Glossary and Abbreviations You may want to use your browser’s search--find--function.
2e: Child who has double exceptionalities.
AAMD: American Association of Mental Deficiency
AAMR: American Association of Mental Retardation http://www.aamr.org/
ABA: Applied behavior analysis.
About: Parenting of K-6 Children. (2006). Parents' index to childhood emotional and behavioral disorders. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://childparenting.about.com/cs/disorders/a/childdisorders.htm
ABS: Adaptive Behavior Scales
Accommodation plan. A written plan indicating the accommodations to be made in an educational, work, or other setting for an individual with a disability that substantially limits one or more life activities defined under Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973
ACLD/LDA: Adults and Children with Learning and Developmental Disabilities, Inc. http://www.acldd.org/
Activity reinforcement. Providing opportunities to engage in preferred or high-probability behaviors contingent upon completion of less preferred or low-probability behaviors
ADHD: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
ADHD-C: Combined type
ADHD-HI: Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type
ADHD-I: Predominantly inattentive type
Aggression. A category of behavior that involves harm, injury, or damage to persons or property (e.g., kicking, pushing, throwing school books)
Aim line. See line of desired progress
AIMS: Assessment for Integration into Mainstream Settings
Alternating treatments design. A single subject research design in which the effectiveness of two or more interventions is compared
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A federal law passed in 1990 granting rights and protections (primarily access) to persons with disabilities in employment, education, public transportation, health care, and other areas
Analog measures. A role-play or behavioral rehearsal in which an individual demonstrates how he or she would respond in a given social situation
Anger management training. An approach to help juveniles reduce aggressive behavior using modeling, role-playing, visual cues, and homework
Anhedonia-- inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events
Antecedent stimuli. Stimuli that precede a behavior; may or may not serve as discriminative stimuli for a specific behavior
Antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) analysis. A technique used to systematically identify functional relationships among behaviors and environmental variables
Antecedent-behavior-consequence (A-B-C) assessment. A direct observation procedure used to systematically identify potentially functional relationships among behaviors and environmental variables
Antisocial behavior. Behavior that violates socially prescribed norms or patterns of behavior
Anxiety disorders. Illnesses that fill people's lives with excessive, irrational dread of everyday situations; can be extremely disabling
APA: American Psychological Association
Applied behavior analysis. A systematic, performance-based, self-evaluative technology for assessing and changing behavior
ARC Association for Retarded Citizens.
ASD Autism spectrum disorder
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more severe and frequent than in individuals at a comparable level of development and that originates prior to 7 years of age
Automatic reinforcement. The reinforcement is produced independent of the social environment
Aversive stimulus. A noxious stimulus having the effect of decreasing the rate or probability of a behavior when presented as a consequence (punishment); alternately, may have the effect of increasing the rate or probability of a behavior (negative reinforcement) when that behavior allows the student to escape or avoid contact with the stimulus
Bar graph. A method of visually displaying data; may be used to show progress toward a specific goal or objective
Baseline data. Data points that reflect an operant level (the level of natural occurrence of the target behavior before intervention); serve a purpose similar to a pretest; provide a level of behavior to which the results of an intervention procedure can be compared
Baseline. A condition in which no treatment or intervention variables are in effect
Behavior contract (behavior change contract, contingency contract). Written, signed agreement between the teacher, parent, therapist, or other behavior change agent and the child, specifically and positively stating in an if-then format what consequence will result from the child's performance of the desired target behavior
Behavior intervention plan (BIP). A plan for addressing undesired student behavior that involves assessment to identify the function of the behavior, strategies for teaching and reinforcing appropriate behavior to replace the undesired behavior, and procedures for responding to the undesired behavior when it occurs
Behavior report. A format for reporting instances of students' positive or undesired behavior
Behavior specialist. A professional specially trained to provide consultation and technical assistance to school personnel regarding strategies for addressing student behavior
Behavior Support Team. A group of persons who design, implement, and monitor behavior intervention plans for students
Behavioral contexts. Any setting in which behavior occurs
Behavioral interviews. An important part of the assessment process, interviewing students, parents, teachers, and other persons to gather information about a student's strengths and needs
Behavioral objectives. Statements of the behavior to be achieved following intervention, the conditions under which the behavior will occur, and the criterion for acceptable performance
Behavior-specific praise. A praise statement that includes specific mention of the desired behavior being reinforced
Binge drinking. Drinking an excessive amount of alcohol on the same occasion (i.e., within a few hours)
BIP: Behavior Intervention Planning
Bipolar disorder. Disorder in which depression alternates with mania with associated symptoms such as decreased need for sleep, irritability, impulsivity and excessive risk taking
Bulimia. An eating disorder in which eating binges are accompanied by vomiting, often self-induced
CAPD: central auditory processing disorder
CC: Cross Categorical
CCBD: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders
CD: Conduct disorder
CEC: Council for Exceptional Children
Changing criterion design. A single-subject experimental design that involves successively or gradually changing the criterion for reinforcement, systematically increasing or decreasing in a step-wise manner
Chart. A method of visually displaying data using several to many data-representation symbols
Checklist. A quick, informal, yet systematic tool used to inventory behavior patterns and risk factors that may be associated with behavior disorders; a checklist may be completed by a parent, teacher, sibling, peer, or the target student
CMO: Conditioned motivation operation--Variables that alter the reinforcing effectiveness of other events.
CNS: Central nervous system
Cognitive behavior modification. An approach that involves teaching students to apply cognitive strategies in interpersonal problem solving
Communicative function. Maladaptive behaviors can occur because students lack or do not use more effective means of communicating their needs or obtaining reinforcement; replacement behaviors which serve the same communicative function must be taught
Communicative function. Maladaptive behaviors can occur because students lack or do not use more effective means of communicating their needs or obtaining reinforcement; replacement behaviors which serve the same communicative function must be taught
Community-based training. Behavioral interventions implemented in natural settings rather than in the classroom in order to promote skill transfer
Comorbidity. The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in one child
Competing explanations. Uncontrolled factors that influence the behavior simultaneously with the intervention and therefore constitute alternate explanations for the effect of the independent variable; confounding variables
Condition lines. Vertical lines drawn on a behavioral graph that separate adjacent conditions (e.g., baseline and intervention)
Conditioned reinforcer. secondary or learned reinforcer; a stimulus that has acquired a reinforcing function through pairing with a previously established reinforcer; most social, activity, and generalized reinforcers are conditioned
Conditions. Within a behavioral objective, the part that specifies where, when, and with whom a target behavior will occur; description of the antecedents, including prompts and setting events, that will signal the behavior to occur; also, within a behavioral intervention or research design, a description of the circumstances in which behavior is observed (e.g., baseline, treatment)
Conduct disorder. An emotional/behavioral disorder characterized by persistent behaviors that violate rules or the rights of others
Consequent stimuli (consequences). Stimuli that are presented contingently following a particular response
Consulting teacher. A professional educator who provides technical assistance to direct teaching staff on student academic or behavioral problems
Contingency. The relationship between behavior and its consequences; contingencies are often stated in the form "if-then"
Contingent observation. A form of timeout in which a child is removed from reinforcement while observing others receiving reinforcement
Continuous behavior. A behavior that has no obvious starting or ending point (e.g., off-task)
Cooperative learning. An instructional activity in which students work in small, structured learning groups with a common goal or purpose
Coprophagia. The eating of feces
Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD). Major professional organization for special educators serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders. http://www.ccbd.net/
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC). Major professional organization for special educators serving students with disabilities
Criterion of ultimate functioning. The functional skills needed by adults to participate freely in community environments
Cumulative graph. A graphic presentation of successive summed numbers (rate, frequency, percentage, duration) that represent behavioral occurrences
Curriculum-based measurement (CBM). Assessing student performance relative to the goals and objectives of a specific academic or social curriculum
CWC: Class-within-a-class (SPED teacher works in classroom with gen ed teacher)
Data decision rules. Rules that suggest how to respond to patterns in student performance; developed by the teacher to facilitate the efficient and effective evaluation of instructional and behavior management programs
Data-based decision making. Using direct and frequent measures of a behavior as a basis for comparing student performance to a desired level and making adjustments in the student's educational program based on these comparisons
DD: Developmental Disabilities
Dependent group contingency. The performance of certain group members that determines the consequence received by the entire group
Dependent measures. Variables that are measured while another variable (the independent variable) is changed in a systematic way, with the goal of establishing a relationship between the two sets of variables
Dependent variable. The behavior that is changed by intervention, through manipulation of an independent variable
Depression. A behavioral disorder characterized by prolonged feelings of sadness, hopelessness, anhedonia, emptiness, or discouragement that are out of proportion to reality; physical symptoms may include eating, sleeping, or sexual excesses or deficits; affect can range widely from listless apathy to suicidal recklessness
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR). A manual that defines and classifies mental disorders according to American Psychiatric Association guidelines (APA, 2000)
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition (DSM-IV). A manual that defines and classifies mental disorders according to American Psychiatric Association guidelines (APA, 1997)
Differential reinforcement of alternate behavior (DRA). A procedure in which reinforcement is delivered for behaviors that are alternatives to the target behavior
Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI). Systematically reinforcing a response that is topographically incompatible with a behavior targeted for reduction
Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL). A procedure in which reinforcement is delivered when the number of responses in a specified period of time is less than or equal to a prescribed limit; encourages maintenance of a behavior at a predetermined rate lower than the baseline or naturally occurring rate
Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). A procedure in which reinforcement is delivered when the target behavior is not emitted for a specified period of time; behaviors other than the target behaviors are specifically reinforced; also referred to as differential reinforcement of the omission of behavior
Differential reinforcement. Four strategies that involve reinforcement applied differentially to reduce undesired behaviors while increasing desired behaviors; see DRL, DRO, DRI, and DRA
Direct assessment of behavior. Any behavioral assessment that involves observing the behavior directly (see direct observation)
Discrete behavior. A behavior that has a distinct beginning and ending point (e.g., hand raise)
Discrete learning trials. An instructional sequence that involves the presentation of a prompt or discriminative stimulus, a pupil response, and subsequent teacher feedback
Discriminative stimulus (SD). An antecedent stimulus that is likely to occasion a particular response because it signals the probability that reinforcement will follow the response
Distributed trials. A series of discrete learning trials that are distributed over a period of time, such as a class period or a school day
DRA: Differential reinforcement of alternate behavior
DRI: Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors
DRL: Differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior
DRO: Differential reinforcement of other behavior
Drug and alcohol abuse. When an individual makes a conscious choice to use drugs despite negative consequences within a 12-month period
DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition
Duration recording. Measuring the amount of time between the initiation of a response and its conclusion; total duration recording is recording cumulative time between the initiation of a response and its final conclusion (e.g., one may record cumulative time out-of-seat across several instances); duration per occurrence is recording each behavioral event and its duration
Dyscalculia is a lessor-known learning disability that affects mathematical calculations. It is derived from the generic name "mathematics difficulty". http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/dyscalcula.html The term appears to be seldom used within public schools because of the lack of any clear, measurable criteria. Nevertheless, many students have it. To be successful in mathematics, one needs to be able to visualize numbers and mathematics situations. Students with dyscalculia have a very difficult time visualizing numbers and often mentally mix up the numbers, resulting in what appear to be "stupid mistakes." Students who have difficulty sequencing or organizing detailed information often have difficulty remembering specific facts and formulas for completing their mathematical calculations.
Dysthymia. A persistent mood of depression or irritability, more days than not, for most of the day, for at least a year
Eating disorders. Maladaptive, health-threatening behaviors that involve food; see anorexia nervosa, bulimia
EBD: Emotional or behavior disorder.
Ecological ceiling. Acknowledgment that it is unrealistic to expect target behaviors to increase or decrease to rates above or below those of peers in the same settings
Edible reinforcer. An edible item that is reinforcing for the student, given contingent upon the performance of desired behavior
Educational Agencies & Corporations
Effective behavioral support. See positive behavior support
Elective mutism. Refusal to talk by an individual who is able to talk; may occur in one setting and not in others
ELPA: English Language Proficiency Assessment
Enhancement procedures. Behavior change strategies that are designed to increase the rates of occurrence of desired behaviors
Environmentally mediated interventions. Changing of some aspect of the environment to prevent or manage behavioral problems
EO: Establishing operations
Equal interval graph. A format for presenting behavioral data; vertical lines represent training sessions or calendar days and horizontal lines may represent number, percentage, or rate (frequency); emphasizes absolute differences among data points
Equal ratio graph. A format for presenting behavioral data in terms of rate per minute or percent; semilogarithmic rather than additive, therefore changes in rate of performance that are proportionately equal are visually presented as equal
Escape and avoidance behaviors. Behaviors that occur in the presence of actual or likely aversive stimuli that results in escape or avoidance of contact with such stimuli
Exclusionary time-out. A form of timeout in which the student is temporarily excluded from the setting in which reinforcement is available
Experimental control. The demonstration that manipulation of the independent variable is responsible for observed changes in the dependent variable
External validity. Demonstration that an intervention is effective across multiple students, settings, and intervention agents
Externalizing. Behaviors characterized as acting out or excessive in frequency, duration, or intensity (e.g., physical aggression, swearing)
Extinction. Systematic withholding of reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior in order to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of the behavior
Extinction. Systematic withholding of reinforcement for a previously reinforced behavior in order to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of the behavior
Fair pair rule. Teaching and/or positively reinforcing a desired social behavior to replace the behavior to be reduced
FAS: fetal alcohol syndrome
FBA: Functional Behavior Assessment
FES: Fetal alcohol effects
Formative evaluation. Evaluation that occurs as skills are being developed
Frequency polygon. A noncumulative frequency graph; may be used to report frequency, rate, or percent data
Frequency recording. Counting the number of occurrences of a specific behavior in a specified period of time
Full inclusion. Providing students with disabilities with full access to the general education curriculum, usually through physical placement in regular education classes.
Functional analysis. A technique used to systematically identify functional relationships between behaviors and environmental variables through manipulating the latter and observing effects on the behavior of interest
Functional analysis. A technique used to systematically identify functional relationships between behaviors and environmental variables
Functional assessment. The process of identifying the cause or function of behavior before designing or implementing a behavioral intervention
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA). A process conducted to identify the potential functions that a student's maladaptive behavior serves
Functional relationships. In applied behavior analysis, demonstrated when a behavior varies systematically with the application of an intervention procedure; sometimes called a cause-and-effect relationship; change in a dependent variable due to a change in an independent variable (see experimental control)
GE: General Education (Gen. Ed.) is the regular curriculum.
gen ed: general education
Generalization plan. A formal, written plan designed to extend a student's acquired behavior to other settings so that it occurs in the presence of cues, materials, individuals, and environments other than those in which it was initially taught
Generalized anxiety disorder. An anxiety disorder characterized by chronic worry and exaggerated tension that persists at least six months
Graph. A method of visually displaying data; typically uses only one or two symbols to represent data
Group goal setting and feedback. An intervention that consists of two major components: (1) the teacher assists each student in establishing a social behavior goal; and (2) each student receives teacher and peer feedback on progress toward that goal during highly structured group discussions
High-probability behavior. Behavior that has a high likelihood of occurrence; preferred activity.
High-probability requests. Requests to which the student has a history of responding
HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996
Home-based contract. Written contingencies for reinforcement in which parents have agreed to participate
Hypersomnia. A disturbance in sleep patterns caused by psychological rather than physical factors; this very deep or long sleep is very disabling
ICLD: Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities
ICLD: Interagency Committee on Learning Disabilities
IDEA 2004 Changes (e.g., identifying children with specific learning disabilities, abandoning the discrepancy between IQ & achievement model, Response to Intervention, diagnosing learning disabilities) see: http://www.wrightslaw.com/idea/art/iep.roadmap.htm In defining the IDEA 2004 and NJCLD 1998 definitions, both discuss characteristics.
