrogens, androgens, and progesterone occur in:

 

End of Question 12

Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window

Mary is a 12-year-old girl. Her English teacher has given the class an assignment in which they must read A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L'Engle. Then they are to look at the use of language and the idea of good versus evil in the book. Such a task requires:

 

End of Question 13

Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window

Sally tends to respond to problems by directing her attention internally toward negative feelings or thoughts by writing in a journal about how sad she feels. In contrast, Marjorie deliberately focuses on neutral or pleasant thoughts or engages in activities to keep her from thinking about her problems. Sally uses ________ as a coping style, whereas Marjorie uses _____________.

 

End of Question 14

Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window

As many as ____% of young adolescents have sexual experiences with members of the same sex, and this is most likely a result of _________.

 

Chapter 10

FRAMEWORKLESSNESS AND AUTONOMY: SELTZER'S MODEL OF ADOLESCENT SOCIAL IDENTITY

The Peer Arena

THE STRUCTURE OF THE PEER NETWORK
THE ROLE OF PARENTS

Parents, Peers, and Ethnicity

THE ROLE OF SCHOOL
LEISURE AND WORK
MEDIA AND THE CONSUMER CULTURE
RISKY BEHAVIOR AND SOCIAL DEVIANCE

Setting the Stage for Risk Taking

Society's Role in Adolescent Problem Behavior: Then and Now

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window

Jennifer was asked to the Senior Ball by the most popular boy in school. His parents are out of town and rumor says that there will be a huge unsupervised party at his place after the ball. Jennifer's parents do not allow her to attend the senior ball with the guy nor do they give her permission to go to the after party. She is only allowed to go to the ball with another date, and if she wants to hang out afterwards, it should be with a few close friends. Jennifer was upset with her parent, but later decides to go to the ball with someone else and hang out with a few close friends. Which of the following parenting styles best fits parental monitoring in describing Jennifer's parents?

 

End of Question 1

Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window

Research has found that, for adolescent youths, the authoritative parenting style is:

 

End of Question 2

Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window

Whose support for academics seems to be most important in predicting students' school behavior?

 

End of Question 3

Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window

Amy started taking drugs after seeing her friends taking drugs. She started believing that if her friends were not worried about negative consequences then she should not worry about them. This is an example of:

 

End of Question 4

Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window

The risky behavior of teens described in our text seems to serve several purposes. The advantages of engaging in some risky behavior include all of the following except:

 

End of Question 5

Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window

What is the ratio for American teenagers' leisure time compared to their homework time?

 

End of Question 6

Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window

In junior high, Madison was a straight-A student. In high school, she starting hanging out with what was considered the "popular crowd." If Steinberg's research on the influence of peers and the average grades of this crowd are true, over time Madison's grades will likely:

 

End of Question 7

Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window

Which of the following best fits the notion of frameworklessness?

 

End of Question 8

Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window

Erik is 17 and likes to drive fast because it makes his hair fly and his heart beat quickly. This is an example of a __________ behavior.

 

End of Question 9

Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window

16-year-old Alicia watches lots of music videos on MTV, MTV2, and BET. She also listens to the latest pop, rock, and rap music on the radio. All these mediums have shown and told her that sex is great and everybody's doing it and girls should be as sexy as possible. What is the likely outcome of this persistent exposure?

 

End of Question 10

Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window

At what ages do children transfer some of their emotional dependency from their parents to their peers?

 

End of Question 11

Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window

Figure 10.1 in the text shows that as 5th graders transition through middle school to high school autonomy from parents ____________ while autonomy from peers ___________.

 

End of Question 12

Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window

It is important to consider the effects of cultural forces on adolescent development because:

 

End of Question 13

Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window

According to Steinberg, all of the following are possible factors that could contribute to how teens find a niche among available crowds, except:

 

End of Question 14

Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window

"Overall, responsiveness seems more closely tied to adolescents' self-confidence and social competence, and demandingness is more closely associated with 'good' behavior and self-control. Recent work indicates that it can be useful to consider responsiveness as comprising separable factors." What are those factors?

 

 

Identity Status

Diffusion:  exploring

Moratorium:  lack of commitment

Foreclosure:  make commitments with little or not exploration of alternatives

Identity achievement:  Exploration and commitment to certain alternatives.

 

Adolescence can affect what we go through a the moment and later.

Puberty

Glandular awakening

Gonads-testes (M) testosterone and androgens

Ovaries (F) estrogen

Primary sexual characteristics--things related to bearing children.

Secondary sexual characteristics--changes in skin tone, breasts

 

Can change what we think, relationships.

men gain 42 pounds, women 38 pounds heaver.  Girls growth spurt 2 years earlier

Behavior:  moody, risky behavior, reckless, ore depressed mood, relationship drama

 

Depression

Girls more susceptible to depression.  Related to body image.  Social comparison.  Sometimes the person we see in the mirror is not what we want to see.  Girls often have lower expectation of success.  Males tend to do better in science and math class, although may be a belief in oneself.  Girls and boys disclose better.

 

Sexual Identity

Sex drive

Masturbation

Same sex experiences (50%)

Curiosity and peer pressure

First Intercourse (14-17 years old)

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11

his activity contains 15 questions.

 

Question 1

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window

An example of Schaie's legacy-leaving stage includes a man who is 83 years of age and is telling stories to his great-grandchildren about their family's history. The stage before the legacy-leaving stage is one in which people are trying to conserve their energy. This stage is known as:

 

The reintegrative stage is not only the stage in which people trying to conserve energy, but also one in which they do not want to waste time on unproductive tasks.

End of Question 1



Question 2

2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window

According to Kitchener, how people analyze elements of a problem and justify their problem solving is considered to be:

 

This is a seven-stage theory, finding a predictable, sequential progression that moves from a belief in the existence of absolute, fixed certainty to a kind of contextual relativism.

End of Question 2



Question 3

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window

Having to pay his own bills for the first time, and having taken on a part-time job to help pay for additional living expenses, John is beginning to plan for the future and hopes to marry his college sweetheart after graduation. According to Schaie's theory of cognitive development, what stage is John now entering?

 

According to Schaie, John is entering the achieving stage of cognitive development. This is when individuals must apply their intellectual skills to the achievement of long-term goals. They also must be careful in attending to the consequences of the problem-solving process. In the earlier stage of acquisitions, practical problems and goal setting are monitored by parents and others who take on the responsibility for making decisions that will affect the child's life course.

End of Question 3



Question 4

4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window

Jacob is in his early thirties. He does not seem to be happy with his job. He is thinking of moving to a new place. However he needs to not only look at how his life would change but also think of what impact the change would have on his wife who has a good job. His son will also have to face new challenges if they move to a new place. So he needs to consider not only his own needs but also how his son and wife would adjust to the new changes. According to Schaie which stage does Jacob belong to?