IDEA 2004 Changes
(e.g., identifying children with specific learning disabilities,
abandoning the discrepancy between IQ & achievement model, Response
to Intervention, diagnosing learning disabilities) see:
IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, most recent is 2004.
IEP Team: Individualized Education Program Team
IEP: Individualized education program
IFSP: Individualized family service program required for services from birth to age five.
IFSP: Individualized family service program required for services from birth to age five.
Independent group contingency. Group behavior management strategy in which the same response contingency is in effect for all group members, but is applied to each student's performance on an individual basis
Independent variable. The treatment or intervention under experimenter control that is being manipulated in order to change a behavior (dependent variable)
Indirect behavioral assessment. Any behavioral assessment that does not involve direct observation of behavior (e.g., interviews, rating scales)
Individualized Education Plan Team (IEP Team). A group of persons responsible for developing, supervising, and evaluating the program of special education and related services for a student with a disability
Individualized educational plan (IEP). A written educational plan developed for each student eligible for special education
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The major federal legislation regulating the education of students with disabilities
Intensive intervention. Comprehensive and multi-faceted intervention strategies that typically involve multiple services and providers
Interdependent group contingency. Group behavioral intervention in which each student must reach a prescribed level of behavior before the entire group may receive positive reinforcement for that behavior
Interim alternative educational setting. Segregated educational settings in which students with disabilities may be placed for disciplinary reasons
Internal validity. Demonstration that the implementation of an intervention (independent variable) is responsible for observed changes in a target behavior (dependent variable)
Internalizing. Behaviors characterized as withdrawn or insufficient in frequency, duration, or intensity (e.g., social withdrawal, elective mutism)
Interobserver agreement. Comparison of observation data between two or more observers to check the accuracy of measurement
Interruption and redirection. An intervention that uses the minimal prompt necessary to stop a target behavior and refocus the student on a more appropriate behavior
Interval recording. An observational recording system in which an observation period is divided into a number of short intervals, and the observer counts the number of intervals during which the behavior occurs rather than instances of the behavior
Intervention. Systematic involvement with a student in order to improve his or her performance socially, emotionally, or academically
Intrusiveness. The extent to which interventions impinge or encroach on students' bodies or personal rights
IPlans (IEP, IFSP, ITP) identify the skills and behaviors the student has developed, the skills and behaviors that are reasonable goals for the next year, and the resources, support, and personnel needed to help attain those goals.
IQ: Intelligence Quotient. 100 is average.
ITP: individualized transition program by time child is 14
JABA: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
K-ABC: an intelligence test.
Keller, E. (2006). Strategies for teaching students with behavioral disorders. Retrieved February 21, 2007, from http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/behavior.html
LD: Learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. From the previous definition, may include conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. There is (a) an area of deficit, (b) a basic brain dysfunction or central nervous system or psychological processing problem (something to do with the way the brain works), (c) can be one or more disorders.
LEA: Local educational agency or local educational association.
Least restrictive environment (LRE). The educational placement imposing the fewest restrictions on a student's normal academic or social functioning, and allowing the greatest access to the general education curriculum
LEP: Limited English proficiency
Level. Quantity of behavior as represented on a graph
Levels system. A method of differentiating hierarchically any aspect of an individual's performance (e.g., in a token economy or for assessment purposes); also referred to as phase system
LIFT: Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers
Line of desired progress (aim line). A line drawn on a behavior graph to depict the desired rate of pupil progress toward a terminal goal
LLD language learning disabled
Local education agency (LEA). Agency responsible for the delivery of local educational programs and services
Long-term objective. A written statement of behavior that is projected at the end of instruction or intervention, including the conditions and criteria for documenting attainment
Low-probability behavior. Less preferred behavior; unlikely to occur without contingent reinforcement
LRE: Least restrictive environment
Major depression. An illness with at least five of these symptoms: depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure, diminished interest in activities, change in appetite, change in sleep patterns, agitation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, diminished ability to concentrate, thoughts of death, impairment in important areas of functioning; these symptoms are present during a two-week period and at least one of the symptoms is either depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure
Manifestation determination. A decision by a student's IEP team regarding whether the student's prohibited behavior (weapons or drugs) is a manifestation of the student's disability
MAS: Motivation assessment scale
Massed trials. Discrete learning trials that are presented in a continuous series (e.g., a sequence of 10 trials)
MDT: Multidisciplinary team.
Measurement probes. Periodic data samples used in making intervention decisions
Measurement probes. Periodic data samples used in making intervention decisions
MID: Mild intellectual disability
MM/CC: Mild to Moderate Disabilities Cross Categorical
MO: Motivative operations. There are two main types of MOs, unconditioned and conditioned. Both of these MOs are motivational because they increase the likelihood that a behavior will occur and at the same time increase the power of the reinforcer that follows the behavior.
Modeling. An instructional procedure by which demonstrations of a desired behavior are presented in order to prompt an imitative response
Momentary time sampling. Recording the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a behavior immediately following a specified interval of time
Mood disorder. This disorder involves the presence or the absence of mood episodes that accompany Depressive Disorders, Bipolar Disorders, Mood Disorder that results from a medical problem, and Substance-Induced Mood Disorder (APA, 2000)
Motivative operations. An event or stimulus that affects an individual by momentarily changing the reforcing effectiveness of other events
Movement suppression procedure. A variation of timeout from reinforcement in which the student is punished for any movement or verbalization while in a timeout area
MR: Mental Retardation refers to significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning exists concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child's educational performance (34 C. F. R., Sec. 300 7[b]) (US Office of Education, 1977, p. 42478) IDEA 2004 clarification based on general intellectual functioning, significantly subaverage IQ of 70 (sometimes 75) or below, deficits in adaptive behavior, and developmental periods conception-age 18. IQ is stable over lifetime, within 10 points.
Multiple baseline designs. Single-subject experimental designs in which a treatment is replicated across (1) two or more students, (2) two or more behaviors, or (3) two or more settings; functional relationships may be demonstrated as changes in the dependent variables occur with the systematic and sequenced introduction of the independent variable
Multiple probe design. A variation of the multiple baseline design in which data are collected periodically rather than continuously across settings, behaviors, or students.
National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (1996). Educating students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS)
National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support
NCATE: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education
NCLB: No Child Left Behind
NCR: Noncontingent reinforcement. The response-independent or time-based delivery of stimuli with known reinforcing properties. Noncontingent Reinforcement removes the extinction component that is a necessary part of a differential reinforcement procedure. Staff responsible for its implementation may find it easier to implement with the absence of an obvious contingent event.
Negative reinforcement. The increase in rate or future probability of a behavior that occurs when the behavior successfully avoids or terminates contact with an aversive stimulus
NIDA: National Institute on Drug Abuse
NLD: nonverbal learning disorder
No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Federal law passed in 2001 that addresses improved student outcomes through greater accountability of individual schools
Noncontingent reinforcement. "A response-independent or time-based delivery of stimuli with known reinforcing properties," and its possible advantages over the use of differential reinforcement of other behavior (Vollmer, Iwata, Zarcone, Smith & Mazaleski (1993, p. 10)
Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Repeated unwanted thoughts or compulsive behaviors that seem impossible to control
OCD Obsessive-compulsive disorder
ODD Operational Defiant Disorder, which is characterized by arguing with multiple adults, losing one's temper, refusing to follow rules, blaming others, deliberately annoying others, being angry, resentful, spiteful, and vindictive, trying to break rules without getting caught, destructive, lie, steal.
ODR: Office discipline referral
Office discipline referral (ODR). A format for reporting individual student behavior incidents to the school office for disciplinary purposes
Office of Special Education Programs Technical Assistance Centers
Operational definition. Describing a behavior in terms of its observable and measurable component parts
Opportunities to respond (OTR). Giving students multiple opportunities to respond with correct academic or social information or behavior
Overcorrection. A procedure used to reduce the occurrence of an inappropriate behavior; the student is taught the appropriate behavior in which to engage through an exaggeration of experience; see positive practice and restitutional overcorrection
Parent Advocacy Coalition for Educational Rights. (2006). Emotional or behavioral disorders. .
PATHWAYS: Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies
PBS: positive behavior support
PCBs: Polychlorinated Biphenyls
PDD-NOS: Refers to pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (Autism subcategory)
PDD-NOS: Refers to pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (Autism subcategory)
Peer manager strategy. Young, socially withdrawn students being trained to play "class manager" to increase their social interactions and sociometric ratings
Peer tutoring. Formal instruction of one child by another
Peer-mediated interventions. An intervention that requires a member of the individual's peer group, rather than an adult, to take the primary role as the agent of behavior change
Peer-monitoring procedure. Having students observe and record the behavior of a classmate
Perceptual reinforcement. Reinforcement by engaging in particular perceptual experiences; a key to understanding self-stimulatory behaviors is to view them as a form of perceptual self-reinforcement
Performance graph. A graph that plots a change in a single task or behavior
Permanent products. Tangible evidence of the occurrence of a behavior (e.g., written work, numerical count, videotape, physical injury, or property damage)
Phase change lines. Vertical lines drawn on a behavior graph to designate where program changes have been made
PHS: Public Health Service
Physical aversive. An unpleasant or painful physical stimulus, such as foul tastes and odors, electric shock, slaps, and pinches, used to punish dangerous maladaptive behaviors (such as SIB) when less intrusive methods have failed
PIAT: Peabody Individual Achievement Test
Pica. The persistent eating of nonfood substances (i.e. paper, paint, dirt, etc.)
Pinpoint. Specifying in measurable, observable terms a behavior targeted for change
PKU: Phenylketonuria, a genetic defect that can be identified in the newborn by a simple blood test.
Planned ignoring. A variation of timeout in which social proximity and attention are consistently withheld for a specific length of time immediately contingent on a pupil's undesirable behavior
Portfolios. Collections of representative samples of a student's work used to measure proficiency, rate of skill development, and effectiveness of teaching methods
Positive Behavior Support. Behavior change strategies that involve focusing on procedures for teaching, strengthening, and supporting desired student behavior rather than simply punishing undesired behavior
Positive practice overcorrection. A procedure in which the student is required to engage in a period of exaggerated alternative behaviors (e.g., exercises) after an episode of an unwanted behavior
Positive reinforcement. The presentation of a stimulus contingent on the occurrence of a behavior that results in an increase in the rate or future probability of that behavior over time
Posttraumatic stress disorder. Persistent symptoms that occur after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event; nightmares, flashbacks, numbing of emotions, depression, and feeling angry, irritable or distracted and being easily startled are common
Pragmatic language skills. The functional use of language to express social intentions in ways that are culturally acceptable
Pre-correction. Adjustment in academic or social instruction based on the teacher's anticipation of student error and intended to prevent errors by providing supportive prompts
Prereferral intervention. Straightforward and relatively easy program modifications implemented by the regular classroom teacher to see if behavior problems can be solved without referring the student for formal evaluation for special education placement
Primary prevention. Strategies to prevent initial occurrences of a disorder or problem that are applied to all individuals in a setting
Primary treatment settings. The settings in which interventions are applied directly
Problem behavior pathway. A description of events and stimuli that typically occur before and following an instance of problem behavior, including setting events, antecedent stimuli, the behavior itself, and consequences
Progress graph. A graph that shows progress toward mastery of a set of objectives
Projective technique. A psychological assessment procedure in which the client "projects" thoughts and feelings through responses to ambiguous stimuli such as pictures or ink blots
Proprioceptive A sensory receptor, found chiefly in muscles, tendons, joints, and the inner ear, that detects the motion or position of the body or a limb by responding to stimuli arising within the organism.
Psychotropic medication. Medication prescribed by a licensed physician to control the symptoms of a psychiatric disorder
Public posting. Publicly listing the names of persons who have (or have not) engaged in a target behavior
Punishment. Presentation of an aversive stimulus, or the removal of a positive reinforcer (response cost) as a consequence for behavior which reduces the future rate of the behavior
Rate per minute. The frequency of a behavior divided by the time period during which it was observed. Formula: frequency/time = rate
Rating scales. A scale using information supplied by a teacher, parent, sibling, peer, or the target student to describe the child's behavior
RC: Response Cost
RE Menu: Reinforcing event menu
Reductive procedures. Behavior change strategies that are designed to decrease the rates of occurrence of undesired behaviors
Reinforcement. Provision of a reinforcing consequence or removal of an aversive stimulus contingent upon the occurrence of a behavior, resulting in an increased or maintained rate of the behavior in the future
Reinforcer sampling. Prior to the start of a behavioral intervention, the student is provided with samples of reinforcers which may be earned during the intervention
Reinforcing event menu (RE menu). A pictorial or verbal list of a variety of reinforcing events
Replacement behavior. A desirable skill that is strengthened as undesirable maladaptive behaviors are reduced; often replacement behaviors serve the same function as the maladaptive behavior
Replacement behavior. A desirable skill that is strengthened as undesirable maladaptive behavior is reduced; often replacement behaviors serve the same function as the maladaptive behavior
Reponse to Intervention Policy Considerations and Implementation: www.nasdse.org
Reprimands. A verbal aversive used by adults to influence children's behavior by telling them their behavior is inappropriate
Research-validated practices. Instructional or treatment practices that have been established as effective through empirical research
Response cost. A procedure for the reduction of inappropriate behavior through withdrawal of specific amounts of reinforcers contingent upon the behavior's occurrence; fine or penalty
Response efficiency. The degree to which a replacement behavior results in the same functional outcome as the problem behavior
Response equivalency. The degree to which the replacement behavior serves the same function as the problem behavior
Response generalization. Changes in untreated behaviors related to those behaviors targeted for intervention
Response latency recording. A measurement strategy in which the time it takes for a student to comply with a task request is recorded. Formula: Time task request is given − time student begins to comply with the request = response latency
Response maintenance. The continuation or durability of behavior on a naturally occurring reinforcement schedule after an intervention has been withdrawn
Response topography. The form or movements that comprise a specific behavior (e.g., hand raise, out-of seat)
Response-reinforcer procedure. An intervention in which the immediate environment is manipulated so that the student, as a result of completing a task, has immediate access to a reinforcer physically imbedded within the task
Restitutional overcorrection. The student must restore an environment which he or she has disturbed to its condition before the disturbance and must then improve it beyond its original condition, thereby overcorrecting the effects of his/her behavior on the environment
Restrictiveness. The extent to which an intervention inhibits a student's freedom to live like other students
Reversal designs. ABAB design, similar to withdrawal design; a type of single-subject research design in which an intervention condition is reversed in order to verify the existence of a functional relationship; its four phases include baseline (A), intervention (B), contratherapeutic reversal of intervention which may be similar but is not identical to baseline (C), and reinstatement of intervention (B)
Ritualistic. Repetitive, stereotypic acts that appear to have no function in the environment
RTI Response to Intervention A method under IDEA 2004 that requires the district to use scientific, research-based intervention with children who may have learning disabilities. The idea is to make sure the problem is not the result of poor teaching. Schools "shall not be required to take into consideration whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability." The IQ-discrepancy criterion is potentially harmful to students as it results in delaying intervention until the student's achievement is sufficiently low that the discrepancy is achieved. Typically, by the time of diagnosis, remediation is difficult. See Wrightslaw http://www.wrightslaw.com/
RtI: Response to Intervention or research based strategies to improve learning or behavior for students who may be diagnosed with disabilities.
SAP: Student Assistance Program
Scatter plot. A method of direct behavioral assessment that identifies circumstances (times of day, activities, etc.) in which problem behavior occurs or does not occur
Schedule of reinforcement. A schedule for the delivery of reinforcers established to increase or maintain behavior
School refusal. A child's refusal to attend school and remain in class for an entire day
School survival skills. Skills necessary to do well in school, such as classroom deportment and time-management strategies
Screening. Identification of students at risk for behavioral problems
SD: Standard Deviation
SEA: State educational association.
Seclusionary time-out. A timeout procedure in which the student is placed in a secluded environment for a limited period of time
Secondary prevention. Strategies to prevent re-occurrences of a disorder or problem that are applied to individuals who have been designated as at risk for same
Section 504. Part of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 guaranteeing the protection of civil rights of persons with disabilities
Self-determination. Acting as the primary decision maker in one's life; persons with disabilities who engage in self-determination make choices over how, where, and with whom they will live their lives
Self-evaluation. A procedure in which the student assesses his or her own behavior by rating
Self-injurious behavior (SIB). Behaviors that hurt the person exhibiting them; also referred to as "self-mutilating" or "self-destructive" behaviors
Self-instruction. A procedure in which students use self-talk in the form of "coping statements" as an aid to problem-solving
Self-mediated interventions. Strategies for behavior management in which the student controls his or her own planned intervention
Self-mediated strategies. Strategies for behavior management in which the student controls his or her own planned intervention
Self-monitoring. Recording one's own behavior to increase one's time on-task, academic productivity, or appropriate social interactions
Self-mutilating behavior. Self-injurious behavior that results in tissue damage
Self-recording. Students recording data on their own performance
Self-regulation. A range of procedures (e.g., self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement) in which the student acts as his or her own behavior change agent; self-regulation is relatively non-intrusive, nonrestrictive and allows classroom activities to proceed with a minimum of interruptions
Self-reinforcement. A procedure in which the student administers reinforcement for his or her own behavior
Self-report. A procedure whereby students report their own performance
Self-stimulatory behavior (SSB). Any repetitive, stereotypic activity that appears to serve no purpose other than to provide sensory feedback
Sensory extinction. A procedure designed to eliminate a particular sensory consequence of a given behavior; based on the hypothesis that certain individuals have a strong preference for one aspect of sensory input (e.g., tactile, proprioceptive, visual, or auditory) and engage in self-stimulatory behaviors to increase this sensory input
Sensory reinforcement. Providing the child with preferred sensory experiences contingent on behavior
Separation anxiety disorder. Intense fear and worry when separated from significant others or familiar surroundings; separation anxiety is typical of a developmental stage in toddlers, but is of concern when it persists or occurs in older students
SES: Socioeconomic status
Setting events. Antecedent stimuli such as a time of day, transition period, or the behavior of peers and teachers that set the occasion for certain behaviors
Shaping. Behavior change process in which a new or unfamiliar behavior is taught through reinforcing successive approximations of the behavior, progressing step-by-step toward a terminal objective
Short-term objective. A written statement of behavior that is projected at interim points during instruction or intervention, including the conditions and criteria for documenting attainment
SIB: Self-injurious behaviors
SIB-C: Self-injury and self-restraint
Single-subject research design. Experiment intended to establish a functional relationship between dependent and independent variables; in a single-subject design the target individual's behavior is measured across several environmental conditions (e.g., baseline and intervention), thus, the individual serves as his or her own control
SLD: Specific learning disability.
SLP: Speech language pathologist.
Social anxiety disorder. An overwhelming and disabling fear of scrutiny, embarrassment, or humiliation in social situations, which leads to avoidance of many potentially pleasurable and meaningful activities
Social competence. An ability to establish satisfactory social relationships
Social reinforcement. Teacher or peer attention (feedback, attention, and approval) given contingent on behavior which maintains or increases the behavior
Social skills. Specific social behaviors (e.g., a greeting, a nod during a conversation, a handshake) that facilitate interpersonal interactions
Social validation. Degree to which significant others agree that a behavior should be changed, approve of a particular behavioral intervention, or concur that intervention has been effective
Social withdrawal. A cluster of behaviors that result in an individual's escaping or avoiding social contact
Sociometric procedures. Assessment strategies used to evaluate the social status or position of individuals in a particular social reference group
Specific phobia. An intense and persistent fear of a particular object or situation that may involve irrational aversion to certain things or situations such as heights, animals, escalators, injections, storms, enclosed places, tunnels, flying, insects, death, water, or seeing blood (American Psychiatric Association, 2000)
SPED: Special Education
Split-middle line of progress. A method of drawing a trend line through a set of data points drawn on a behavioral graph
SSB: Self-stimulatory behavior
Standard Score: Way to compare all tests no matter what the normal scoring. 100=average.
Static measures. Assessments that provide a report of progress at discrete points in time (e.g., annual or semiannual reassessments)
Stereotypic. Repetitive, apparently nonfunctional movements (e.g., rocking, hand-flapping) characteristic of autism and other severe behavior disorders
Stimulus control. The relationship between behavior and its antecedent in which the antecedent occasions the behavior; repeated occurrences of the behavior are dependent upon its being reinforced; an antecedent that occasions a response and therefore results in reinforcement is known as a discriminative stimulus; an antecedent that does not occasion a response and therefore does not result in reinforcement is known as an S-delta
Stimulus generalization. The transfer of behaviors that have been trained in one setting or in the presence of specific discriminative stimuli to new settings or the presence of stimuli for which they have not been taught
Stimulus variation. A procedure to increase social responsiveness in a student who habitually engages in self-stimulatory behavior
Student Assistance Program. A school-based program designed to assist school personnel in identifying issues, including alcohol, drugs and others, which pose a barrier to a student's learning and school success
STY-C: Stereotypy Checklist
Subsequent event. A stimulus that occurs after a particular behavior that does not have a functional relationship to the behavior
Successive approximations. Progressive changes in the rate, duration, or topography of behavior toward a terminal goal (see shaping)
Suicide. When someone takes his or her life with conscious intent
Summative evaluation. Evaluation done at the end of an educational program
Supported Inclusion. Providing students with disabilities with full access to the general education curriculum through physical placement in regular education classes, but also with appropriate support to both students and teachers to ensure the students' success.
Syndrome. Recurring actions or symptoms that combine to form a disordered pattern
Systems of care. Multidisciplinary approach to meeting the needs of a child with a behavior disorder in which several agencies collaborate to provide individualized services that wrap around the child and family
Tactile and sensory reinforcement. The application of tactile or sensory consequences to reinforce behavior; used primarily with students with severe and profound disabilities
Tangible reinforcement. Providing a tangible reinforcer contingent upon the occurrence of a desired behavior
Tangible reinforcers. Non-edible items given contingent upon an occurrence of desired behavior to promote the re-occurrence of that behavior
Target behaviors. Behaviors identified for change that are observable, measurable, defined so that two persons can agree as to their occurrence, and stated so that a criterion can be set for a desired level of performance
Targeted intervention. Intervention strategies specifically designed for an individual student or group of students
Task analysis. The process of breaking down a complex behavior into its component parts so that it can be taught in small, easy steps
TBI. Traumatic Brain Injury
Teacher expectations. An assessment of the value that teachers place on student behaviors
Teacher rankings. Sociometric screening procedure in which the classroom teacher generates an ordered list representing his or her perceptions of students from lowest to highest risk of either internalizing or externalizing behavior problems
Teacher-mediated interventions. Behavior management strategy that involves a teacher's direct interaction with students
Tertiary prevention. Interventions that target individuals with serious problems that constitute a chronic condition and attempt to ameliorate the effects of their condition on their daily functioning
Thinning reinforcement. Arranging the delivery of reinforcers to occur less frequently and less predictably following the occurrence of desired behavior
Time sampling. Observational recording system in which behavior is observed for a limited time period (e.g., 5 minutes of a 60-minute period)
Time-out. A procedure for the reduction of inappropriate behavior whereby the student is denied access, for a fixed period of time, to the opportunity to receive reinforcement
Token economy. A system of behavior management in which tangible or token reinforcers such as points, plastic chips, metal washers, poker chips, or play money are given as rewards and later exchanged for back-up reinforcers that have value in themselves (e.g., food, trinkets, play time, books); a miniature economic system used to foster desirable behavior
Tokens. Points, plastic chips, metal washers, poker chips, or play money given as rewards and later exchanged for back-up reinforcers that have value in themselves (e.g., food, trinkets, play time, books)
Transenvironmental programming. A strategy consisting of four components: (1) assessing the behavioral expectations of specific generalization settings, (2) competency training in the special education environments, (3) selection and use of techniques for promoting the transfer of skills across settings, and (4) monitoring and evaluating student performance in generalization settings
Transfer of training. See stimulus generalization
Transition plan. A program designed to help students cope with the move from one setting to the next, usually including annual goals and short- and long-term objectives
Trapping effect. Behavior is "trapped" in the natural environment when it is relevant to the student's lifestyle and needs and is reinforced by naturally occurring schedules of reinforcement, usually in the form of social attention
Treatment integrity. The degree to which intervention procedures are followed as planned
Trend lines. Lines of "best fit" that are drawn to represent the path shown by graphed data---increasing, decreasing, or level
Trends. Data points on a graph that show whether a behavior is increasing, decreasing, or remaining stable (an ascending or descending trend is defined as three consecutive data points in a single direction)
UDL: Universal Design for Learning. A reconceptualization of the curriculum so it is accessible and appropriate for students with different learning profiles. http://www.cast.org/index.html
UMO: Unconditioned motivative operation
Universal intervention. Behavior change procedure applied to an entire class or school
US Department of Health and Human Services (2006). Children's mental health facts children and adolescents with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. Retrieved February 21, 2007 Conduct systematic reviews of interventions linked to evidentiary support
Verbal aversives. Unpleasant verbal behavior (e.g., delivering a reprimand, scolding) that serves as an aversive stimulus (reduces the likelihood of behavior it follows, or increases the likelihood of behavior that successfully escapes or terminates it)
Vestibular The vestibular system is the sensory system that responds to the position of the head in relation to gravity and accelerated or decelerated movement.
Vicarious reinforcement. Reinforcement of a student for appropriate behavior so that observing students will imitate the behavior
WIAT: Weschler Individual Achievement Test
WIAT: Weschler Individual Achievement Test
Withdrawal designs. ABAB or ABA design, similar to reversal design; a type of single-subject research design that involve collecting baseline data (A), followed by an intervention condition (B), a withdrawal of intervention procedures or return to baseline conditions (A), and a reinstatement of the intervention (B)
WPPSI, WISC III, WAIS: Wechsler family of intelligence tests.
Wrap around plans consider such life domains as employment, food, clothing, transportation, and recreation. A multi-agency plan of care designed to meet the individual needs of a youth with an emotional or behavioral disorder and his or her family.
YCDD Young Child with a Developmental Delay
Language Proficiency Assessment,
What is in a Name?
Handicap came from cap in hand, meaning beggar.
Differently-abled usually applied to physical.
Exceptional is most typical. Special is also commonly used today.
Writing and speaking with dignity:
Put the person first and disorder second. The boy who lives with autism went to the store.
Don't make the disability a noun. NO--The autistic have special needs.--WRONG
Labels--We do it for these reasons:
1. Order or structure
2. Research so we think about that way of learning.
3. Promote understanding or comfort. Particularly true when go through diagnosis process. Realize you are not alone with this.
4. Get a picture in your mind of what it is. Quick reference.
5. Easier for legal issues.
6. Funding. If we aren't able to say there is a group of kids that share these characteristics, find interventions for the population, we'll never get the dollars for identifying or intervening.
Problems with Labels
Separating the person from the label
We get a preconceived notion, which affects our expectations.
We are environmentally biased.
We think about the problems someone different will create.
We feel uncomfortable about people who are different or things we don't understand. Our environment biases us about these labels.
Significant portions of the glossary are directly quoted from Kerr and Nelson (2006) and Raymond (2004). Information is protected by copyright and created for use by UMKC students, who have purchased the course textbook:
"Sally, oh yeah, she used to be retarded." -- never hear that. The label lasts a lifetime.
By 5th grade, if label of behavior disorder, 80% greater chance will drop out before high school.
It's a big deal for the child and the family. Everyone will see the label in front of the child.
The British have tried to do more inclusion with less labels.
Young child with a developmental disability (to age of 8) --US federal government--we can give services without diagnostic label. State has final authority. Kansas can go. Missouri--only until age 5.
Need label to receive services.
Label give a focus of strategies the teacher can use. Tells me what to look out for.
What did people believe?
What Did People Believe 1700’s Satan’s power
Philipe Pinel Idiot of insane
John Marc Itard Punished as adults
1800’s Masturbation Inhaling tobacco
Samuel Gridley Howe Bathing in cold
water Selective Breeding
What Did People Believe
Satan’s power Philipe Pinel
Idiot of insane John Marc Itard
Punished as adults
Inhaling tobacco Samuel Gridley Howe
Bathing in cold water
with disabilities were considered highly deviant freaks. Early early
Christians held this belief that something awful happened in the past.
Satan's power Idiot or
insane--"technical" term for disability. Our language has evolved.
People acted like it was contagious. Children and adult with disabilities
were viewed the same way. An 8-year old could end up in prison.
Punished as adults
Philippe Pinel--French physician (on test) concerned with mental illness
and believed that people should be treaded humanely. He wanted to unchain
people from beds, trees, and fences. He thought there should be mental
hospitals. He thought insanity--people with disability--was not
necessarily chronic and that recovery was possible.
John Marc Itard--French. Victor, The Wild Boy. No language or
communication skills. He had never been trained or taught and no one knows how
he survived until 12. Itard believed learning and socialization was
possible. This was the first instance that learning was possible. Victor had minimal learning.
People with disabilities were considered highly deviant freaks. Early early Christians held this belief that something awful happened in the past.
Idiot or insane--"technical" term for disability. Our language has evolved. People acted like it was contagious. Children and adult with disabilities were viewed the same way. An 8-year old could end up in prison.
Punished as adults
Philippe Pinel--French physician (on test) concerned with mental illness and believed that people should be treaded humanely. He wanted to unchain people from beds, trees, and fences. He thought there should be mental hospitals. He thought insanity--people with disability--was not necessarily chronic and that recovery was possible.
John Marc Itard--French. Victor, The Wild Boy. No language or communication skills. He had never been trained or taught and no one knows how he survived until 12. Itard believed learning and socialization was possible. This was the first instance that learning was possible. Victor had minimal learning.
1800s, they thought these things caused disabilities:
Masturbation Inhaling tobacco
Bathing in cold water Selective
breeding--thought to be a solution. People with disabilities were
involuntarily sterilized. Some people--young adults--are vulnerable and done was
protective factor today. Done by parents today. Other names
for institutions was asylum. Samuel Gridley Howe--Opened a school
in Massachusetts. Taught the first child deaf and blind--prior to Annie
Sullivan. State funded. The institution he founded remained open until the
Disability was a major social
Bathing in cold water
Selective breeding--thought to be a solution. People with disabilities were involuntarily sterilized. Some people--young adults--are vulnerable and done was protective factor today. Done by parents today.
Other names for institutions was asylum.
Samuel Gridley Howe--Opened a school in Massachusetts. Taught the first child deaf and blind--prior to Annie Sullivan. State funded. The institution he founded remained open until the 1940s.
Disability was a major social problem.
Early 1900s There
was a huge influx of research. Ellen
Key was a popular author. Was supposed to be Century of the child. No longer viewed a property, get them out of the sweat shops, educate children. Didn't work out very well. Workhouse for children. There are laws to
protect children--child labor laws--in the 1950s. It took 50 years.