 

In middle adulthood the problem solving needs to take into account not only one's own personal needs and goals but also those of others in one's life that have become one's responsibility: spouse, children, coworkers.

End of Question 4



Question 5

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window

Jenny and Debbie are college roommates both in the spring semester of their freshman year. Jenny puts in twice as much study time as Debbie, but has found that she gets B's while Debbie consistently gets A's. Jenny asks Debbie about this fact and Debbie replies that she just "knows how to work the system." Jenny finds this incredibly frustrating and unfair because she believes that hard work should be rewarded fairly. According to Perry's theory of intellectual and ethical development in the college years, what position is Jenny likely in?

 

In the early multiplicity stage, according to Perry, the college student reluctantly acknowledges that there is more than one perspective on life. In other words, as compared to the strict dualism stage, it is not so easy for the individual to dismiss as wrong other's views that are contrary to his or her own. In the case of Jenny and Debbie, Jenny is coming to the realization that the world is not always just, and that her idea that hard work is always fairly rewarded is not always shared and honored by others. She has not quite reached the contextual relativism stage because, if she had, she would see this situation in a more detached way, viewing it as not a great situation, but a reality that must be accepted nonetheless.

End of Question 5



Question 6

6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window

According to the text, regardless of activity level, muscular strength begins to decline somewhat by about age:

 

Muscular strength begins to decline somewhat by about age 30, regardless of activity level. However, lifestyle does play a role here. Regular exercise can help preserve muscle and bone and keep the cardiovascular and respiratory systems functioning well.

End of Question 6



Question 7

7
Open Hint for Question 7 in a new window

The authors of your text define young adulthood as the ages:

 

18 to 25 are the "emerging adults" as described by Arnett and the authors refer to young adulthood as the period from 18 to 30.

End of Question 7



Question 8

8
Open Hint for Question 8 in a new window

Which of the following is NOT considered a "marker event" for adulthood?

 

Significant life changes are considered marker events—criteria for adulthood. Most people achieve these events during the age range of 18-24; however, age alone is not a significant factor for most sociologists in labeling a person an adult.

End of Question 8



Question 9

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window

Jon recently left his parents' home and is expecting his first child with his new wife. According to the past use of _____________ to judge adulthood, Jon is now considered an adult even though he is twenty-five years old.

 

End of Question 9


 

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD

Reaching Peak Physical Status age 30

Healthy lifestyle helps peak.  Bad habits in young aduthood are reflected in poorer health later in adulthood.  They think they can bounce back.

The Changing Brain

The pruning of synapses continues i young adulthood.  The frontal lobes continue to mature.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG ADULTHOOD

Logical Thinking: Is There Qualitative Change?

Time of great learning.  60% are in college.

Logical thinking appears to change. 

Schaie Stages in adults' intellectual functioning.

Acquisition stage.  Learn skill or knowledge.

Achieving stage.  Must apply to achieve long term goals, carefully attending to problem solving process.

Responsible stage.  Middle adulthood.  Ill defined problems are still the norm, but problem solving must take into account important people in one's life.

Executive stage.  High responsibilities at work, learning aout complex relationships, multiple perspectives, commitment, and conflict resolution.

Reorganizational stage.  Early old age as children grow up and they retire.  Flexibility in problem solving is narrow again to more personal goals and needs.  Practical concerns important (e.g., finances).

Postformal thought happens in middle adulthood.

College years--relativistic thinking.  Perry's Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years.
 

Kitchener 7 stages of relativistic thinking.

Kitchener provides a seven-stage theory of the develop of relativistic thinking, calling it reflective judgment.  Research in which subjects are given ill-defined problems indicates that in the early stages of adult thinking, individuals believe in the existence of certainties

In the middle stages, people perceive knowledge as uncertain.

In the later stages, they base their judgments on a set of rules of logic in combination with personal reflection.  Essentially, they are relativistic.


Question 10

10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window

A few years ago Mary's grandmother began to give away personal items to family members for birthdays and holidays. Along with the personally selected gift came a letter relating the significance of the item to her. Which of Schaie's stages was Mary's grandmother in?

 

End of Question 10



Question 11

11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window

According to Arnett's study, what are the two most important qualifications for adulthood?

 

End of Question 11



Question 12

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window

Increased metacognitive awareness, or awareness of one's own thinking, is key to protecting oneself from decision making based on:

 

End of Question 12



Question 13

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window

What is the progression of "Self and Other-Awareness" in counselor development according to Stoltenberg and Delworth?

 

End of Question 13



Question 14

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window

At the age of 27, Andrew, who has been a short-distance runner since he was a teenager, is consistently beating his personal records in this sport. According to research on age and peak athletic performance, Andrew _________.

 

The average age for men to reach their peak performance in running short distance is 23, so Andrew would be expected to have reached his peak performance by now.

End of Question 14



Question 15

15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window

Which of the following four theorists emphasizes the importance of new roles, needs, and responsibilities in determining adult intellectual functioning, supporting Piaget's stages and ends with the description of formal operational thought?

 

Schaie; the other theorists support postformal thoughts, suggesting a fifth stage not described by Piaget.

Cognitive Development:  Abstract thinking, hypothetical possibilities.

Formal operational thought.

Probability

Scientific problem solving

Identity Development

Identity versus role confusion

Ego identify

Developing identity in many different domains.

Identity status categories

Diffusion

Moratorium

Foreclosure--Commit without exploring other options.

Achievement is marked by exploration, then commitment

We develop our identity depending on culture, race and ethnicity.  Who am I going to be what I want to be?

Sexual orientation.  Teenagers have a lot to figure out.

Frameworklessness--old paradigms no longer functional, finding one's way in the world.

Adolescent transition to adulthood parallels infant's passage.

Peer Arena

As adolescents seek autonomy from their parents, they  become more dependent on their peers.

--Social comparison-comparing oneself to others.  Become close to peer group, which becomes more important.

Close friends

Clique 6-10

Crowd --20% popularity conscious and Jocks, 20% alienated, 30% average, 10-15% ethnic minority, <5% Academics

How does being in a crowd affect someone?

Parents

Conflicts with parents decline in occurrence but increase in intensity.  Not as many but big.

Less conflicts regarding natural consequences and prudential rules, but major conflicts of personal issues and preferential rules.  If parents don't allow certain music, student may consider preferential. You don't like me or who I am (if don't like clothing).

Best parenting is responsiveness, encouraging, accepting, warm, involved, leads to self-confidence and competence.

Authoritative parenting is the best most of the time.

Ethnicity

Minority students often have little choice of which crowd to join.  Tends to mean there is less ability to not follow the crowd, so would be rejected from the majority and minority crowd.

Asian crowds tend to emphasize academics and think that academics will help the future.

African American crowds tend to feel that academic success will not help their future, less importance.

School

School setting highly influential but mainly because of peers.

Personal nature is very important (e.g, influential teachers or coaches).