There was a huge influx of research.
Ellen Key was a popular author. Was supposed to be Century of the child. No longer viewed a property, get them out of the sweat shops, educate children. Didn't work out very well. Workhouse for children. There are laws to protect children--child labor laws--in the 1950s. It took 50 years.
Sigmund Freud believed that children were capable, independent beings, which was a new thought. Austrian, Psychoanalytic School of Psychology.
The Natioinal Committee for Mental Hygience founded 1918
The Council for Exceptional Children was founded in 1922.
Today we work with state and CEC standards. What they say counts.
American Orthopsychiatric Association
1924 wanted to unite the work force and study human development.
The Council for Exceptional Children was founded in 1922.
Today we work with state and CEC standards. What they say counts.
American Orthopsychiatric Association 1924 wanted to unite the work force and study human development.
American Association on Mental Deficiency in early years.
What Did People Believe Early 1900’s The Century
of the Child Sigmund
National Committee for Mental Hygiene (1918) The
Council for Exceptional Children (1922)
American Orthopsychiatric Association (1924) What Did People
Believe 1930’s & 40’s World War
Bettleheim (1944) Redl &
Wineman (1945) Laura
Bender (Bellvue School-1945) Rothman
& Berkowitz (1946) Strauss
& Lehitin (1947)
What Did People Believe
The Century of the Child
The National Committee for Mental Hygiene (1918)
The Council for Exceptional Children (1922)
American Orthopsychiatric Association (1924)
What Did People Believe
1930’s & 40’s
World War II
Bruno Bettleheim (1944)
Redl & Wineman (1945)
Laura Bender (Bellvue School-1945)
Rothman & Berkowitz (1946)
Strauss & Lehitin (1947)
•Bruno Bettleheim (1944) Therapeutic milieu. To really help kids deal with their disability, we need to bring them together in one space and work 24/7. Make a therapy rich experience. Wrote about different children he worked with. Beginning of the average person reading about kids who were troubled or had severe retardation. Brought children's stories to the average person. Much controversy over sexual inappropriateness toward children and killed himself.
Refrigerator Mother--initial research into autism. Mothers were cold and unfeeling and produced children who couldn't communicate.
Redl and Wineman opened pioneer school, which was the first youth home. For boys in trouble with the law and with significant problems. The other 23 hours--famous book about when child not in help with psychologist.
Laura Bender opened first school for children with disabilities at Belleview in New York. Started a tradition of schools for children with psychiatric problems.
Rothman and Berkowitz opened the first public school for children with disabilities. Started with students who were pregnant, and found they often had learning and behavior issues. 600 level schools in New York. Exist today. Kids with personal challenges, who might not fit.
Strauss and Lehitin did similar work. Wrote first special education textbook about brain injured child. Based work on brain injured veterans who came back from the war.
World War I and II--lots of disabled people came back from the war, which changed some attitudes. Lots of work in psychiatric and orthopedics.
What Did People Believe 1950’s & 1960’s Strength of Theoretical
Schools Biogenic Psychoeducational
Behavioral Ecological Humanistic
What Did People Believe
1950’s & 1960’s
Strength of Theoretical Schools
ARC Association for Retarded Citizens.
Behavioral is primarily what you see today. Pavlov. We set up contingency contracts, set up rules. You can shape behavior based on the reaction.
Biogenic is the medical model, built around the idea that biology and genetic factors have to be addressed for you to have the highest quality of life. Might use medication, for example, to stabilize the chemical imbalances that interfere with learning.
Ecological says it's based on the environment.
Eco-behavioral. User friendly content, classroom, and combine with clear behavior expectations.
Humanistic is very individualized.
Legislative Acts Brown v Board of
Education (1954) Vocational
Rehabilitation Act (1973) Section 504 No exclusion if
federal assistance Educational Amendments
Act (1974) Financial Aid for
Program implementation Due Process
established Education of the
Handicaped Act PL 94-142 Part B: 1975
Brown v Board of Education (1954)
Vocational Rehabilitation Act (1973)
No exclusion if federal assistance
Educational Amendments Act (1974)
Financial Aid for Program implementation
Due Process established
Education of the Handicaped Act
Part B: 1975
Brown v. Board of Education overturned Plessy v. Ferguson that was civil rights legislation. There were three combined cases. Separate is inherently UNequal. Although a racial issue, has been used for students with disabilities. Still a foundation today.
Unalterable characteristics--culture, national heritage, language, race, ability. You cannot be denied on these bases.
Kennedy signed legislation that de-institutionalized mentally ill. Kennedy had a sister named Rosemary with mental retardation, so he pushed for legislation because of his personal concern.
Voc Rehab Act is an access law. Children often served under 504. No funding attached. No overt services to pay for. Allows for notetakers, a locker on the end of the row, extra test time. You can write a 504 plan for accommodations, but no actual services. May provide organizational skills. Specific placement in a classroom. Assignments broken down more specifically. Just giving the child a better option for learning.
Put kid who is bouncing around with ADHD in the back of the classroom so he or she doesn't have an audience.
504 is NOT special ed. If a school receives any funding for anything, they are required by law to provide 504 services, or they will lose federal funding. Should all happen within regular education. General educators often don't want to participate. Everybody does it today; it's not a choice. There's always someone responsible for 504 coordination in every school. A student doesn't have to qualify for special education to qualify for 504.
Due process--no one can take your rights away without the opportunity to tell your side of the story. Children are citizens.
91-142 That is the first federal law providing special education services.
Prior to this law, the state, district was responsible for education. There's no requirement that the federal law provide education. The constitution said it's left up to the states. When; this law was passed, it was the first time the federal government got involved.
Current funding is at about 18%. States are required, but provided a small portion of funds.
Part B applies to K-12 education.
EHA eventually became IDEA
Federally Funded Disabilities
Need to know 13 funded areas.
Seriously Emotionally Disturbed in now called EBD Emotional Behavior Disorders. You need to memorize this list for the test.
Mental retardation used to use a discrepancy model. Now using Response to Intervention.
Seriously Emotionality Disturbed.
Speech or language is one of the most served.
Vision is one of the least served.
Multiple disabilities: seriously involved, severe, lot of adults in the classroom to help.
YCDD: Young child with a developmental disability. Sometimes young children develop at different rates. With more time, the disability becomes clear. No child identified this way is going to be a typical learner. Often on autism spectrum, but can't figure it out yet, for example. Get services since they are very young. The diagnosis gives more time for whatever is going on to clarify. Missouri says no, and gives regular disability label at age 5 (instead of age 8). Sometimes kids that are on autism spectrum turn out to have Tourettes and OCD.
Special education ends when child graduates, ages out, or quits school.
PL 94-142 1975
Education of All Handicapped Children Act
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
IDEA – R 1997
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act - Revised
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act
1975 act. They passed the law, then it has to be reauthorized.
There are many people with a huge emotional investment in this, so it becomes a battleground.
1990 reauthorized as IDEA. Big changes--categories of autism and traumatic brain injury added.
1997 IDEA reauthorized. Lots of changes. Huge push for keeping kids safe and disciplinary action because of Columbine. Parents wanted more services. Ultimately came down to being safe. Kids with disabilities now treated the same way regarding a weapon. Changed transition. Planning for transition at 14 and statement in IEP in 16. Should be done as early as possible.
If a student with an IEP does something awful behaviorally. Determine whether manifestation of the disability. If caused by disability, the child gets extra support in some way to stay in educational setting. If not, the student can be suspended up to ten days in any given school year. Kids with disability are suspended less often. Once 11 days, a whole legal process kicks in. They spend more time in ISS because most schools don't count that as suspension.
Safe Schools Act breakdown
2004 Changed name. Don't see a lot of improvement. Tells us what we have to do. 18 months to 2 years after, the govt. provides regulations that tell us HOW to implement the law.
If a child isn't learning, use RTI, take data, work with the student, to see if he can learn. If can learn, the problem was bad teaching. If a strategy doesn't work, then try another strategy. No indication of how long to try strategy, how many strategies, or what to do when you're done. Change strategies in 2-3 weeks and should do more than four strategies. Some districts are using this approach to avoid providing strategies. Districts have used RTI to identify behavior disorders, which the law doesn't include. None of these strategies have been validated for the purpose of assessment.
As the law changes, what we do as teachers changes.
Will be reauthorized again around 2011.
No Child Left Behind is the elementary-secondary authorization. Will never go away.
Regular education classes.
Regular class with support.
Part time special education
Full time special education
Homebound--out of control behavior. Even if kid is thrown out of school permanently. If IEP says they get 100 minutes a week, they still get it no matter where they are. No one can take away the special education minutes.
Non-educational services. (speech and transportation)
PL 94-142 Serve ages 6-21 FAPE Parent Involvement LRE Non-discriminatory
testing Due Process
Serve ages 6-21
Comes out of penal code. Being in prison is a restriction of civil rights. General education classroom would be the main place to be.
IDEA 1990 Enacted same year as
American’s With Disabilities Act (ADA) Renamed EHA Education
of the Handicapped Act to IDEA Two new categories:
autism & TBI Transition Plan Rehab Services and
Social Work added Zero-Exclusion
Enacted same year as American’s With Disabilities Act (ADA)
Renamed EHA Education of the Handicapped Act to IDEA
Two new categories: autism & TBI
Rehab Services and Social Work added
Applies primarily to the workplace, but generally doesn't apply to the students.
Not all districts have social workers, so won't include social work services.
You can't say a kid can't come to school (zero exclusion). No one gets excluded. Not allowed to set quotas. Can group students with unusual disabilities.
IDEA 1997 Serve children 3-9 as
YCDD Add birth to 2 services State & District-wide
Assessment Added individuals to
the IEP team Discipline requirements
Serve children 3-9 as YCDD
Add birth to 2 services
State & District-wide Assessment
Added individuals to the IEP team
Understand discipline requirements for the exam.
Discipline Requirements Weapons Drugs (including
alcohol) Injury to self and
others Violation of school
code of conduct New Services codes 10 days suspension 45 day discipline
Drugs (including alcohol)
Injury to self and others
Violation of school code of conduct
New Services codes
10 days suspension
45 day discipline placement
Manifestation determination hearing
A child might be removed until manifestation determination hearing.
IDEA 2004 (IDEIA) Name change IEP requirements change Transition plan
requirements change New definition: Serious
bodily injury Adds references to NCLB
IDEA 2004 (IDEIA)
IEP requirements change
Transition plan requirements change
New definition: Serious bodily injury
Adds references to NCLB
Serious bodily injury to oneself or others.
Aligns with NCLB.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) Birth to age two Service Delivery Center-based Home-based Combination Focus on transition
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
Birth to age two
Focus on transition into preschool
What are differences between plans IFSP, IEP, ITP.
This is what you write for the little kids. This is what happens in birth to two. Community and family focused instead of school and academic focused. Services come to family in home or daycare facility. Actually identify the services child eligible for.
Individual Education Plan (IEP) Present level of
academic achievement and functional performance Annual goals and
short-term objectives Participation in
general education Participation in
special education and related services Participation in state
and district assessments Transition plan Evaluation plan
Individual Education Plan (IEP)
Present level of academic achievement and functional performance
Annual goals and short-term objectives
Participation in general education
Participation in special education and related services
Participation in state and district assessments
Make sure you know what goes into the plan.
AKA Individual Education Program
Must be data based.
Determine annual goals and short-term objectives. Must be data and assessment.
If taking alternative assessments, but have short-term objectives.
How many minutes a week is the child spending in general education classroom? Least restrictive environment.
Need to know how much time with special services and explain why.
Transition plan for any child 16 or older.
Evaluation plan--how will we know whether the student meets the goals and objectives, and how that evaluation plan will be shared with the parents.
Individual Transition Plan (ITP) Plan in place at age 16 Outcomes-oriented
process Employment Recreation Community living Agency support services
Individual Transition Plan (ITP)
Plan in place at age 16
Agency support services
Helps kids make transition from school to community. Age 16. May be part of IEP or a separate document, depending on the school district.
Designed to take children to post school environment.
Must be in place on or before birthday. Usually add transition plan to IEP.
Outcomes oriented (transition goals)
Goals in the area of employment, recreation, community living, and agency support services.
Lots of kids with disabilities graduate and go to college.
CASCADE OF SERVICES REGARDING ACADEMICS
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) All levels must be offered.
National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities is a general term that refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders manifested by significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities. These disorders are intrinsic to the individual, presumed to be due to central nervous system dysfunction and may occur across the lifespan. Problems in self-regulatory behaviors, social perception, and social interaction may exist with learning disabilities but do not by themselves constitute a learning disability. Although learning disabilities may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions (sensory impairment, mental retardation, serious emotional disturbance), or with extrinsic influences (cultural differences, insufficient or inappropriate instruction), they are not the result of those conditions or influences.
LD kids are normal or high intelligence.
As get older--Some kids learn how to compensate, others drop out. Presumed to last across the lifetime.
Secondary characteristics: problems in social perception or social interaction. There are a lot of secondary characteristics.
By the time in second or third grade, few kids with LD have many friends.
Co-morbid: occurring at the same time, concomitantly. Not a separate diagnosis in itself. Deals with secondary characteristics.
Dual diagnosis: Has two disabilities that seem primary, each a thing of itself. Only through testing do we recognize this.
15-20 (Missouri) difference between verbal IQ and performance, then qualifies as a disability.
States are given much control over education services. There's even variance between school districts. Usually does not go in favor of the child.
4.45% of the school aged population should have learning disabilities.
Accounts for 51% of ALL disabilities. By far the broadest category. Autism and ADHD seems to be moving that direction for a larger percentage.
Most kids take the same MAP as everyone. The alternative testing is saved for kids who are severely disabled. If they have an accommodation in their IEP, then the teacher can do that for the MAP.
25 years ago it was pretty easy for a teacher to say a child needs to be tested. LD tends to run in families and be more prevalent in boys, which is why we know it's genetic. Now we have a lot of pre-assessment (RTI). Have to put together an RTI plan where document trying different strategies over weeks. Each modification goes for two weeks of testing. If something works, then serve the child with those interventions. All schools have to do outreach through Kindergarten screening to work with kids early without a label.
Interventions are very individualized:
Kansas, California, New York have more stringent laws and serve more students.
Talk about graduate project 7-7:15 29th.
over 300 different types of learning disabilities.
How Difficult Can that Be? Fat City Video 1990s. Dr. Rick Lavoie. Did workshops giving people a feeling of what a learning disability.
Many kids will have 3 or 6 or multiple components.
Pacing is extremely important. We don't give students enough wait time. We typically wait 1/2 second for easy questions.
One student had a wait-time of 32 seconds before she could answer. By then, everyone was on to other things.
Team teaching or class within a class come in.
F.A.T. City Video Worksheet
1. What is the most common problem in getting students with learning disabilities to take risks?
Fear of failure. It gets worse the older the child is. Children with learning disabilities do not like to draw attention to their inabilities. When they raise their hands to answer a question, there is a strong chance that they will be wrong; so, over time they volunteer to participate less and less. In addition, the negative experience of being wrong outweighs the minimal positive reinforcement given for participation.
2. Motivation is or is not a problem for students with learning disabilities?
They can't see something they cannot visually discriminate no matter how hard they try (cow picture=$100). They later act like they don't care because they can't do it, but that's not motivation. Motivation is NOT the issue for children with learning disabilities. They are trying hard already to understand something. The problem is not "wanting" to complete a task; but, being ABLE to complete a task. Direct instruction is the most important factor in helping children with learning disabilities learn new information.
Motivation is a huge factor with students with ADHD.