Students involved in extracurricular activities related to academic achievement.

Leisure and Work

Debate: Should adolescents work?

Nearly all money (in middle class or above) made by adolescents is purely spending money for recreation/leisure.

High correlation between high levels of work and lower school achievement and dropout.

Can create confidence, provide positives.

Risky Behavior

Two trajectories.  Is it a phase or will it stick.

Applications

Establish relationship (empathy, perspective taking)

Encourage healthy behaviors and discourage unhealthy ones.  Try to decrease risk.  Do not assume thy will grow out of it.  I recognize you're drinking, but maybe I can try to decrease it.

Uncover the meaning of risky behaviors and develop ways to achieve that meaning with prosocial behavior.

Keep it real.

Think about where the brain is.  Difficult to plan ahead, think of outside possibilities.

Educate.

Advocate.

Be positive, encourage resilience, praise accomplishment.  Praise always works better than punishment.
 

 

Chapter 12 Outline

"LIEBEN" – TO LOVE

Adult Attachment Theory--Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships.

Research Traditions in Adult Attachment Developmental and clinical (intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns)  OR personality and social (social cognitive dynamics affecting feelings and behavior in adult close relationships).  They largely ignore each other's work.

The Peer/Romantic Relationship Tradition Hazan and Shaver Three adult attachment styles or lovestyles.

"ARBEITEN" – TO WORK

Some Theories of the Career Development Process  

This is the html version of the file http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1646/1686345/PowerPoints/Chap02.ppt.
Google automatically generates html versions of documents as we crawl the web.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Understanding and Applying Theories of Career Development 
 
 

Chapter 2

 
 
 
 
 
 

Questions to Ask About Theories 
 

  • How well does the theory
    • describe the career development process for diverse populations?
    • describe the career development process generally?
    • identify the factors involved in career choice?
 
 
 
 
 
 

Questions to Ask About Theories 
continued
 
 

  • How well does the theory
    • inform practice?
    • provide documentation of empirical support?
    • cover all aspects of career development?
 
 
 
 
 
 

Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory 
 
 

  • A differential-developmental-social-phenomenological career theory (Super, 1969)
  • Built on 14 assumptions
 
 
 
 
 
 

Assumptions of Super’s Theory 
 

  • People differ in their abilities, personalities, needs, values, interests, traits, and self-concepts.
  • People are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics, for a number of occupations.
  • Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of abilities and personality traits.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Assumptions of Super’s Theory 
continued 
 
 

  • Vocational preferences and competencies, the situations in which people live and work, and hence, their self-concepts change with time and experience.
  • The nature of the career pattern…is determined by the individual’s parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, education, skills, personality characteristics, career maturity, and by the opportunities to which he or she is exposed.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Assumptions of Super’s Theory 
continued
 
 

  • Success in coping at any given life-career stage depends on the readiness of the individual to cope with the demands of that stage.
  • Career maturity is a constellation of physical, psychological, and social characteristics.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Assumptions of Super’s Theory 
continued
 
 

  • Development through the life stages can be guided, partly by facilitating the maturing of abilities and interests and partly by aiding in reality testing and the development of self-concepts.
  • The process of career development is essentially that of development and implementing occupational self-concepts.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Assumptions of Super’s Theory, continued 
 

  • Work satisfactions and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which the individual finds adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values, interests, personality traits, and self-concepts.
  • Work and occupation provide a focus for personality organization for most men and women, although for some persons this focus is peripheral or even nonexistent.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Life Span 
 

  • Growth - fantasy, interests, capacities
  • Exploration - crystallizing, specifying, implementing
  • Establishment - stabilizing, consolidating, advancing
  • Maintenance - holding, updating, innovating
  • Disengagement - decelerating, retirement planning, retirement living
 
 
 
 
 
 

Life Space 
 

  • While workers are busy earning a living, they are also busy living a life (Savickas)
 
 
  • The simultaneous combination of life roles we play constitutes the life style; their sequential combination structures the life space and constitutes the life cycle; the total structure is the career pattern. (Super)
 
 
 
 
 
 

Life Space, continued 
 

  • The salience people attach to the constellation of life roles they play defines life structure.
 
 
  • The life space segment of the theory acknowledges that people differ in the degree of importance they attach to work.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Life Roles 
 

  • People tend to play some or all of nine major roles:
    • Son or daughter
    • Student
    • Leisurite
    • Citizen
    • Worker
    • Spouse (Partner)
    • Homemaker
    • Parent
    • Pensioner
 
 
 
 
 
 

Life Roles 
 

  • The theaters for these life roles are the
    • home,
    • school,
    • workplace, and
    • community.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Self-Concept 
 

  • Career decisions reflect our attempts at translating our self-understanding into career terms. (Super, 1984)
  • Self-concepts contain both objective and subjective elements.
  • Self-concepts continue to develop over time, making career choices and adjusting to them lifelong tasks.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Career Development and Assessment (C-DAC Model) 
 

  • Super and his colleagues translated the three segments of the theory into the C-DAC Model.
  • Assessments used in the model include
    • Career Development Inventory
    • Adult Career Concerns Inventory
    • Salience Inventory
    • Values Scale
    • Self-Directed Search
 
 
 
 
 
 

Super’s Thematic Extrapolation Method 
 

  • Addresses subjective career development
  • Gives counselors the role of historians who invite clients to construct autobiographical stories of development
  • Life stories are examined for recurrent themes or threads of continuity that make sense of the past, explain the present, and draw a blueprint for the future.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Steps in the Thematic Extrapolation Method 
 

  • Step 1: Analyze past behavior and development for recurring themes and underlying trends.
  • Step 2: Summarize each theme and trend, taking into account the other themes and trends.
  • Step 3: Project the modified themes and trends into the future by extrapolation.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Steps in Super’s Cyclical Model of Career Counseling 
 

  • Nondirective problem exploration and self-concept portrayal
  • Directive topic setting
  • Nondirective reflection and clarification of feeling for self-acceptance and insight
  • Directive exploration for factual data
  • Nondirective exploration of attitudes and feelings
  • Nondirective consideration of possible actions
 
 
 
 
 
 

Gottfredson’s Theory 
 

  • Addresses the fact that men and women tend to differ in their occupational aspirations
  • Offers a developmental, sociological perspective of career development
  • Focuses primarily on the career development process as it relates to the types of compromises people make
 
 
 
 
 
 

Gottfredson’s Theory, continued 
 

  • Circumscription - the process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily on gender and social class
  • Compromise - the process of modifying career choices due to limiting factors, such as availability of jobs
 
 
 
 
 
 

Circumscription: Stages of Development  
 
 

  • Stage 1: Orientation to size and power
  • Stage 2: Orientation to sex roles
  • Stage 3: Orientation to social valuation
  • Stage 4: Orientation to the internal, unique self
 
 
 
 
 
 

Applying Gottfredson’s Theory to Practice 
 

  • Programs should
    • be sensitive to the mental capabilities of the age group.
    • introduce students to the full breadth of options.
    • display for youngsters their circumscription of alternatives.
    • be sensitive to the dimensions of self and occupations along which circumscriptions and compromise take place so that their role can be explored.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Gottfredson’s Criteria for Determining a Counselee’s Restriction of Options 
 

  • Able to name one or more occupational options
  • Possesses interests and abilities adequate for the occupation(s) chosen
  • Satisfied with the alternatives identified
  • Has not unnecessarily restricted alternatives
  • Is aware of opportunities and realistic about obstacles
 
 
 
 
 
 

Holland’s Theory of Person-Environment Interactions 
 

  • Most persons can be categorized as one of six types:
    • Realistic
    • Investigative
    • Artistic
    • Social
    • Enterprising
    • Conventional
 
 
 
 
 
 

Holland’s Theory, continued 
 

  • There are six environments:
    • Realistic
    • Investigative
    • Artistic
    • Social
    • Enterprising
    • Conventional
 
 
 
 
 
 

Holland’s Theory, continued 
 

  • People search for environments that will let them use their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles.
  • A person’s behavior is determined by an interaction between his or her personality and the characteristics of his or her environment.
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Realistic Type 
 

  • Conforming
  • Humble
  • Frank
  • Materialistic
  • Persistent
  • Genuine
  • Practical
 
 
  • Hardheaded
  • Shy
  • Honest
  • Thrifty
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Investigative Type 
 

  • Analytical
  • Independent
  • Cautious
  • Intellectual
  • Pessimistic
  • Introverted
 
 
  • Precise
  • Critical
  • Rational
  • Curious
  • Reserved
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Artistic Type 
 

  • Imaginative
  • Original
  • Disorderly
  • Impractical
  • Intuitive
  • Emotional
 
 
  • Impulsive
  • Nonconforming
  • Expressive
  • Open
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Social Type 
 

  • Idealistic
  • Helpful
  • Cooperative
  • Kind
  • Sympathetic
  • Friendly
  • Patient
  • Tactful
  • Generous
  • Responsible
  • Understanding
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Enterprising Type 
 

  • Domineering
  • Optimistic
  • Adventurous
  • Energetic
  • Pleasure-seeking
  • Extroverted
 
 
  • Ambitious
  • Impulsive
  • Self-confident
  • Sociable
  • Popular
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Conventional Type 
 

  • Conforming
  • Inhibited
  • Persistent
  • Conscientious
  • Obedient
  • Practical
 
 
  • Careful
  • Orderly
  • Thrifty
  • Efficient
  • Unimaginative
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Realistic Environment 
 

  • Requires explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of objects, tools, machines, or animals
  • Encourages people to view themselves as having mechanical ability
  • Rewards people for displaying conventional values and encourages them to see the world in simple, tangible, and traditional terms
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Investigative Environment 
 

  • Requires the symbolic, systematic, and creative investigation of physical, biological or cultural phenomena
  • Encourages scientific competencies and achievements and seeing the world in complex and unconventional ways
  • Rewards people for displaying scientific values
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Artistic Environment 
 

  • Requires participation in ambiguous, free, and unsystematized activities to create art forms or products
  • Encourages people to view themselves as having artistic abilities and to see themselves as expressive, nonconforming, independent, and intuitive
  • Rewards people for the display of artistic values
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Social Environment 
 

  • Requires participation in activities that inform, train, develop, cure, or enlighten
  • Requires people to see themselves as liking to help others, as being understanding of others, and of seeing the world in flexible ways
  • Rewards people for the display of social values
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Enterprising Environment 
 

  • Requires participation in activities that involve the manipulation of others to attain organizational and self-interest goals
  • Requires people to view themselves as aggressive, popular, self-confident, and sociable
  • Encourages people to view the world in terms of power and status
  • Rewards people for displaying enterprising goals and values
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Conventional Environment 
 

  • Requires participation in activities that involve the explicit, ordered, or systematic manipulation of data
  • Requires people to view themselves as conforming, orderly, nonartistic, and as having clerical competencies
  • Rewards people for viewing the world in stereotyped and conventional ways
 
 
 
 
 
 

Key Terms 
 

  • Differentiation - the degree of difference between a person’s resemblance to one type and to other types; the shape of a profile of interests
  • Congruence - the degree of fit between an individual’s personality type and current or prospective work environment
 
 
 
 
 
 

Key Terms, continued 
 
 

  • Consistency - degree of relatedness between types
  • Vocational identity - possession of a clear and stable picture of one’s goals, interests, and talent
 
 
 
 
 
 

Applying Holland’s Theory 
 

  • Relies on assessment instruments used to measure congruence, differentiation, consistency, and vocational identity:
    • Self-Directed Search
    • Vocational Preference Inventory
    • My Vocational Situation
    • Position Classification Inventory
 
 
 
 
 
 

Applying Holland’s Theory 
 
 

  • Code can be used to identify occupations, jobs, majors, and leisure activities
 
 
  • Types can be used to organize curriculum, career fairs, and information about occupations, jobs, and majors
 
 
 
 
 
 

Krumboltz’s Learning Theory: Influential Factors 
 

  • Genetic endowment and special abilities - sex, race, physical appearance, intelligence,  abilities, and talents
  • Environmental conditions and events - cultural, social, political, and economic forces beyond our control
  • Instrumental and associative learning experiences
 
 
 

Outcomes of the Factors Influencing Career Decision Making 
 
 

  • Self-observation generalizations
  • Worldview generalizations
  • Task approach skills
  • Actions
 

Reasons Why People Prefer a Particular Occupation 
 

  • They succeed at tasks they believe are like those performed in that occupation.
  • They have observed a valued model being reinforced for activities like those performed by members of that occupation.
  • A valued friend or relative stressed its advantages to them; they observed positive words and images associated with it.

The Learning Theory of Career Counseling (Mitchell & Krumboltz) 

  • Counselors must be prepared to help clients cope with career concerns in four ways:
    • Expand their capabilities and interests
    • Prepare them for changing work tasks
    • Empower them to take action
    • Play a major role in dealing with all career problems
 
 

Career Counselors Need  
to Help Clients by
 
 

  • Correcting faulty assumptions.
  • Learning new skills and interests.
  • Identifying effective strategies for addressing issues emanating from interactions between work and other life roles.
  • Learning skills for coping with changing work tasks.

The Realities of Career Development in Young Adulthood

Work and The Development of Self-Concept

APPLICATIONS
SUMMARY
CASE STUDY AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
JOURNAL QUESTIONS
KEY TERMS

Adult Attachment Styles

Based on Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) developed by Main and Goldwyn

Autonomous (secure)

(also earned secure)

Dismissing (insecure)

Preoccupied (insecure)

Unresolved (insecure)

Cannot classify

Holland’s Theory of Personality-Environment Types

By early adulthood each individual has a modal personal orientation – a typical and preferred style or approach to dealing with social and environmental tasks.