3. What is the difference between and “associative” and a “cognitive” task”?
Associative tasks are things that you can do more than one of at a time. For example, most of us can drive a car and carry on a conversation with the passenger at the same time. However, if the weather suddenly turns bad and we are in the middle of a hazardous rainstorm, all of our concentration must be focused on the task of driving. Cognitive task requires full concentration. For some LD kids, processing the question, taking notes, listening, may not be able to speak at the same time they have to do something else, using motor processes can be cognitive tasks. Driving is now a cognitive task, something which takes all of our focus and keeps us from being able to do anything else in combination with this task. For many students with learning disabilities, speaking and/or listening is a cognitive task.
4. Most teachers (93%) teach comprehension through vocabulary. What concept is more relevant to comprehension?
Schemata or frame of reference has more to do with comprehensive than the vocabulary in a passage. If we do not have the background to understand a situation, we can know all the "words" involved but still not be able to make sense of what we have read or heard. He showed a piece of paper about a scientific idea where we understood all the words, but not the idea. Vocabulary alone doesn't mean comprehension. Kids cannot be expected to spell words they cannot read. Some have strong rote memories, particularly for areas of interest, but cannot transfer that over.
5. Why does spatial orientation cause problems for some students with learning disabilities?
Prior to reading, everything in the environment stays the same no matter what the orientation. That changes upon the process of reading and writing. That's an abstract construct that kids are exposed to in a reading environment. They may look at a b and see a p. They need to know their eyes will play a trick on them and compensate.
All kids will reverse some letters, but once they progress developmentally, we expect to see that go away around age 7 or 8 completely. It's a common reading disability: dyslexia. They hang on to that much longer. The skill is developmental, but we believe there's a neurological glitch that happens in some kids with LD.
We are taught from birth that objects remain constant regardless of their spatial orientation. For example, if I show you a toy car, but turn it upside down, it is still a toy car. It does not change what it is because we are viewing it from a different perspective. However written language is impacted by spatial orientation. The letter "b" is a b because the circle part of the letter faces to the right. If the circle part of the letter faced to the left, we would call this the letter "d". This concept in reading is especially difficult for children with learning disabilities because not only does orientation of the letter become crucial to identifying the letter; the child's perception of the letter does not always remain constant.
6. Why does Lavoie use the concept of “mirror-writing” to describe visual motor integration problems?
When we look in a mirror, we perceive things as backwards. Our brains tell us one message; however, our visual system gives us another message. This is similar to the kind of problem that children with learning disabilities have when their visual perception and their motor integration does not match.
The message your motor cortext and brain are sending you two different messages. Visual motor integration disability--writing will be laborious or impossible task. Help kids learn to write things they absolutely have to do, but leave handwriting behind and use computers to get rid of that barrier.
7. What is dysnomia?
Word retrieval problem. Kids with learning disabilities talk all around something. This is a language based disability. Hard to bring words forward and use in a spontaneous way. Dysnomia, also know as a circumlocution problem, denotes difficulty in finding and/or storing a correct word in your brain and retrieving that word when you are ready to use it. For example, I might be looking at a chair; however, I am unable to think of the word chair, therefore, I describe everything about the chair but can't locate the correct word to name it directly. For many children with dysnomia, speaking becomes a cognitive experience. Speaking is normally an associative activity. It flows. For dysnomics it is however a cognitive task.
8. What is hyperlexia?
Hyper meaning too much, and lexia means reading. Too much reading. The kid can read way above what they can understand. Hyperlexia is a condition where the child is able to sound out and pronounce words correctly but does not understand/comprehend what he/she has read. The ability to decode is strong, but there is no understanding of the concepts being read. Hyperlexia is often referred to as "word calling".
Instructional reading level: ready to be taught.
Frustration level: Too difficult. Most of us can understand something if someone else reads to us. We can understand more than we can decode. Kids with hyperlexia can decode. They have the opposite. They are just word calling because they don't get the concept.
9. What does Lavoie say is the greatest gift teachers can give students with learning disabilities?
The greatest gift you can give to students with learning disabilities is the gift of TIME. Time to process both questions and answers. Give wait time. Let child know in advance when they will get a question. Give them a chance to process.
10. What does Lavoie suggest to cure teachers who ask rhetorical questions?
Give that teacher a student who answers rhetorical questions. For example, the teacher says "how many times do I have to tell you to put your name on your paper" and the student responds "thirty-two times". Rhetorical questions are usually sarcastic and demeaning in nature and should be avoided in classroom settings.
Exam will be online for one week. One access. No time limit. Class as usual. Prepare well.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Definition of ADHD
A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.
Source: Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IVR
The diagnostic manual is used by psychology and medicine to diagnose psychologically and neurological disorders.
Difficult to diagnosis because all children are hyper at certain levels of development, so comparison is difficult. At some point in development, every ADHD problem is a normal part of development.
Harder to diagnose in girls. Girls tend to be less active in general than males. Genetic disorder--Always see more boys than girls because girls have two X chromosomes. In boys, there's only one X and one Y, so if the X has something damaged, that trait will show up.
ADHD is a medical diagnosis. The pediatrician is the most likely to confirm. It's responsive to medicine. There's something to do with each person's ability to deal, such as the level of noise and movement.
DSM IV Criteria
Six or more symptoms for six months
NOW ALL CALLED ADHD.
Based on these criteria, three types of ADHD are identified:
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
If we see kids who grow out of ADHD, they had the wrong diagnosis. You don't grow out of ADHD. Lay person tends to think it's parenting. If you try all those things, it's a bonafide disorder. There's usually a positive response to medication if people have ADHD. They are psycho-stimulants.
Kids with ADHD have underactivity in the front part of the brain.
Combined with both inattention and hyperactivity
Impairment evident before age 7. Those characteristics were there in early childhood.
Present in two or more settings. Rule out that it's not a boring teacher or an excess of freedom in one setting.
Clear evidence of impact on academic functioning. If you can manage to stay in class and make good grades, you aren't going to qualify for special education services.
As people age, doesn't lessen, just gets rechanneled.
Many kids develop compensatory behavior. They teach themselves ways to sit still, pick things in environment that help.
Ritalin abuse has become a problem in recent years.
There are no definitive studies that connect in utero smoking parent and ADHD.
Sometimes kids with terrible allergies are misdiagnosed as having ADHD.
ADHD is hereditary.
ADHD can mess with your sleep, as can the medication.
Children with high intelligence may be misdiagnosed because need more stimulus, may act hyperactive, but often gifted and have ADHD.
ADHD is higher in kids with led posioning.
Must rule out all other conditions
Requires clinical judgment. There's no definitive screening. An allergy must be ruled out.
Those three areas frequently have a genetic family history. A disruption of neuropathways are present.
4 Basic Behavioral Patterns in ADHD
1. Inattention/distractability. The kid can't focus on appropriate stimuli. Might be a short attention span. Might need frequent attention shifts. Can't maintain a consistency. It is really a multitude of things. Two basic components are overselectivity or overselective attention or underselectivity. They both look like I'm not paying attention. Overselective pick one thing to focus on. A cut jack lantern might be distracting on the page. Need to be encouraged to move from one point to the next. Might draw out individual problems, then put in a box. Need to help move them through the process. Underselective at looking at everything equally. All over the paper. Cut a hole the size of one math problem and just show that. Watch the child and do little probes to figure it out. Underselective can't focus on one thing at a time. See and hear everything. Overselective grabs on to one thing and can't move off it.
2. Impulsivity. Kid responds instantaneously. The ready, fire, aim kids. Kids with a lot of impulsivity usually have social problems.
3. Hyperactivity. Overly active. If you just don't get surprised that your kid is throwing a 20 pound turkey at your head. The parents are always exhausted. Again, not defined by activity alone, but according to the social setting. Kids with ADHD can't discriminate setting demands. A kid with ADHD can't switch setting demands (the hidden curriculum). The hidden curriculum is those things everybody else knows about life, but the ADHD kid doesn't get.
Response-reward-consequences need to be more powerful and change often. A strategy will work for one week, then they'll lose interest.
4. Lack of Rule-Governed Behavior (executive function) More and more important in working with kids with ADHD. Lack of executive function or rule-governed behavior. I do something, something happens to me, next time I make a better choice (executive function).
Kids with ADHD have tunnel vision. They only see one or two things to do in a situation. He repeats the same poor choice over and over again.
Focus on making the connection between what you did and what happened to you. Consequences don't work. Yelling does work. Nagging will not work. "What are some other things you could do that would work for you? Draw a picture of other things you could do." Use roleplay to teach problem solving. Strategy based learning skills work with kids with ADHD. Make sure they understand the consequence AND alternative ways of coming up with solutions.
ADHD has to be listed under OHI and frequently served under LD or BD programs.
It's not easy to get behavioral diagnosis.
Variability of Symptoms
Low frustration tolerance
Insistence that all requests be met
Low self esteem
Devalued academic achievement
Lack of sustained effort in academic tasks
Resentment and antagonism in relationships
All children are like that at some point or another, which makes diagnosis difficult.
Prevalence: 3-5% of all school-aged children.
We are only serving about 4.5% under the label of OHI. The majority of
kids with ADHD kids are served under 504 or simply receive medication from
Frequently served in general education classrooms or under label of "Other Health Impaired"
Classic Interventions: cognitive behavior modification and medication. Most good physicians say that medication alone will not be enough. Once you make child available for learning, then needs behavior and social skills to be successful in school. The meds are not enough. Direct instruction is important for academics and social connections.
Traditional old behavior techniques will not work. There are common techniques, which if used at a more powerful level, will work.
Strengthening behavior. Anything we do or apply as a consequence as praise, punishment, whatever we do. If it increases the likelihood of that behavior happening again, it is reinforcement. Reinforcement increases the likelihood of that behavior happening again.
"I need to do something to make the behavior I want happen."
You don't have to make it something concrete. None of us do anything we're not getting some kind of reinforcement for. We drop out if there is none.
Think of upsidedown triangle. Start with the highest level of reinforcement we think the child can deal with. Set a realistic goal to start with. Start high and test down and begin intervention there, then move to a higher level until on a social reinforcement for almost everything. Use your creativity to figure out what will motivate the students.
Intrinsic. Strive for, but seldom have about many things. We do it because we know it's the right thing.
Social reinforcement. Praise, being told you did a good job. Having a note or email sent home to parents. Note to parents, verbal reinforcement, school newsletter, whole class can clap, name on board, thank you sent home to student, email to parent, positive parent teacher conference, award ceremony. Student of the day.
Activity reinforcement--I get to go the back of the room, sit in the bean bag chair, and listen to music for 5 minutes. I get to pick another kid and go play a game of Sorry. It happens, then it's gone. Getting to eat lunch with the teacher in the lunch room. You have to be a detective to think about what motivates the kid. Extra recess. Pet day. Crazy hair day. PJ day. Jersey day. Team captain. Nature hike. Lunch with teachers, principal, counselor, movie, computer game, exercise, free time, dancing, alternative assignment, computer time, playing games, painting, pizza party.
Tangible-- I can see it, touch it, use it. Concrete, pick out of the prize box. CD with one song on it. Continue to work that kid to a higher level. Plastic rings, cars, bookmarks, pencils, US Toy items, Dollar Store items, stickers, coloring book.
Primal. Primary reinforcers are edible and drinkable. Lowest level of reinforcement. If you've never shown you've done this before, a primary reinforcer will probably be effective. We don't stay at this level very long. A disservice to stay at this level. Kids with ADHD get satiated with this really fast. Skittles, fruit, animal crackers, popcorn, chips, veggies,
Kids with ADHD--Pick powerful reinforcers and change them around a lot. Could set up a board and rotate them every day.
Assignment. #4. Generate as many reinforcers as you can think of.
What’s In A Name
(Seriously Emotionally Disturbed) Fed term earlier
(Emotional and Behavioral Disorders)
Federal Definition for SED
A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which adversely affects educational performance:
Even with intervention, the child cannot stop or change behavior.
Federal Definition for SED Conditions or Characteristics Upon Which Base Diagnosis. Some academic and some psychologist. Need a social worker, psychologist, psychiatrist, or someone like that involved. Child has to have ONE or more:
Federal Definition for SED
The term includes children who are schizophrenic. Usually diagnoses at age 18 or so, but if there are precursors present, they can have that diagnosis.
Conduct disorder excluded. Students who get criminally involved with the law. States have an inconsistent way of applying this part of the definition. Has the kid had a run in with the law and been in front of a judge, will be labeled "conduct disorder." The term does not include children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are seriously emotionally disturbed.
Internalizing Versus Externalizing Disorders (a continuum, not two distinct categories.)
Aggression--act out toward other people, animals, property, verbal or physical behavior that attacks. In general, is considered externalized. Passive aggressive--does something to get back, but you don't see it happening. Passive aggressive is externalizing because doing something to someone else. The clay in the piano is passive aggressive.
Hyperactivity--ADHD--Many kids have dual diagnosis. For some kids hyperactivity is just the main thing and that is a behavior disorder.
Distractability--ADHD--In BD, see more out of control, destructive component. More about intent. ADHD no the same negative intent. Internalized.
Impulsivity--ADHD--internalized and externalized component. Motivation from within but what you do distracts other.
Withdrawal--Remove self form the school situation. Excessive truancy. Sit away from everyone, never speak, never participate. Totally self-absorbed. Esteem is so depleted. Affects social and academic performance. Suicidal thinking or behavior. See suicidal behavior getting younger and younger. Internalizing.
Inadequacy--Fancy term for immaturity. When someone acts at an emotional level younger than they really are. Internalizing.
Depression--Problem with younger and younger children. Down to elementary school children now. Don't know if it's new or wasn't previously recognized. Depressed affect. Internalizing.
Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Federal estimate--EBD-- 2%
Mental health estimate 8-10% Most of the kids are in the gen ed classroom without support.
Actual population served <1%
VIDEO--WHEN THE CHIPS ARE DOWN
The real challenge is educating people who don't have the learning disability, but deal with those kids every day.
One of the biggest problems is managing the child's behavior. His bias is that effective people have a knowledge base about how these kids function and why they do what they do, 2. technique, tricks to us. e3. philosophy system, belief system about how these kids should be handled and taught. Should be like a religious faith. Develop philosophy so you can pull it close when you're in trouble.
Develop an understanding of positive versus negative feedback. Positive feedback changes behavior. Negative only stops--does not change--behavior.
Changing behavior doesn't happen as quickly as we'd like. Successive approximations. They won't learn behaviors as quickly as everyone else. Think about how a child learns language. We reinforce each step toward the goal. As we reinforce the behavior, it grows and improves.
REINFORCE THE STEPS TOWARD THE DESIRED BEHAVIOR.
Performance inconsistency. What's important is how we as adults deal with that inconsistency.
Good day--bad day thing is distressing for the child. Recognize as part of the profile instead of evidence for the prosecution.
THINGS THAT DON'T WORK
Corporal punishment. Any physical contact with a child. Take by arm. You don't know what the child is going to do. Don't touch the child.
Time out doesn't work. Time out was never designed to be a punishment, but meant to be a situation where receiving no reinforcement for negative behavior. Teacher must decide when to come out.
Forced apology. Remind that it's a good idea to apologize.
Sarcasm. These kids are extremely literal.
Taking things away from kids. Research shows us that children learn their morals and values based on what they see us do. If you take things away from kids, they'll take things away from other kids. Always give child a chance to get it back. Give it to me, and I'll give it back at the end of class. Don't bring it again. When brings it again, you'll have to get it back from the principal. When brings it back, you'll have to have your parents come get it.
Cheap shots don't work. Avoid "gotcha."
Imposing school work as punishment. Never use homework as a punishment. Gives message that school is inherently bad.