A job or career typically makes demands on an individual that are compatible with one or more of these interactive types.

Examples of types:

Social – likely to be sociable, friendly, cooperative, kind, tactful, and understanding

Enterprising – likely to be sociable, but more domineering, energetic, ambitious, talkative, and attention getting

Super’s Developmental Approach

Describes the developmental processes that determine both the emergence of one’s vocational self-concept and the multiple factors that influence job choices over the life span.

Series of life stages in the development of vocational self-concept and experience, beginning in childhood.

Examples:

Growth stage – children are developing many elements of identity that will have a bearing on vocational self-concept, including ideas about their interests, attitudes, skills, and needs.

Exploratory stage – adolescence to young adulthood, vocational self-concept is tentatively narrowed down, but often career choices are not finalized

Elements of Life Span Development Theory

Web of interacting organismic and environmental influences viewed as the "architecture" of biology and culture.

Development seen as a process of adapting to the constant flux of influences, including growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss.

Successful development seen as the relative maximization of gains and the minimization of losses.

Sources of Change Impacting Adult Development

Age-graded changes

Physical changes

Cognitive changes

Life-task or life-course changes

History graded changes

Cohort effects

Nonnormative changes

Unexpected events

Gottman: Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

Four kinds of negativity that do the most damage to relationships and are highly predictive of divorce

Criticism

Defensiveness

Contempt

Stonewalling

 

 

Personality and Well-Being

Personality traits like extraversion and neuroticism are strongly correlated with subjective well-being measures, much more so than external factors like wealth.

Extraverts, who tend to focus interest on things outside the self, are happier than introverts, who focus more attention on their own interior experience.

Neuroticism, including tendencies to be self-conscious, anxious, hostile and impulsive, is negatively correlated with happiness.

Relationships and Well-Being

Evidence supports the importance of "love" for happiness.

Both extraverts and introverts report more pleasant emotions in social situations.

Receiving support is clearly linked to better coping with life’s stresses, but giving social support is also a key ingredient of happiness.

Married women and men report more happiness than unmarried people.

Being married is also associated with a lower risk of depression.

 

 

Fowler: Developmental Shifts in Spirituality & Faith

Stage 1: Intuitive-Projective

Stage 2: Mythic-Literal

Stage 3: Synthetic-Conventional

Stage 4: Individuative-Reflective

Stage 5: Conjunctive

Stage 6: Universalizing

Stress

Two types:

Life events that are discrete, often traumatic, events that have a clear onset

Daily hassles which are chronic, problematic situations

Research indicates that chronic daily stress is very important in the development of psychological as well as physical symptoms

allostatic load

kindling-behavioral sensitization

Question 1

1
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The William T. Grant Foundation refers to the "The Forgotten Half" as:

 

These are the 18 to 24 year olds who do not go to college. They represented just under half of the total young adult population in the United States in 1988. In a follow-up report, high school graduates entering college have increased, and the proportion of young adults with no post-secondary training has dropped. Unfortunately, the real income of young adults in the United States has declined, and the most serious losses were experienced by those with the least education.

End of Question 1



Question 2

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Individuals who see intelligence as malleable and increased by hard work and continuous learning are categorized as which of the following?

 

These individuals believe that intelligence is an accumulation of lifetime learning and experiences. They tend to be optimistic even when they fail, seeing this as a challenge rather than an obstacle. They also tend to be more independent compared to those with an opposing viewpoint with regard to success and intelligence.

End of Question 2

 

Question 3

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Justin is a 22 year-old male who is in his junior year of college, completing his B.S. in chemistry. Justin broadly knows what kind of vocation he wants to enter but he is not sure whether he wants to do organic chemistry or physical chemistry or biochemistry. He is exploring the field and trying to find out more information so that he can take the courses accordingly in his final year. What stage of Super's life stages of vocational self-concept is he in?

 

In this stage the vocational self-concept is tentatively narrowed down, but often the career choices are not finalized. Justin has narrowed down his career choice to the field of chemistry but he is not sure which specific area of chemistry he wants to enter into and he is exploring the different areas of chemistry in which he could have a career.

End of Question 3



Question 4

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Miranda's favorite things to do are to spend long hours by herself doing word puzzles or reading Scientific American magazine. She always has a balanced checkbook, never buys anything she doesn't really need, does not like change, and can sometimes be very quiet and shy in new situations. How might Holland "code" Miranda's personality in order to help her find a work environment that is best suited to her?

 

According to Holland, the "investigative" personality type is one that is analytical, curious, and introverted, which are all characteristics we can infer from the fact that Miranda enjoys word puzzles (analytical) and reading Scientific American (curious), and prefers to spend long hours by herself (introverted). Holland defines the "realistic" personality as reserved and somewhat inflexible. The description of Miranda stated that she is quiet and shy (reserved) in new situations and does not like change (inflexible). Finally, "conventional" personality types, according to Holland, are careful, practical, and thrifty, all consistent with Miranda's balanced checkbook (careful) and unwillingness to buy anything that she does not need (practical and thrifty).

End of Question 4



Question 5

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According to Holland, by early adulthood each person develops a particular preferred style or approach in dealing with environmental and social tasks. Holland calls this:

 

Holland describes this as modal personal orientation. He states that most people can be classified in one of six categories of modal personal orientation that is part of an individual's personality. The six categories are

Realistic,

Investigative,

Artistic,

Social,

Enterprising, and

Conventional.

End of Question 5



Question 6

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Jim Vallen has a very positive view of himself. He finds himself to be handsome, intelligent, and funny. He is very happy with the production and revenue of the business he owns. Jim feels that he has more to offer in a relationship than anybody can offer him and feels that he doesn't need relationships with others to be happy. According to Bartholomew's typology what model of adult attachment category most clearly represents Jim?

 

Dismissing adults have a positive view of themselves but a negative view of others. These individuals feel that they don't need others to be happy. As a result they avoid intimate relationships with others and maintain a view of self-superiority.

End of Question 6



Question 7

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Sally took part in an Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In recalling her childhood and relationships with her parents and how these events affected her, Sally is coherent and adequately detailed. She mentions a time when her mother ignored her for a full day after she accidentally broke her favorite vase. Sally describes the incident in a neutral, matter-of-fact manner. It is most likely Sally's adult attachment style would be classified as:

 

Autonomous adults are usually coherent and collaborative in the interview process. They provide enough detail to get their point across but do not present unneeded information. When recalling times when a parent may have been insensitive or unkind, they do so in a straightforward, somewhat factual manner without exaggeration.

End of Question 7



Question 8

8
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The American Youth Policy Forum sponsored a follow-up report on "the forgotten half" and found that poverty rates increased from 1989 to 1996 for those at every educational level except:

 

Poverty rates increased at all levels except college graduates.

End of Question 8



Question 9

9
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When choosing a career path, men are more likely to consider ___________, while women are more likely to take ______________ into account.

 

End of Question 9



Question 10

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Dismissing adults tend to have:

 

Adults classified as dismissive tend to have children who are in the avoidant attachment category.

End of Question 10



Question 11

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On her way home from work one evening, Tiffany said to herself, "I want to write a major novel someday." Tiffany's drive to produce something of lasting value is an example of:

 

The two broad features of generativity, which can be described as the need for an individual to leave a legacy for the next generation, are desire and accomplishment. Desire as a feature of generativity can be expressed as the want to produce something that is of lasting value, in this case, writing a major novel.

End of Question 11



Question 12

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According to the text, what is a college student's first vocationally relevant decision?

 

End of Question 12



Question 13

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Jennifer has negative beliefs of both herself and others. She wants to be in a relationship, but she figures that it will just never happen for her—she will just end up a single. According to Bartholomew's adult attachment typology, Jennifer has:

 

Fearful attachment—Jennifer's desire for close relationships is thwarted by fear of rejection, and ultimately she withdraws.

End of Question 13



Question 14

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Which of the following is true regarding generativity?

 

Stewart and Vandewater have found that young adults are influenced by generativity as they plan and launch their work lives. While Erikson stated that generativity was most influential in middle adulthood, Stewart and Vandewater have found that the desire for generativity is quite strong in early adulthood and actually declines through middle and late adulthood, and that generative accomplishment seems to peak in middle adulthood.

End of Question 14



Question 15

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Secure individuals display which of the following styles of interpersonal communication that serve to improve conflict resolution?

 

In addition to these communication styles, secure individuals were less defensive and held the most favorable views of their partners after discussing a major problem, thereby further facilitating conflict resolution.

End of Question 15



Holland’s Theory of
Vocational Choice

* Individual personality is the primary factor in vocational choice.
* Interest inventories are personality inventories.
* Daydreams about occupations are precursors to occupational choice.
* Identify is related to a small number of focused vocational goals.
* Career success and satisfaction is related to choosing an occupation that is congruent with one’s personality.

Holland’s Six Personality Types

* Realistic
* Investigative
* Artistic
* Social
* Enterprising
* Conventional

Holland’s Six Work Environments

* Realistic Environment
* Investigative Environment
* Artistic Environment
* Social Environment
* Enterprising Environment
* Conventional Environment


Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space Theory

* People differ in their abilities, personalities, needs, values, interests, traits, and self-concepts.
* People are qualified, by virtue of these characteristics, each for a number of occupations.
* Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of abilities and personality traits.

* Vocational preferences and competencies change with time and experience.
* The process of change is a series of life stages.
o Growth Stage
o Exploratory Stage
o Establishment Stage
o Maintenance Stage
o Decline Stage


* The nature of the career pattern is determined by the individual’s parental socioeconomic level, mental ability, education, skills, personality characteristics, career maturity, and the opportunity to which he/she is exposed.
* Success in coping with environmental demands depends on the readiness of the individual to cope (career maturity).
* Career maturity is a hypothetical construct.

* Life stage development can be guided partly by the maturing of abilities and interests and partly by aiding in reality testing and in the development of self concepts.
* The process of career development is developing and implementing occupational self-concepts.
* Several factors influence the process of synthesis of or compromise between individual and social factors.

* Work satisfaction and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which the individuals find adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values, interests, personality traits, and self-concepts.
* The degree of satisfaction people attain from work is proportional to the degree to which they have been able to implement self-concepts.
* Work and occupation provide a focus for personality organization.


 

Chapter 14

People with modest incomes report nearlly the same life satisfaction as the wealthiest individuals.

1
Open Hint for Question 1 in a new window The knowledge of language, how to do a job or play an instrument, and strategies we have learned for problem-solving can be attributed to:  

Correct Answer:

Either the second or third choice
  Crystallized intelligence was coined by Horn and Catell, while pragmatics of intelligence was coined by Baltes, et al. They both describe the compilation of skills and information we have acquired in the course of our lives. This type of intelligence is less likely than fluid intelligence to show declines with age and can even increase into old age.

 

2
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Carla and Michael are very much in love. They demonstrate romantic and affectionate feelings toward each other and their courtship. They think they are each other's soul mates and there exist no negative characteristics in their relationship. They are sure that happiness is waiting for them after marriage. Which model is likely to hypothesize that their marriage is likely to break up?
 
 

3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window Manda and Anthony are a very closely attached couple but they have lost that romantic ideal of love you see in the movies. Yet, they are committed to each other and continue to look to the years ahead together. According to Sternberg's eight kinds of love, where do Manda and Anthony fall?  

 

Correct Answer:

Companionate love
  Although they may have experienced a consummate love at one time, the passion has left their relationship. Yet they are committed to sustaining their love and maintain their intimacy in caring about each other, valuing each other's support, and trusting each other and their relationship.
4
Open Hint for Question 4 in a new window Researchers who believe that much of our personality is stable across the life span generally construe personality as a set of traits that may be likened to the temperament characteristics of infants. Which of these is NOT one of the "Big 5" basic traits of personality?  

Correct Answer:

Aggressiveness
  The "Big 5" aspects of human personality are generally stable after 30, and are referred to as traits. These are the basic 5 traits:
  • Neuroticism—tense, touchy, self-pitying, unstable, anxious, worrying
  • Extraversion—outgoing, active, assertive, energetic, talkative, enthusiastic
  • Agreeableness—warm, sympathetic, generous, forgiving, kind, affectionate
  • Conscientiousness—organized, planful, reliable, responsible, careful, efficient
  • Openness to experience—creative, artistic, curious, insightful, original, wide-ranging interests

5
Open Hint for Question 5 in a new window Mate-selection involves a step-by-step elimination of ineligible candidates. The theory proposes that people initially select potential dates on the basis of:  

Mate-selection involves a step-by-step elimination of ineligible candidates. The theory proposes that people initially select potential dates on the basis of:

Correct Answer:

Physical attractiveness and personality characteristics
  The "filtering process" by which people go about mate-selection is proposed to involve a number of steps. According to theory, physical attractiveness and personality characteristics are the first criteria by which people sort through potential candidates.
6
Open Hint for Question 6 in a new window For women, ______ is the cessation of menstruation. However, men in the middle years do not produce less ______.  

Your Answer:

Menopause; testosterone

 
7
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Simone is 11 and greatly enjoys her art classes, trips with her family, and trying new foods. Her personality would most likely be described as _____________ when she is 65.
 