THINGS THAT WORK.--PREVENTIVE DISCIPLINE
We are too reactive with children. We aren't proactive enough with our children.
Guide student in advance. Take preventive measures to prevent the problem from occurring in the first place.
LD kids are chameleon kids. Change the environment and they will adapt. Set up environment where child can succeed. Most kids with LD can't plan and bring structure to their world. They have little internal structure, so we provide predictable structure. It needs to be a predictable environment. They don't deal well with surprises. Rules need to be posted.
Have structures and routines for everything, first thing they do when come into the classroom. On day when teacher is not there, the kids know exactly what to do. The students are comfortable with structure.
Set the agenda.
Give objective. You will change the dynamic of your classroom by putting up agenda. You and the kids against the list to complete the list. You can bring a sense of urgency, come-on, we're only on item three and we only have 20 minutes left. Most popular things are always last.
Use your voice. Never yell. Child with LD only hears the yelling, not the message.
Use yelling for instant response in an extreme emergency situation.
Broken record technique is good with child who argues. Kids argue for power and control. Kids argue for attention, reinforcement from other kids, to derail the lesson.
Broken record technique always works. Calmly. . .
In my classroom you keep your hands to yourself.
In my classroom you keep your hands to yourself.
In my classroom you keep your hands to yourself.
In my classroom you keep your hands to yourself.
In my classroom you keep your hands to yourself.
You cannot overestimate the effectiveness of praise with kids.
There are descriptive and evaluative praise. Sometimes we use too evaluative praise.
Use praise in a creative way.
"I'm taking a moment of my time to compliment."
The teacher is primarily responsible for discipline in the classroom.
Collective punishment is NO, NO, NO.
Collective reward does work.
The kids have been together for years, but the teacher is there temporarily.
Often the punishment has nothing to do with what the kid did wrong. Punishment should be immediate, definite , and fit the crime. If can't be immediate, must be definite.
I think the most painful emotion is "disappointment." You'd rather have the person angry than disappointed. You let me down. We shouldn't tell kids we are disappointed.
Use effective conferencing techniques. Think about the conversation. Begin positively and end positively. Put negative in the middle. Always pick the right time to talk. Wait until the moment is right. Pick "where" carefully. Hold the meeting in my office, where say "I'm in charge." For free-flowing exchange, go to neutral turf.
Behavior will be inconsistent. Inconsistency is part of the LD profile. They have good days and bad days, which is why it's so hard to keep motivation.
BUILD CHILD'S SELF ESTEEM
Think of self esteem in terms of poker chips. Need lots. Poker chips pile up when good things happen to a child. Lose poker chips when bad things happen. Kid with LD doesn't have enough chips to get in the game. Might play recklessly (bet the whole thing, I don't care) or conservatively (I don't want to do anything). Most kids with LD are afraid to risk.
GIVE THEM POKER CHIPS. You find the island of competence, the one thing the child does well, and celebrate that. Be a talent scout and find things the child does well. Your job is to make sure every child you deal with has more poker chips at the end of the day. Take away as few as possible and give as many as possible.
Be willing to go to the mat with people who take away chips and won't give them back. You can take them away if you give them back too. Be an advocate against people who just take chips away.
Promising Practices for EBD
Behavioral assessment linked with intervention
Interventions address all behavior
Interventions promote maintenance over time and generalization
Strategies address "thinking skills"
Interventions developmentally appropriate
Promising Practices for EBD
Parent and family therapy included for social issues
Positive interventions rather than punitive
Interventions fair, consistent, and culturally sensitive
Interventions frequently evaluated
DSM I Definition
Aggression toward people and animals
Destruction of property (fire-setting included)
Deceitfulness or theft
Serious rule violation before age 13
Childhood Onset (prior to age 10)
Adolescent Onset (after age 10)
Serious Emotional Disturbance
RAD Reactive Detachment Disorder
One of the more serious and difficult to treat.
The ability to help people with RAD is limited, particularly in teen years when violence is a problem.
Most frequently, their level of violence is so serious, the child goes into an institutionalized setting. Nearly all are on medication and therapy to help them support the disability.
Serious emotional disabilities by a psychiatric component inherited, brain disorder, neurological disability, or environment and trauma like post traumatic stress (PTS) or RAD. The classroom side is that many of these children need to be served in therapeutic environment, the majority will be back in regular school classrooms with a lot of support from psychologists and medication.
We have children who are amazingly resilient and able to be part of our society.
Video we viewed. Beth was adopted, but her family gave her up. Adopted again by a specialist in RAD. She has changed her name. She is an adult with a job rescuing animals.
Depression Kids manifest differently than adults. May be rambunctious. Often a risk taking behavior. Ultimately, if lot of suicidal thoughts, that's usually attached to depression. We need to listen to these ideas. They might say "If anything happens to me, will you take care of my cat?" Might give away possessions. They might talk very negatively. "Nothing ever works out for me." We need to make sure we get that child connected to someone who can help. Make sure the child has support.
Most popular time for committing suicide is the hours after school until supper time when everyone comes home.
Events that increase likelihood: family member dies, someone in a school or surrounding school dies by suicide, if person has been despondent for a long time then suddenly seems fine (made the decision to commit suicide).
Depressed or irritable mood
Diminished interest or pleasure
Significant weight loss
Insomnia or hypersomnia
Psychomotor agitation or retardation
Fatigue or loss of energy
Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
Diminished ability to concentrate
Recurrent thoughts of death
DSM-IV Diagnostic Manual
Prater willi--MR with insatiable desire to eat. Never feel full. Shows up early in life--as toddlers. Not part of this. Age 2 and weighs 120 pounds. Families have to literally lock and control access. Until child becomes 5-6 and can reason, there's little treatment other than keeping from eating. Part of the cognitive dysfunction. Very difficult and frustrating for parents. It's a clinical symptom disorder, so difficult to diagnosis. A form of retardation.
Feeding and Eating Disorders Think all have to do with control. Help them control their behavior.
Pica--Craving for nonedible items. Eat cotton out of mattress, asphalt, feces, anything that comes into their path. Many of those things can cause internal injury. Frequently comorbid with serious mental retardation and autism. Frequently become ill from what they ingest or damage themselves. Pica box--create a set of edible alternatives. Not much treatment available. Only one plate, and nothing is ever eaten except from that plate--for conditioning. Long behavioral training process. Some kids grow out of pica. Some women who are pregnant crave dirt.
Rumination Disorder--child regurgitates, holds in mouth, and swallows again, maybe a hundred times a day. Lots of problems with esophagus, burn holes in esophagus or have gum and teeth problems.
Anorexia--person has a skewed body image. When they see themselves, they think they are fat and unhealthy. Restrict what they eat. No utensil touch their mouth or teeth. Poor skin. Higher percentage of women, but also in teen boys too (particularly who identify as homosexual). Even when dying of starvation, still see themselves as fat. Has to do with control. If kid has little power, the kid can control. Very common.
Bulimia--Just as deadly. Same skewed image and control problem. There's a binging and purging. Originally, thought of as the jockey--horse racing--disorder. Has more to do with power and control than anything about eating. The problem is you burn your asophgus, damage gums, stomach, teeth. Also fatal because of digestive disorder.
A particular combination of tic-ing. A tic is an involuntary movement or sound. Kids with disorder have more frequency or intensity. Try not to do it, then comes blurting out. Kids may tic hundreds of times a day. Hard to receive instruction because either ticking or trying not to. Some kids helped by medication. The medication will make the child sluggish. These kids will be in general classroom or room for kids with behavior disorders and just have to learn to concentrate. There are some surgical options for extreme cases, like epilepsy--a tic is like a little piece of a seizure. If they can accept and understand causes and learn how to inform people in the environment, can do well. Most of therapy is about kids being their own advocate. Some use of medication, but doesn't work for all.
Tourette’s Disorder--not most prevalent. Coprolalia--involved with verbalizing sexual things, swearing, also have physical sexual ticking where grab genetailia--very small percentage, but extremely disruptive to the child's life. We don't know why, but see also in certain elderly with strokes. Some mechanism in the brain that controls inhibition. Kids are compelled.
Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
Transient Tic Disorder--caused by trauma because it comes and goes
Tic Disorder NOS--Not otherwise specified. Doesn't fit other categories, but still disruptive.
Elimination Disorders--extreme behavior. Go in the corner of the room or on themselves, or on themselves, save in jars. It's a control-based disorder, but kids can't control the disorder. It's one or the other, not both urine and defecating. Have to rule out everything else. It's a very ostracizing thing, social isolation. Happens every time, they rarely make it to the bathroom. Treatments are behavioral. Usually hid it or do nothing about it. A lot of kids don't get recognized with this disorder. Sometimes see with kids who have been abused. Some kids sexually abused annally will have damage that prevents control--not this disorder, but a physical inability.
Encoprisis-- defecating in inappropriate places.
Enuresis--urinate in inappropriate places. Many kids wet the bed up until age 12--not what we're talking about.
Bi-polar Disorder. Seeing more frequently diagnosed. Doctors didn't think young children could have this. Manic-depressive. Manifests differently in children. Most kids don't have the same options as adults, it usually looks like extreme lethargy and other times being hyper. Can affect eating and sleeping. With adults, the states last weeks and months and years. Could be in a manic state for 2 years, then depressed for 6 months. With kids, they cycle quickly. Can be in a manic and depressive state numerous times during a day. The extreme comes more quickly. Very difficult to diagnosis. Often treated for depression or manic. Basically treatment is medication because disorder stems from chemical imbalance in the brain. Same group of drugs for anxiety and depression treatment.
Separation Anxiety Disorder Most common So concerned and worried about what may happen that they can't be away from primary care giver.
Overanxious Disorder of Childhood Most common So concerned and worried about what may happen that they can't be away from primary care giver. May revert to younger behavior. May vomit. Think they'll die. Can't function. Become physically ill. No stressful situation in place, but occurs. An extreme reaction.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder--Have a cycle of behavior. Have an obsession about something, begin to worry that the light bulbs will set the house on fire. The compulsive part is what person does ritualistically. If turn light off 18 times to ensure that obsession doesn't happen. Handwashing is common for children. May wash hands a couple hundred times a day. Usually a reason because they've thought about it. Ritualistic behaviors are possible in Aspergers and OCD. In OCD, heavily compulsive. "You have to do it." When would see something, had to sniff it.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder--Happens after something traumatic and stressful. Put it in the back burner because it's too much to cope with. Might not even remember until something in environment triggers us. Then it's like it is happening right now. First used to describe Vietnam soldiers with the disorder. See it in children with abuse. Children who survived hurricane Katrina, for example. Talk and play therapy. Person has to become aware of what happened and see that they are not in a position to have that happen now.
Other Disorders of Infancy & Childhood--There's a spectrum for all these disorders. The disorder has to pretty apparent and manifested at a high level.
Selective Mutism--Can speak, but chose not to speak. Maybe speak at home and not at school, or only to certain people. May talk in a whisper, not a form of shyness. Fear based caused by early trauma. Think silence will prevent something bad from happening or make things better. Very serious.
Reactive Attachment Disorder--stems from prolonged abuse. Extreme trauma in the first year and half when should be making bonds with caregiver. Failed to make a significant bond with someone they trust. Complete lack of trust so complete lack of conscience. Don't care what happens to other people. Can become very violent, kill family members. Very serious.
Trichotillomania--Pull out their hair. Sores may develop. Get infected. Requires medical intervention and psychological intervention. Correlation with severely high fever as toddler. Correlation in children and OCD with adolescence or adulthood. Some sort of chemical connection or damage to the brain.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder--Defiant about anything asked of them. Very difficult to diagnose. All kids have periods where won't comply. Even things to their advantage, if asked or told, cannot allow themselves to be bossed around by anyone else. Lots of trantrums, anger, rage. Run in families. Directed toward everything, in three or more settings. More than just trouble at school. Medication to help impulse control and behavior management and learning response alternatives. Teachers can be aware of the condition. In general, try not to get into a power struggle--give choices. Do you want to sit in the blue chair or the red chair? Use empowerment--Here are the six things you have to get done, put them in the order you want to work on. Watch your own reaction so you don't escalate. Don't get hooked in. We can't work until you choose one of these seats, I'm going to go work over here until you are ready. There's a whole school --outrageous behavior modification--Barry Christiansen. Those techniques work with aggressive behavior disorder, no chemical imbalance--NOT ODD.
Substance-Related Disorders If happen related to drugs, may qualify for intervention. If the child is abusing drugs, you want to get someone involved who can help, like school counselor or social workers.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
(DID) Multiple personality disorders.
Two or more distinct identities or personality states
Recurrently take control
Inability to recall important information
Not due to substance abuse
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Kids don't have much impulse control. Once in cycle of anger, have to go through full cycle of anger before they can calm down. Teacher needs to be careful not to escalte. Can't reason logically. Try to prevent, but should not blow up, supposed to keep child safe and away from other kids while work through explosive part of the rage. Then when calm, can use logic and talk about how to do differently.
Failure to resist aggressive impulses
Results in acts of assault or destruction of property
Grossly disproportionate to precipitating stressors
Schizophrenia--begins age 18. Some pre-conditions begin in childhood. Familial. Many people have genes without developing the conditions.
No special education services. Referred to outside agencies.
DSM I Definition
Aggression toward people and animals
Destruction of property (firesetting included)
Deceitfullness or theft
Serious rule violation before age 13
Incorrigible (won't follow the rules of the adults in student's life)
Childhood Onset (prior to age 10) Most difficult to diagnose.
Adolescent Onset (after age 10)
There's much controversy about whether conduct disorder is separate from behavior disorder. Missouri tries to break down to make division very specific. States differ. Much controversy.
Take before next Monday 4 PM. Only open once. Send email if locked out. One Child needs to be read by Monday.
A student is a child with a specific learning disability. She is socially capable of working in her 6th general education classroom; however, she reads on a kindergarten level. Resource Room would provide Melinda's LRE.
In the 1950's special education meant segregated education.
Under the discipline requirements set forth by IDEA 2004, a student can be expelled for an offense under that a manifestation determination hearing determines that the offense was not a result of the student's disability.
ITP is an outcomes-oriented process that considers how a student will function in the employment market.
The Zero Exclusion principle in IDEA requires that public schools provide special education and related services to meet the needs of all students.
Permits funding sources is NOT a problem with assigning a label to describe a disability.
Home Schooling is NOT part of the continuum of services in special education.
The acronym I.D.E.A. stands for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
Autism, TBI, and learning disabilities are among the current thirteen federally funded special education areas.
IDEA 1990 added autism & traumatic brain injury to the federally funded disability areas.
According to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) may be defined as a disorder in youngsters who have a persistent pattern of inattention.
A student is a young woman who may have ADHD as she exhibits inattentiveness and daydreaming more often than her peers. This sort of ADHD behavior has likely led to the under identification of females with ADHD.
Learning disabilities account for 51% of all students with disabilities.
A student has difficulty with figure-ground discrimination. This means that the student may not distinguish an object from its background.
The US Department of Education has stipulated that students with ADHD are eligible for services under the IDEA category of other health impairment.
Perceptual-motor theories of learning disabilities focus on n interaction between perception and motor activity.
A student 's mother insists that she be classified as ADHD because she has been hyperactive at home for the past two months. You respond: I can only do that if Andrea's doctor has diagnosed her as having ADHD since it is a medical diagnosis.
Evidence increasingly indicates a certain level of co-morbidity between ADHD and other disabilities. In practical terms, this means that those with this disability often have other conditions as well.
According to IDEA 2004, students who have specific learning disabilities include those who experience learning problems resulting from a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes.
There are two types of onset for a conduct disorder diagnosis. Childhood onset is more resistant to successful intervention.
A student who participates in fire setting is exhibiting a characteristic of a Conduct disorder.
The IDEA defines the category of seriously emotionally disturbed using the following criteria: Is an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
Spitting on a sibling represents an externalizing disorder.
A person reports that her 12 year old son has, for the past year, been persistently eating paint chips and plaster. This is an example of Pica.
A student is a 13 year old with a documented early history of grossly inadequate parental care. He exhibits noticeably abnormal and developmentally inept social relatedness. It is likely that he has Reactive attachment disorder.
Conservative governmental estimates of the number of children who need special education for behavior disorders are 1 - 2%.
As defined in IDEA, the learning difficulties that students with emotional and behavior disorders exhibit are NOT due to mild retardation.
Students with emotional and behavior disorders in contrast to other students with disabilities fail more classes.
Educating Peter had Downs Syndrome, a type of mental retardation.
Can have a change of placement for 45 days for IEP and manifestation hearing. 1997 Reauthorization.
Mary Kay Farrow--Gifted and Talented
Call the teacher of gifted--a facilitator, not a gifted teacher. There are negative connotations to gifted teacher.
Association for Underachieving Gifted Students
May be gifted in some areas and not others.
It's the educator's job to challenge. These kids have a right to an education commensurate with their ability. My obligation is to differentiate in the classroom so that every child is educated to his or her ability.
The right to be interested.
The right to be challenged.
The right to explore interests in depth.
The right to create products or performances for real-world consumption.
They have a right to be excused from drill on material already mastered.
The right to contact with intellectual peers.
The right to be involved in decision-making about his or her educational programs. Write a contract or compact to help them meet needs on individual level. Kansas has mandated and requires IEP. Missouri encourages meeting needs of gifted children on their academic or creative level.
The right to express divergent points of view.
The right to be unique and different in a society that values conformity and equality.
The right to have time for thinking and dreaming.
The right to have support and stimulation from significant adults.
The right to fail.
Be the guide on the side, not the sage on the sage.
What gifted kids do best--think--but have to have time to think.
Started in 1974 in Missouri for 7 programs, few students, few teachers. Now 291 programs. 835 teachers today.
Legislature is generous with money in Missouri. No federal funding for gifted. Kansas does give a lot of money, but provide some access to gifted educator. Kansas was assured of program, Missouri one of the top 5-7 funding states in US. Have 2 summer programs--Missouri scholars in Columbia and Missouri arts in Springfield. Dual high school and college credit on University campus. Get contact with intellectual peers. Rigorous acceptance policy at both academies. 3 week experience.
Gifted and talented kids are at risk of becoming chronic underachievers and discipline problems.
May not like school any more than any other kid. Boring.
The philosophy is often to not worry about gifted kids because they will make it on their own. They don't. They should like school if teacher is doing the right job. Without special programs, gifted kids have a hard time.
Average gifted 125-130. 5% of population. Probably more like 7-8%. Profoundly gifted at 1/2 of 1% of the nation. 150 exception 165 profoundly gifted. Most tests cut off at 165.
St. Louis and Kansas have two programs for the profoundly gifted. Start at 150. Totally differentiated to needs of individual students.
Gifted kids often are disruptive, restless, bored, class clowns, or totally introverted.
Perfectionism doesn't necessarily mean gifted.
They can drop out of school or college.
Out of sync with the world.
Teachers are not trained well in this area.
We have to let the students bloom.
Textbooks are designed for status quo, not for the bright child.
Gifted students sit and wish for the child to be over.
Some schools are ready, some are not.
Every teacher needs to be concerned about every child.
Can be gifted and have learning problems.
Children are not gifted in every subject.
Gifted children are all nationalities and ethnicities.
They don't have it made.
Intense loneliness, ridiculed, perfectionist for the most part, 44% commit suicide. The world doesn't understand them.
PEGS program in Kansas City.
IQ test end of 3rd grade.
May not like the mechanics, mathematical drills, handwriting, spelling.
Can work independently. Like to work with peers. Don't like doing all the work all the time, always being the leader.
:Lots of energy. Need time to be themselves. Relate well to adults because understand their language. Most gifted girls do well in elementary school, hit a slump in 7, 8, 9th grade. Girls become embarrassed about being bright.
Often well organized or total sloppy. Mentally know where it is.
Intrinsic motivation for learning. Would rather do it themselves. Read. Make associations. Make references to books and magazines they've read in the past. They like to pursue intellectual things, games, anything challenging. Easy to find cause and effect, good at critical thinking, they often criticize others. They need to be taught how to criticize and how to criticize adults.
Compact their work. Do a fewer number, but prove mastery at 90%.
Have the kid make up the lesson plan for the week. May want to use oral testing--assessment.
Parents will test teachers. You have to be fair with the children. Cannot play favorites. Any child can be in any group, but if frustrated, angry, or depressed, don't push the child into that group. Try to get child to push himself or herself to another group.
Have to be taught not to be a know-if-all even if they do. Play on the student's natural maturity. They know it, get excited, and get defensive, and comes across as know it all or defensive.
Need a respectful teacher-student-teacher relationship.
Fairness doesn't mean everyone gets the same, it means that everyone gets what they need.
HAVE MOD SYSTOM
There are a lot of issues around tracking. Certain kinds of tracking can be illegal and unethical.
Our hope is that all classrooms are differentiated in all general education classrooms.
We do separate ourselves later in life through our employment, social strata, etc.
A set of administrators cannot determine what kinds of courses students will take. Can't put kids into a niche and not offer opportunities.
In secondary, usually see kids take honors courses, go to community college two periods a day, that kind of thing. More options at that level.
Today includes more than IQ, like leadership skills, performing arts, social skills.
Ask a lot of questions. Good memory. Sophisticated sense of humor. Long attention span. Insights into problems come without a lot of work. Intuitively know what direction should work. Grapple with material differently, take to new heights of learning. Sometimes their curiosity overwhelms teachers. Absorb material so fast that they get impatient. Don't have intellectual peers, so may be loners.
May do higher grade level work.
One approach has been to put gifted children together. It always helps to find other people like me. There's an anti-intellectual bias in our country. Issues of segregation.
Differentiating curriculum is another approach.
Some teachers will allow gifted children to chart their own path and work independently.
Often good students and enthused about school. Sometimes never get to express their talents so they underachieve, get in trouble, are not motivated, drop out. If aren't challenged by age 6 or 7 will build a pattern of underachieving. Tremendous nervousness, desire to have things perfect, give teacher what she wants. Don't want to outshine their peers, so mask their giftedness.
Skip a grade. Problems: Reach puberty later, get license later, graduate high school age 16 and go to college.
Parents can "You are going to be your child's best advocate. And you'll have to be." Supplement the child's education to stimulate underdeveloped gifts and higher level thinking. Read high level books. Appreciate them and encourage their expression of uniqueness. Can talk with them at an adult level. They're still children.
IQ tests for learning potential, not what you've learned. Mean 100. 69 Retarded.
Average 85-115. One standard deviation above and below.
We are not talking about IQ alone.
Severe and Multiple Handicaps
American Association of Mental Retardation (AAMR) Definition
Peter is probably in mild to moderate range, but his behavior would push his score down. That might make an artifact on his score.
Kids with mild retardation could do some things independently.
Kids with severe MR would require extensive support, but the child should be exposed to things.
Kids with profound, yes the level of support is pervasive, need assistance to move, assistance for personal needs, but realize that they can feel and respond.
TBI at 21 would not be MR
Mental Retardation-AKA-Developmentally Handicapped
Less than 70 IQ
Manifesting before 18
adaptive behavior, such as self care, communication, leisure time, home living,
social interaction, work experience, transportation, medical, community
As I Am Video
Downs and hundreds of other causes.
Called names. Forget the name and just think of the person.
Examples of young adults with MR.
80% have a mild handicap.
These students are just like us in more ways than they are different.
You cannot necessarily tell by looking. May be able to tell by way they move or speak or facial structure.
Some health impairments look like mental retardation, but have average to high IQ-- MS or MD.
Can still sense and feel what's going on, and still have feelings.
Desire for independence. Will be able to live alone? Will work in sheltered workshop. Some can live in independent living setting. Apartment complexes for people with intellectual disabilities, who live with people without disabilities who check on others like a resident assistant in the dorm.
Difficult for family to make a decision about adult living arrangements. Most people with MR are living in parent's home today, so the question comes up: When is the right time to move toward a more independent relationship?
Level and Labels - Focus on
the level of support a student with MR needs.
Adaptive Skills (daily living things)
Health & safety
Leisure time skills*
*Big changes in the last 50 years. Many more opportunities today. Moving in positive direction.
Leiter Behavior Test is one measure you can use. Nonverbal IQ scores are not as accurate, but gives an idea about the range of functioning.
Prevalence of Mental Retardation
1% of the school-aged population
10% moderate, severe & profound
The Many Causes of Mental Retardation
Socio-Cultural Influences that can cause injuries to the brain or suppressed intellect.
Nutrition (common in developing countries). The majority of brain synapses happen by age 5. Need energy and blood flow to the brain. No or too little food or significant lack of food and nutrition.
Abuse--shaken baby syndrome. A minute shake can cause that. One or two shakes can cause significant damage because can cause 20 impacts with one shake. Can cause nerve endings to separate. Not much protection when infant. Older kids who are repeated hit in the head. Any bruising and swelling can cause damage.
Trauma--Fall down a flight of stairs, fall out of a car, unrestrained in a car accident. Car accidents for kids under the age of two are one of the leading causes.
Poisoning--Household chemicals can damage brain functioning. Have to be particularly careful for kids with other impairments, such as Autism. Eating paint chips with lead in them. A surprising small amount of lead poisoning can cause mental retardation. Little kids put everything in their mouths. Lead poisoning during early development years causes MR. When later, it causes learning disabilities. A higher percentage of kids with learning disabilities have higher lead content.
Inbreeding-- MR has to do with recessive gene traits. Incest by father or brother. High likelihood of genetic damage.
Chromosomal Anomalies (Trisomy 21, Fragile X, Turner’s Syndrome)
Downs usually causes mild to moderate retardation. With 21, often mild. Kids with Downs from Asia look more like kids with downs from the US than they do compared to children of their own country. Thickened tongue. More respiratory infections and respiratory stress.
Fragile X Syndrome. Instead of two regular chromosomes. One is broken or dangling. Speech and language problems, similar facial structure, low set ears, cognitive functioning.
Turner's Syndrome mostly in females. Have an X and O or missing instead of two X. Stocky.
The Mis-measure of Man--In the early 1900s-1920s, we would measure the relationship between ears and eyes, would say a person was retarded. Now we know there are certain structures within certain ethnic groups, and were overidentified.
Metabolic Disorders (PKU, Galactosemia, Tay sachs)
PKU--can't process one of the proteins in milk and meat. Usually identified at birth or young. The damage is significant. Most babies in hospital are automatically screened for it. They can't break down protein even from breast milk. If untreated will cause severe retardation or death.
We can screen for many metabolic disorders, but the cost is prohibitive. Unless you deal with a hospital, may not catch some of these factors.
Galactosemia--can't breakdown the sugars in milk. Builds up and affects the development of the eye and retinas. Causes cataracts in infancy. 3-6 months, and will lose vision.
Tay sachs--runs in ethnic group, kids of Jewish-European decent. Recognized long ago. Inability to metabolize fat. Fat to muscle ratio gets larger and larger until nervous system deterioration. No treatment. Die before age 5.
Cru de sa--inability to metabolize a particular hormone. Babies have a meow like cry. Must be clinically detected by the cry.
Maple syrup urine disorder--Kids urine has maple syrup odor to it.
For a good percentage, we can provide enzyme or hormone replacement therapy and minimize the damage.
Post-Natal Brain Disease (neurofibramatosis, tuberous schlerosis, hydrocephaly)
Neurofibramatosis is an inherited disorder that produces skin tumors. When we first saw AIDS, many had this disorder, big brown spots, skin tumors. Cocoa ala. If not caught and treated, the child will have entire body covered.
Tuberous schlerosis --tumors in central nervous system. Spreads and grows in cerebral tissue. Must be treated with brain surgery, which is difficult and dangerous.
Hydrocephaly --more frequent. Used to call water on the brain. Usually don't live beyond age of 6 or 7. As brain fluid accumulated, would cause MR. Eventually enough MR that the body will shut down. Now we have a shunting treatment. Implant a shunt, which allows drainage so MR not cause. We can treat it.
Anacephaly -- a lack of fluid in the brain, so brain isn't kept moist, it atrophies. Shrivel up and collapse. Severe retardation and death. Difficult to detect and not automatic way to treat. Can receive some treatment that will slow retardation. Caused by an excess of production and absorption problem.
Congenital Rubella--German measles in pregnant woman. Almost none after the vaccine. Now that there are more people are selecting not to have vaccinations, there are more now. In fact some college campuses have had breakouts.
No mercury in vaccines now in many states.
HIV Disease--Better control today. Three ways baby can be infected: in utero sharing blood supply, only 33% actually have the disease and a 1/3 of them lose the symptomology. During vaginal birth can happen if get scratch (have C section to avoid that trauma. Third way is through breast feeding. Happens more in Africa where many people don't know they have HIV and breast feeding is common. Often causes mild mental retardation. Today those kids are getting into school. We'll see many changes in this treatment.
Even though AIDS is almost 100% preventable, we don't give kids the information they need. Ear piercing and homemade tattoos are a problem.
Toxoplasmosis --don't change kitty litter, uncooked meat, not fully cooked eggs. Most of us have little experiences with this.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome --Parents alcoholic. Facial abnormalities, elongated faces, eyes sunken, long narrow nose. Alcohol affects some chromosome growth. Size of brain smaller. If you drink excessively throughout the pregnancy, you have a higher chance. One drink at exactly the right day that particular growth is taking place, then one drink can cause it. Best bet is don't drink alcohol.
Prescription drugs (heavy antibiotics), anti-convulsant drugs, mood stabilization drugs, addictive or recreational drug use --accounts for birth defects.
Also need to be careful about caffeine and carbonation.
Prematurity -- less than 35 weeks.
Low Birth weight --less than 5 lbs 5 oz. Multiple births.
Anoxia --too little oxygen to the brain.
Hypertoxia --getting too much oxygen to the brain, if premature babies are fed oxygen, often damages eyes.
Breach birth because it takes longer.
Umbilical chord wrapped around the neck.
When baby comes too fast (less than 2 hours).
Only 1% of kids have any kind of retardation.
Severe and Multiple Disabilities (not on test)
Concomitant impairments resulting in multiple areas of need
Infant-type adaptive skills
Significant speech & language deficits
Physical & health problems
Reinforcement Pyramids Ideas
Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorder-- ASD
Asperger Syndrome--type of autism, much more common than rest of autism spectrum.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
PDD-NOS Not otherwise specified, Autistic like characteristics, don't fit in categories.
Spectrum of Autism Spectrum Disorder
CLASSICAL --------------- High Functioning Autistic Disorder HFAD---------------------Aspergers
Classical--lower IQ, often qualify as mental retardation. Moderate to severe IQ status. Half will not have verbal speech. Many use other methods of communication, such as picture, sign language, First recognized in mid-1940s. Discovered by Leo Kanner. Was referred to as Kanner's Syndrome.
See speech and language issues.
Autism, may have abnormal intonation, such as monotone or high pitch.
May just make repetitive nonsense phrases or sounds. This may be a method for staying focused.
Kids have a lot of issues tied into speech and language.
Average IQ or above.
85-115 average IQ range.
Lowered impulse control saying it at the same time. This is a form of echolalia.