Correct Answer:

Open to experience
  Longitudinal studies show proof of stable personality traits that remain consistent throughout the lifespan. Simone's ability to embrace and enjoy creative new experiences will probably be a part of her personality when she is in her later years.
8
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Evelyn feels overwhelmed because she is caring for her elderly mother as well as taking care of her two adolescent children. What term best describes Evelyn and others in her situation?
 
 

Correct Answer:

Sandwich generation
  As adults go through middle age, they may find themselves taking care of their elderly parents as well as raising their own children. Women tend to get stuck in this role more so than their male counterparts and it can prove to be very stressful.

9
Open Hint for Question 9 in a new window After losing her husband, Kathleen has recently begun going out with her girlfriends and dating again. She realizes it will be hard, but feels it is important for her to continue the intimate and social relationships in her life. According to the life span developmental theory, what adaptive process is Kathleen experiencing?  

Correct Answer:

Maintenance
  The adaptive process referred to as maintenance is described as finding ways to continue functioning after suffering some loss. For example, an adult may eventually reestablish intimacy or even find a new partner after the death of a partner.
 
10
Open Hint for Question 10 in a new window
According to research by Gottman, how does the content of most couples' fights evolve over time?
 

Your Answer:

It remains relatively stable

 
11
Open Hint for Question 11 in a new window
Personality is one of the characteristics that influences adult development. Other sources of change are the ones that are strongly age determined or age graded. These changes occur in the following areas:
 

Correct Answer:

All of these
  These are the three kinds of changes that represent challenges to our adaptive functioning as we get older: physical, cognitive, and life task changes.

12
Open Hint for Question 12 in a new window Carleen, a strong 88 year-old widow, had a ramp built in the front of her home to replace half of her stairs. Her hips hurt more these days and this ramp will make it easier for her to exit her home. Carleen is adapting in what way?  

Correct Answer:

Regulation of loss
  Carleen is adjusting her way of exiting her home because of the loss of mobility in her hips and increase of pain. She is accepting that using the steps will not become easier for her, therefore, she is regulating her loss by having a ramp built to help her with this task.

13
Open Hint for Question 13 in a new window Dave, a 65 year-old recently retired podiatrist, has decided to learn how to use a computer (his occupation never required the use of a computer). He figures it is about time that he learns how to "surf the web," since he has heard that it can be quite useful. This type of adaptation is known as __________.  

Correct Answer:

Growth
  Growth is an adaptive function whereby individuals add new characteristics, understandings, or skills to their behavioral repertoire.

14
Open Hint for Question 14 in a new window Irene is struggling with the care of her elderly mother and is having trouble meeting the daily demands that her mother's care requires. First, Irene decides to find an in-home caregiver to help with her mother and begins researching possibilities. This first approach is considered to be ________. Second, Irene delegates these daily responsibilities to her husband for a couple of hours one evening a week and goes to a yoga class to unwind and relax. This second approach is considered to be ________.  

Correct Answer:

Problem-focused; emotion-focused
  Irene's approaches are problem-focused and emotion-focused, respectively. According to Folkman and Lazarus, problem-focused approaches are coping efforts designed to change the situation and are most successful when the problem is solvable. Emotion-focused coping strategies are directed at emotion management and tension reduction, and may involve relaxation techniques and adjusting expectations.
 
15
Open Hint for Question 15 in a new window
According to statistics from the 1997 census, do marriages fail more often due to financial problems or irreconcilable differences?
 

Correct Answer:

Irreconcilable differences
  According to 1997 census data 4.2% of all divorces were attributed to financial problems, while 80% were attributed to irreconcilable differences.
What makes a person an adult?

Age, moving out, real job, getting married, for our purposes young adulthood refers to aobut 18030 years, emerging adult (17-25).  Feels like a process.

When did you firt consider yourself an adult?

Theory Freud:  Lieben und atrbeiten to love and to work.

Erickson Intimacy versus isolation.

Adler  Continue toward life tasks

Piaget its post formal thought? but cognitive changes.  The brain never stops changing.

Brofenbrenner  Continued multiimentaion, but more involved in more

More two way interactions.

Major factors that affect transition:  Relationship, separation with parents.

Acknowledgement of our own needs/impulses

Self Awareness

Who friends are, self identity development, social network

Finances, available resources, access to things, what needs we have

PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

Done growing already, but reach peak in some things later

Auditory acuity already diminishing

Healthy habits in early adulthood highly related to health in later years.  Diet and exercise stick with you forever.

MORE COGNITIVE

Lots more philosophical and logical thinking.

Epistemology--how we know things.

Ethics

Aesthetics

Make plans, multitasking, priorities

MORE DEVELOPMENT

Careers, family, identify. 

WHO CARES?

Sometimes we focus on what influences us the most and forget everything else we need to know.

Preparing students for adulthood.  Career prep, emotional maturity, pro-social attitudes

Counselors---a lot of mental health is related to earlier in life, but much comes up here.

Schizophrenia tends to begin from 18-25.

Substance abuse.

Eating disorders.

Depression

Adjustment

CHAPTER 12

LIFE TASKS

Intimacy (love)--affection, trust, openness

Generativity (work)  Community service, finances, contributing to family

Bartholomew's typology

Different views of self and others.  Multidimensional view of attachment. 

Negative model of self and positive of others--preoccupied.

Dating, marriage.

Communication, conflict resolution, what types of feelings would be common during this dating partnering stage of life?

Dating without great success, feeling rejected. Variety of feelings are common.  May feel trampled or on top of the world.

Change can be difficult.

Family development

VOCATION

A lot of confusion about job and career. We tend to assume that everyone goes to college.  Often confused about how to get where we want to be.

Determining strengths and weaknesses.

Vocational assessments

Super's Vocational theory

Growth up to 14, developing some skills.

Exploring, narrowing choices until 24.

Crystallization--specification--implement, stabilization (t0 44)

Maintenance to 64, adjustments, seniority

Decline 65+

May recycle in the process and have a second career, third career.

Job searching, school admittance.  Once I know what I'm good at, how can I get that job?

Half of 18-24 year olds do not go to college.  Education is highly correlated to income.  Lots of reasons not to attend college, but all have similar economic effect.  Admissions criteria, GPA.

We forget that they're working just as hard as we are.

Gender and career.

Men paid more, have more opportunities. over and covert discrimination.  Stereotype threat.  You might fit the stereotype.

What about disabilities?  Lots of overt and covert discrimination.  Glass ceiling, neighborhoods.

Application.

Focus on the client and what they are presenting and have an understanding of where they are at, but don't necessarily share that you have this understanding.

Recognize patterns.

Develop relationship goals, yet focus on the self concept.

Work on changing the person, the situation, or provide empathy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

According to Ryff, the striving for perfection that represents the realization of one's true potential is:  
 

Correct Answer:

Psychological well-being
  Ryff differentiated psychological well-being from subjective well-being. There are six fundamental elements of psychological well-being: autonomy, personal growth, self-acceptance, life purpose, mastery, and positive relatedness.