The statistics change based on whose records you look at.
Prevalence: 5 in 10,000 live births (APA) Some people believe it's increasing.
Ratio: 4:1 males to females (solid statistic)
Asperger: 25 in 10,000 On the rise, 1 in 150 kids.
Speech and Language Issues
Immediate--say what just heard
Delayed--will say over and over again.
Some think echolalia gets in the way. Another school of thought is that kids can use it in a communicative way.
Abnormal or absent facial expression & gestures
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Relationship building is a problem
Indifferent to attention
Lack of eye contact
There's an extreme change according to the low to high spectrum. Classical autism, the kid may be indifferent. Can drop a bunch of pans and they don't move, yet light flicker can make them scream their head off.
Often have sensory issues--tactile defensiveness. Touch feels different. A light touch may feel painful to receptors. A firm touch or rub textures may help calm down.
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Physical development--may create a ficade that there's nothing wrong. Many have perfectly typical development. The physical growth is not impacted.
Visual-spatial and manipulative skills--often great. Can do puzzles. Can see and attend to things we might miss. A strength, but makes them incapable of focusing on what they need to focus on. They can't figure out which sound is more important. Theses skills can be strengths and detriments. Senses are incredibly accute.
Rote memory--may have a great rote memory, but don't actually understand. Not a coping skill, but a subconscious, uncontrolled process. They can memorize everything they read and hear, but lacks normal comprehension.
Hyperlexia--kids who are word callers. Can read amazingly difficult things but don't understand.
Musical or special talents--Savants, Rain man (math), usually sensory based. Autistic savants (old days were called idiot savants).
They think very concretely. Have difficulty understanding idioms.
So many different components that we don't really understand.
Theories around autism say that we have four hemispheres and each takes precedence. We think the input value isn't any good at reading a cue and distributing it where it needs to go. It's information overload, like a huge clutter. Difficult in groups, in noise. Biggest theory on savantism is that one area of the brain is getting a clear signal and not bothered by other areas of the brain. The mind allows them to focus just on that.
Lost of ritualized behavior. Stress of not driving the same route could cause tantrum behavior. One child terrorized by the letter "F."
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Self-injurious behavior--hurt themselves, banging head and can cause brain damage, bite themselves, poke or stab themselves, pull out hair, poke themselves in eye. There are interventions, and some are very aversive causing physical pain (electrical shock). Squirted with water and pepper, water and vinegar, spray water in face. Ethical concerns. How much is too much. Where do we let that child's personal choice remain and when do we have to intervene to change it. There's been great success and great abuse.
White noise helmet for child out of control. The helmet blocks out the stimulus.
Attachment to unusual objects
Insistence on sameness--need things to be the same. Changing seat, different order, is a problem. Need to be taught how to deal with change. Sameness gives them a sense of security. Changing the schedule is a problem. How to deal with transitions. May be attached to a specific object.
Shaking a dirty shoe string. Made shorter and shorter and substituted a key ring, which was more socially acceptable.
More on classical end have self-stimulating behavior. Hand slapping, wiggle fingers at lights, spinning an object, flapping arms.
Some schools of thought say get rid of self stimulation. Others say can calm down and use as a reinforce.
Aspergers was figured out in mid-1940s by Hans Asperger in Germany, Poland. Found a bunch and brought them together when looking for Nazi youth. Incarcerated and studied. Typical unethical research of that regime. Realized there was a syndrome. US turned our back on that knowledge. In US, began looking at as viable condition in the 80s, 90s, really last decade.
Although on Autism scale, but some things very different.
May call "little professors."
To the point.
Don't want to deal with junk they think is irrelevant to them.
Blunt, factual responses.
Tell you what they think.
May be stilted and repetitive speech.
Often sound like anyone.
Very literal interpretation.
Begin speaking at typical age
Good grammar and vocabulary
Voice flat and emotionless
Speech stilted and repetitive
Conversations revolve around "eccentric topics"
Literal interpretation--get into social trouble because they don't know what's going on and why they're interpreted that way.
Have to look at each individual kid and let the IEP be the guide.
Have to offer something they're interested in doing.
Most have an eccentric topic, which may change over time.
Sometimes become more violent as they get older. Motivated because the person feels misunderstood all the time about everything. The eccentric interests cause problems that the child doesn't realize is a problem.
Frequently can't read emotions.--you have to exaggerate.
Ignoring may be natural and a coping mechanism. Are teased a lot. Makes the student feel really bad. May not have any friends, no social life. Aware they're trapped in a body that doesn't work. Fight or flight at all times.
Asperger's Relationship Issues
Interest in social contact but few skills
Difficulty understanding body language
Limited or clumsy gesturing
IQ levels lead others to expect different behavior
They want to be part of the social community but don't know how.
Need good social skills training. Need to learn just like math and reading or won't be able to function in a social environment. Feel not part of group, disenfranchised.
Easily hurt and easily taken advantage of.
Because highly verbal and high IQ people don't expect the behavior they see.
Only females, but there's new literature suggesting it may occur in males and instantaneously a death sentence within a few months.
Develop normally until 7-18 months, then never go further, and may regress. Whatever they're doing, the development stops or deteriorative into severe mental retardation.
Arrest or regress
Seizure behavior in 66%--really bad disorder which kills brain cells.
Deterioration of higher brain function leads to severe retardation
Prevalence: 1 in 10,000
1500 identified worldwide
Motor difficulties affected first
Loss of self-help skills
Loss of bowel and bladder control
Loss of mobility
Rett’s SyndromeStereotypic Behaviors
Hand wringing and clapping, hand washing behavior with bursts of clapping. Do it so constantly that they can't participate in anything else.
Teeth grinding down to nubs so need bite guards.
Body rocking--clinical characteristic--violent rocking.
Insomnia--sleep 20-30 minute stretches, may stay awake for days.
Very difficult for families.
Episodic hyperventilation-breath rapidly, pant, can pass out, then have seizure.
Rett’s SyndromeActive Deterioration
Severe dementia-mental regression
Loss of speech
Wheelchair or bedridden by adolescency
Normal puberty development--still young women, hormonal
Live into late teens, early twenties. Some with mild Retts who live into adulthood and have children.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) Heller's syndrome
Profound developmental regression following a previous period of normal development
Onset from 1-9 years of age--rapid disintegration
Patterns of onset
Gradual (weeks to 2-3 months)
Abrupt (days to weeks)
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)
Prevalence: .11 in 10,000
Twice as many males as females
Total loss of capacity to speak
Leads to severe retardation
Resistance to change
Agitation & anxiety
Rarely any recovery of skills
Some cases progressive deterioration
Leads to severe retardation
Physical and Other Health Impairments (Missouri)
Orthopedic Impairment (Federal list)
Disabilities that can affect a person’s ability to move about, use the arms and legs, and/or breathe independently
Other Health Impaired
A category of disability under the IDEA that includes students with limited strength as a consequence of health problems
Disabling conditions characterized by limited stamina, vitality, or alertness due to chronic or acute health problems
A disability category that includes people who are at risk for medical emergencies and often depend on technological support, such as a ventilator or nutritional supplements, to sustain health or even life
A disability category that includes people who require some technological assistance to breathe, to pass urine, or to meet other essential health needs while participating in home, school, or community activities
Cerebral Palsy (CP)
Group of chronic conditions that affect muscle coordination and body movement
Usually caused by damage to the brain during prenatal, birth or infancy period
Approximately 6 in 1,000 live births
Spastic (stiff and difficult movement)
Athetoid (involuntary or uncontrolled movement)
Ataxic (disturbed depth perception and lack of balance)
Abnormal opening in the spinal column
Present in 1 out of 1,000 newborns
Occulta (very mild for where slit is present in one or several of the vertebral structures)
Cystica (tumor-like sac produced on infant’s back)
Myelomeningocele (tumor-like sac contains both spinal fluid and nerve tissue)
Spina bifida, also called myelodysplasia, is a condition in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord. This neurological condition can cause a portion of the spinal cord and the surrounding structures to develop outside, instead of inside, the body. The defect can occur anywhere along the spine. "The types of spina bifida include the following:
Spinal Cord Injury
An injury in which the spinal cord is traumatized or transected
Over 10,000 new cases yearly in US
Paraplegia (legs only)
Quadriplegia (all 4 extremities and trunk of body)
Hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body)
Group of inherited, chronic disorders characterized by gradual wasting and weakening of the voluntary skeletal muscles
Fatty tissue gradually replaces muscle tissue, even in the heart
9 types: Duchenne-type most common form of childhood muscular dystrophy
Prevalence: 1 in every 3,000-3,500 males
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Virus that reduces immune system function and has been linked to AIDS
Transmitted through blood, vaginal secretions, semen, and breast milk
Statistics for teenagers still rising
Not compelled by law to disclose
Cluster of behaviors (altered consciousness, characteristic motor patterns, etc) that occurs in response to abnormal neurochemical activity in the brain
Tonic/Clonic Seizures (stiffening of the body, followed by rapid muscle contractions
Absence Seizures (brief lapses of consciousness accompanied by eye blinking and twitching of the mouth
Occurs in about 1% of population by age 20
Diabetes Mellitus (developmental or hereditary disorder characterized by inadequate secretion or use of insulin
Effects 1 in every 600 children
Type 1: Juvenile Onset Diabetes
Type 2: Adult Onset Diabetes
Disorder of the exocrine glands characterized by respiratory problems and excessive loss of salt in perspiration
Primarily Caucasian phenomenon
Effects 30,000 children and adults in US
Genetically transmitted from both parents
Sickle Cell Anemia
Inherited disorder that profoundly affects the structure and functioning of red blood cells
Obstruction of vessels can lead to stroke or organ damage
Effects 1 in 500 children of African-American descent
A mild condition in which a very small slit is present in one or several of the vertebral structures is spina bifida occulta.
A paralytic condition involving all four limbs or extremities is classified as quadriplegia.
A physical therapist is responsible for developing a student’s physical skills.
A teacher is using pictures of oranges to instruct students with mental retardation to identify fruit. A more effective teaching strategy for these students may be to use a real orange.
A unique sound, odor or physical sensation experienced just prior to the onset of a seizure is call an aura.
Absence seizure is characterized by brief periods of inattention, accompanied by rapid eye blinking or head twitching.
According to parents of students with physical disabilities, one of the most important tasks of a parent in his child's education is advocacy.
According to the AAMR definition, http://www.aamr.org/ , intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
Alice was born with her spinal cord in a small sac on the outside of her body. Alice is most likely to be diagnosed with spinal cord injury. False. "Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord that causes loss of sensation (feeling) and motor (muscular) control. About ten thousand new spinal cord injuries (SPI) occur each year in the United States. About 250,000 people currently have this condition. Spinal cord injury can happen to anyone at any time of life. The typical patient, however, is a man between the ages of nineteen and twenty-six. The most common causes of SPI are motor vehicle accidents (which are responsible for 50 percent of all cases), a fall (20 percent), an act of violence (15 percent), or a sporting accident (14 percent). Alcohol or drug abuse is involved in many of the accidents that result in spinal cord injuries. About 6 percent of those who suffer injury to the lower spine die within a year while approximately 40 percent of those who suffer injury to the upper spine die within a year." http://www.faqs.org/health/Sick-V4/Spinal-Cord-Injury.html
Although all of the following issues are considered when diagnosing a child with mental retardation, where, according to AAMR (American Association on Mental Retardation), the most significant focus should be on intensity of supports.
Approximately 1% of the school age population receive special education services under the label of mental retardation.
Asthma has been described as the leading cause of absenteeism among schoolchildren.
Child abuse can be regarded as a means of maladaptive coping by parents.
Children and youth with autism are frequently described as: Avoiding direct eye contact.
Children with AIDS should attend school unless they exhibit behaviors that are dangerous to others.
Cystic fibrosis is a disorder of the secretion glands. Cystic fibrosis is an inherited, systemic, generalized disease that begins at: conception.
Damien has been diagnosed with a condition that shares certain unusual social interactions and behaviors with autism, but includes no general language delay. What is Damien's diagnosis? Asperger syndrome.
Diabetes is a condition in which there is an inadequate secretion of insulin.
Disordered metabolism, blindness, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease are all possible symptoms of diabetes.
Echolalia refers to speech patterns in which the youngster repeats back only what has been said to him/her.
Education for children with cystic fibrosis should occur, in most instances, in a regular school setting.
Emily was involved in a skiing accident which resulted in paralysis on the right side of her body. This condition is called hemiplegia.
HIV is transmitted only through an exchange of which of the following body fluids: breast milk, semen, blood.
IDEA uses the term Orthopedically impaired to describe children with physical disorders.
If a spinal cord injury occurs in the lower back, paralysis will be confined to the lower extremities. If the injury occurs in the upper back, the resultant paralysis effects will usually be much more extensive.
Jimmy, a student with autism, can instantly perform complex math calculations in his head, including the multiplication of 7 digit numbers. The following can be said about this splinter skill: It is unusual as most people with autism do not have savant type splinter skills.
Lonnie's teacher reports that he is constantly flicking his hands in front of his face and rocking in his chair. This is an example of: Self-stimulation.
Management of shock is the first phase of treatment provided to a person who has suffered a spinal cord injury.
Mario needs continual daily support in a least some environments, including work and home. To be effective these supports must not be time-limited. AAMR would classify Mario's needed supports as: Extensive.
Most children with cerebral palsy have: General intellectual functioning in the average range.
Most children with spina bifida who have no signs of hydrocephalus have normal intelligence.
Motor vehicle accidents are responsible for half of all the spinal cord injuries.
Muscle tissue atrophies and is gradually replaced by fatty tissue in a person’s physical condition as muscular dystrophy progresses.
One of the major problems experienced by people with muscular dystrophy, which seriously interferes with the person’s ability to walk or move, is the appearance of contractures.
Results from some research on drug therapy with children with autism has shown only mixed or no improvement in self-injurious behaviors and social withdrawal.
Sickle cell anemia causes blockage in microvascular channels which reduces or terminates circulation, and kills tissues by depriving them of blood, nutrients and oxygen.
Students with traumatic brain injury are primarily served under which IDEA category? Traumatic Brain Injury.
Teachers and others help abused children make the adjustments necessary for leading happy lives by providing a stable positive environment.
The IDEA uses the term to describe children with physical disabilities: orthopedically impaired
The major goal of treatment for a person with spinal cord injury is: Achievement of independence to the maximum degree possible.
The majority of students with mental retardation are educated in general education classes and some separate classes.
The number of students receiving special education services under the label of mental retardation is declining. Among the reasons for this are: Some children who formerly received special education services under the label of mental retardation now receive them under other labels, such as autism or TBI.
The school performance of students with autism may be described as: Uneven within and between skill areas.
The socialization and career goals of those with physical disabilities are similar to those of their non disabled peers.
The term "resistance to change" refers to an individual who: Pays attention to the exact route they take when driving to school.
When discussing Autism Spectrum Disorders, both autism and Asperger Syndrome are included. True.
When speaking to a friend who is contemplating suicide talk freely about suicide and use the word.
Which of the following IQ ranges would best describe a student with severe retardation? 25-40.
Which of the following IQ scores would be considered to be in the average range? 112.
Kerr, M. M., & Nelson, C. M. (2006). Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom. (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Companion Website, click here.
Raymond, E. B. (2004). Learners with mild disabilities: Characteristics approach. (2nd ed.) Boston: Pearson.
Dr. Judi Carlson, class notes from TE 404, Education of the Exceptional Child and Youth.
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To cite this page:
Aitken, J. E. (2010). Using communication for effective special education. Kansas City, MO: ourwayit.com. Retrieved month day, year, from http://ourwayit.com/SPED