2. The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (Singer & Ryff, 1999) identified a number of protective factors that protect people against adversity. Which of the following is one of these factors?  

 

Correct Answer:

Not having to raise children alone
  According to the text, Singer and Ryff identified not having to raise children alone as one of the protective factors, along with educated parents, no problems with alcohol in the family, stable or upwardly mobile employment, and positive social comparisons with family and siblings. They did not seem to find any relationship between education level or intelligence and better outcomes. Self-sufficiency and independence (e.g., the belief that you should pull yourself up by your own bootstraps) may actually be correlated with poorer outcomes, as social attachments (to friends, spouses, churches, or community groups) was also shown to help people work through trials and obstacles.

3.

A phenomenon that has been useful in explaining the effects of cumulative stress on vulnerability is called:  
 

Correct Answer:

Kindling behavior sensitization
  Kindling sensitization describes a process of progressive illness severity or illness incidence that results from gradual increases in sensitivity to stressful triggers.

4.

According to the study conducted by Davidson and his colleagues, which of the following were results of their meditation-based stress-reduction program?  

Correct Answer:

All of these
  The study was very positive because the intervention program was relatively short-term (8 weeks) and instituted in the workplace yet the results very clearly show that decreasing negative affectivity and anxiety can promote health and well being.

5 Cumulative physical effects of chronic stress hormones on the body is termed:  

Correct Answer:

Allostatic load
  McEwen (1998) refers to the cumulative physical effects of chronic stress hormones on the body as allostatic load.

6.The first stage of forgiveness therapy is also known as:  

Correct Answer:

The uncovering phase
  The uncovering phase includes recognizing and confronting emotions as well as examining an injury or event. This first stage of the forgiveness therapy is important in that the therapist and client relationship is established.

7.Which of the following statements regarding the human emotional experience is NOT true?  

Correct Answer:

Studies assessing hemispheric brain activation indicate negative and positive emotions both activate the right prefrontal cortex
  Studies indicate that prefrontal asymmetry exists in regard to the activation sites of positive and negative emotions. Research shows that positive emotions activate the left prefrontal cortex and negative emotions activate the right prefrontal cortex. This information has helped detect how people are different in their tendencies to respond to emotional stimuli.

8.

Mary had an argument with her boss and is now feeling angry, frustrated, and a bit guilty about what happened. What part of her brain has been activated during this negative experience?  

Correct Answer:

The second and third choices
  When we experience negative affect, which would include Mary's feelings of anger, frustration, and guilt, we activate the right prefrontal cortex. The left prefrontal cortex is activated, on the other hand, when we experience positive emotions such as joy and confidence. Similarly, the behavioral-inhibition system is a "circuit" in our nervous system that triggers negative responses (feelings of anger, anxiety, etc.) when we need to be kept from danger. In contrast, the behavioral-facilitation system is the circuit that encourages people to approach and engage in their environment, and is, therefore, associated with positive emotions.

9.

Grace is unhappy and depressed with her current life. She feels that having a job that earns more money will make her happier. Unfortunately, even though Grace has changed jobs, and is earning more money than she ever imagined possible, she is still unhappy and depressed. The fact that Grace is still unhappy and depressed shows that:  
 

Correct Answer:

The third and fourth choices
  Research indicates that those with only a modest income report nearly the same level of satisfaction as the wealthiest individuals. Most people believe that even a little more income would improve their lives, and make them happier. Unfortunately, when people actually realize material gain, they often quickly become "habituated" to the new level of income. "The more an individual strives for further material gain, the less attention he/she is likely to give to other pursuits that are more strongly linked to satisfaction, like having supportive social relationships." Supportive friendships are more important than material gain.

10.

According to the lecture, what "Big 5" personality traits are strongly correlated with subjective well-being measures?  

Correct According to the lecture, what "Big 5" personality traits are strongly correlated with subjective well-being measures?

 

Your Answer:

Extraversion (positively) and Neuroticism (negatively)

11.

According to the "Self Determination Theory" of Ryan and Deci (2000), life satisfaction derives from the fulfillment of three fundamental psychological needs. These are autonomy, relatedness, and:  

Correct Answer:

Competence
  The three needs Ryan and Deci's theory focuses on are autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Competence here refers to the need to express one's talents and skills.

12.

The part of my behavioral facilitation system that determines how I react to a good class grade, a raise at work, or my confidence is called:  

13.

Which of the following is NOT one of Ryff's fundamental elements of psychological well-being?  

Correct Answer:

Social growth
  Social growth is not one of Ryff's fundamental elements of psychological well-being. The six elements are autonomy, personal growth, self-acceptance, life purpose, mastery, and positive relatedness.

14.

Tedeschi and Calhoun provided evidence for a phenomenon they described as a "positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances." What is the name of this phenomenon?  
 

Correct Answer:

Post-traumatic growth
  Tedeschi and Calhoun titled this phenomenon post-traumatic growth. Some of the gains that occur after a traumatic event include an altered set of priorities about life, a greater appreciation for one's life, closer and more positive relationships with others, improved sense of life's possibilities, and heightened spirituality.

15.

According to the lecture, empirical investigations consider subjective well-being to be:  

Correct Answer:

All of these
  The definition that empirical investigations give for subjective well-being is an individual's experience of overall life satisfaction, satisfaction with particular domains of life (such as work), and/or frequency of positive mood. This is one approach to understanding what constitutes a well lived life.

 

Harry is 70 and asked to recall his most vivid memories of his life. He proceeds to talk about seeing "The Seven Year Itch" starring Marilyn Monroe at the movies; listening to Doris Day, Frank Sinatra, and Patti Page; watching the Brooklyn Dodgers win over the New York Yankees on TV in the first color broadcast of the World Series; and being part of a fraternity at his university as a junior. He's describing 1955, when he was 20 years old. According to the text, what phenomenon of self-memory is at work?
 
 
End of Question 1


Question 2
2
Open Hint for Question 2 in a new window
Mr. Shah has been diagnosed with cancer. Like many people in India, he goes to the temple and says that if he gets cured he will fast for 5 days, help the poor children, do offerings to the temple, etc. He says that he wants to be alive to celebrate his grandson's first birthday. According to Elizabeth Kubler-Ross to which stage does Mr. Shah belong?
 
End of Question 2

Correct Answer:

Bargaining
  Mr. Shah is in the bargaining stage. Individuals at this stage try to postpone the inevitable by making promises to a god or divine force. They want to delay the death until some memorable event. In this case Mr. Shah wants to celebrate his grandson's first birthday.

Question 3
3
Open Hint for Question 3 in a new window
How adults adapt and cope with increasing loss is what Baltes and Baltes refers to as a three-step process for successful development at any age, but especially in the later years. The process of narrowing our goals and limiting the domains in which we expend effort refers to the ________________ stage.